Prison Laws in India

A jail manual is a ‘digest’ of the rules and regulations governing prisons and prisoners. Nearly every state has a jail manual of its own. Every jail is governed by it, every prisoner is bound by it.

Statutes for Prison Regulation

  1. The Prisons Act, 1894
  2. The Prisoners Act. 1900
  3. The Transfer of Prisoners Act, 1950
  4.  Borstal Schools Act, 1929
  5.  Probation of Offenders Act of 1959 and Habitual Offenders Act, 1959
  6.  The Prisoners attendants in court at 1955.
  7.  The civil Jails Act 1874.

Powers and duties of Prison officers and employees, powers with Government.

1) Grant of premature releases of life Prisoners.
2) Premature release of Prisoners on Medical Grounds.
3) Grant extension in furlough leave up to 120 days.
4) Grant remission to prisoners for extra ordinary work.
5) Grant remission on special occasion i.e. 15th August, 26th January, 2nd October, 14th April.
6) Suspend to sentence of convict, required for police investigation.
7) Transfer and release of mental Prisoners.
8) Transfer of Prisoners for open colony.
9) To modify the existing rules as and when required.
10) Declare temporary Prison as and when required.
11) Appointment of class – II and above posts.

Following registers shall be maintained at every prison –

1) Register of Under Trial Prisoners.
2) Register of Private property of Convicted Criminal Prisoners.
3) Register showing the description of Convicted Criminal Prisoners.
4) Release Diary of Convicted Criminal Prisoners.
5) Remission Register.
6) Register of punishments inflicted on prisoners.
7) Register of Escapes.
8) Register of Visitors.
9) Register of prisoners sent to Courts under the Prisoner’s Act, 1900.
10) Register of Appeals.
11) Employment Register.
12) diet Register of Prisoners.
13) Grain Store Register.
14) Register of grinding and wastage account.
15) Store Requisition and Receipt Book (Dietary).
16) Ledger of States Journal.
17) Ledger of raw materials.
18) Ledger of manufactured articles.
19) Prison Cash Book.
20) Register of Contingent Charges.
21) Receipt Book.
22) Factory Contingent Register.
23) Factory Cash Book.
24) Store Requisition and Receipt Book (Contingencies).
25) Money Order Book.
26) Garden Register.
27) Register of daily manufacture of articles showing the expenditure of raw materials.
28) Ledger of raw materials.
29) Register of Manufactured Articles.
30) Store Requisition Book.
31) Muster Roll.
32) Clothing Register for Prisoners.
33) Sales Journal.
34) Register of daily manufacture of articles showing the expenditure of raw materials.
35) Factory Order Book.
36) Store Requisition Book.
37) Lock up Register.
38) Gate Register.
39) Medical Officer’s Journal.
40) Register of Prisoners showing particulars of health.
41) Register of Sick.
42) Convalescent Register.
43) Register of extra diet to prisoners in and out of the hospital.
44) Requisition Book for Hospital.

The following sections should be organized in prison office:
i) Mail branch
ii) Judicial section
iii) Canteen section
iv) Dietary section
v) Industries section
vi) Establishment section
vii) Building section
viii) Registry branch
ix) Confidential
x) Miscellaneous section and
xi) Accounts Branch (when sanctioned by Government;


Education is now a compulsory activity in all prisons. Additional posts of teachers required for organizing educational and cultural programmes in prisons have been created under Five Year plans. Regular classes from the first to tenth standard are held for prisoners. Swadahya classes, consisting of small groups have also been organized for prisoners studying from the first to the S.S.C. Standard, Prisoners are encouraged to pursue college education. Likewise they are encouraged to appear for English, Sanskrit and Hindi Examination conducted by the various educational organizations.
Vocational training in various industries is also given. The classes are organized in various prisons in carpentry, textile, tailoring and other trades. Vocational training classes are conducted twice a week and they are closely related to institutional work programme and the post of teachers required, therefore, have been created under Five Year Plan

In every central, district and special prison, there is a jail hospital under the management of the Medical Officer (i.e. Resident Medical Officer or the Civil Surgeon) approved by Government. M.M.S. Officer, Class-III Compounders and Nursing Orderlies assist Resident Medical Officer. Hospital Prisons,  are set up under Section-3 (1) of the Prison Act of 1894 .

2. All borderline cases i.e. which are not fit to be sent to the Mental Hospital but which shows signs of mental disorders are concentrated in one  Central Prison Hospital for treatment. Deputy Superintendent, Mental Hospital also pays visits  Central Prison twice a week to examine the borderline cases, Urgent cases, requiring immediate surgical or, other treatment, not available in the Jail Hospitals are transferred immediately to the Local Civil Hospital under intimation to Inspector General of Prisons.

Jail Administration in India

West Bengal correctional service Act 1992


Categories: Criminal, Prisoner

Tagged as: