Law of License

RE

52. “License” defined. –

Where one person grants to another, or to a definite number of other persons, a right to do, or continue to do, in or upon the immovable property of the grantor, something which would, in the absence of such right, be unlawful, and such right does not amount to an easement or an interest in the property, the right is called a license.

53. Who may grant license. –

A license may be granted by any one in the circumstances and to the extent in and to which he may transfer his interests in the property affected by the license.

54. Grant may be expressed or implied.-

The grant of a license may be expressed or implied from the conduct of the grantor, and an agreement which purports to create an easement, but is ineffectual for that purpose, may operate to create a license.

55. Accessory licenses annexed by law.

All licenses necessary for the enjoyment of any interest, or the exercise of any right, are implied in the constitution of such interest or right. Such licenses are called accessory licenses.

Illustration
A sells the trees growing on his land to B. B is entitled to go on the land and take away the trees.

56. License when transferable. –

Unless a different intention is expressed or necessarily implied, a license to attend a place of public entertainment may be transferred by the licensee; but, save as aforesaid, a license cannot be transferred by the licensee or exercised by his servants or agents.

Illustrations
(a)A grants B a right to walk over A ‘s field whenever he pleases. The right is not annexed to any immovable property of B . The right cannot be transferred.
(b)The Government grant B a license to erect and use temporary grainsheds on Government land. In the absence of express provision to the contrary, B ‘s servants may enter on the land for the purpose of erecting sheds, erect the same, deposit grain therein and remove grain therefrom.

57. Grantor’s duty to disclose defects.-

The grantor of a license is bound to disclose to the licensee any defect in the property affected by the license, likely to be dangerous to the person or property of the licensee, of which the grantor is, and the licensee is not, aware.

58. Grantor’s duty not to render property unsafe.-

The grantor of a license is bound not to do anything likely to render the property affected by the license dangerous to the person or property of the licensee.

59. Grantor’s transferee not bound by license.-

When the grantor of the license transfers the property affected thereby, the transferee is not as such bound by the license.

60. License when revocable.-

A license may be revoked by the grantor, unless-

(a)it is coupled with a transfer of property and such transfer is in force;
(b)the licensee, acting upon the license, has executed a work of a permanent character and incurred expenses in the execution.

61. Revocation express or implied.-

The revocation of a license may be express or implied.

Illustrations
(a)A, the owner of a field, grants a license to B, to use a path across it. A, with intent to revoke the license, locks a gate across the path. The license is revoked.
(b)A, the owner of a field, grants a license to B to stack hay on the field. A lets or sells the field to C. The license is revoked.

62. License when deemed revoked.

A license is deemed to be revoked-
(a)when, from a cause preceding the grant of it, the grantor ceases to have any interest in the property affected by the license;
(b)when the licensee releases it, expressly or impliedly, to the grantor or his representative;
(c)where it has been granted for a limited period, or acquired on condition that it shall become void on the performance or non-performance of a specified act, and the period expires, or the condition is fulfilled;
(d)where the property affected by the license is destroyed or by superior force so permanently altered that the licensee can no longer exercise his right;
(e)where the licensee becomes entitled to the absolute ownership of the property affected by the license;
(f)where the license is granted for a specified purpose and the purpose is attained, or abandoned, or becomes impracticable;
(g)where the license is granted to the licensee as holding a particular office, employment or character, and such office, employment or character ceases to exist;
(h)where the license totally ceases to be used as such for an unbroken period of twenty years, and such cessation is not in pursuance of a contract between the grantor and the licensee;
(i)in the case of an accessory license, when the interest or right to which it is accessory ceases to exist.

63. Licensee’s rights on revocation.

Where a license is revoked, the licensee is entitled to a reasonable time to leave the property affected thereby and to remove any goods which he has been allowed to place on such property.

64. Licensee’s rights on eviction.

Where a license has been granted for a consideration, and the licensee, without any fault of his own, is evicted by the grantor before he has fully enjoyed, under the license, the right for which he contracted, he is entitled to recover compensation from the grantor.