CIVIL, POLITICAL DOCUMENTS

Manifesto of the Communist Party

Contents Preamble I: Bourgeois and Proletarians II: Proletarians and Communists III: Socialist and Communist Literature IV: Position of the Communists in Relation to the Various Existing Opposition Parties A spectre is haunting Europe — the spectre of communism. All the powers of old Europe have entered into a holy alliance to exorcise this spectre: Pope… Continue reading Manifesto of the Communist Party

CIVIL, POLITICAL DOCUMENTS

Draft of a Communist Confession of Faith[1847]

Works of Frederick Engels 1847  Question 1: Are you a Communist? Answer: Yes. Question 2: What is the aim of the Communists? Answer: To organise society in such a way that every member of it can develop and use all his capabilities and powers in complete freedom and without thereby infringing the basic conditions of… Continue reading Draft of a Communist Confession of Faith[1847]

CIVIL, POLITICAL DOCUMENTS

Frederick Engels’ Speech at the Grave of Karl Marx [1883]

Highgate Cemetery, London. March 17, 1883 On the 14th of March, at a quarter to three in the afternoon, the greatest living thinker ceased to think. He had been left alone for scarcely two minutes, and when we came back we found him in his armchair, peacefully gone to sleep -- but for ever. An… Continue reading Frederick Engels’ Speech at the Grave of Karl Marx [1883]

CIVIL, POLITICAL DOCUMENTS

The Monroe Doctrine [ USA 1823]

Keywords:  Policy of the United States from President James Monroe's seventh annual message to Congress, December 2, 1823: At the proposal of the Russian Imperial Government, made through the minister of the Emperor residing here, a full power and instructions have been transmitted to the Minister of the United States at St. Petersburgh to arrange, by amicable… Continue reading The Monroe Doctrine [ USA 1823]

CIVIL, POLITICAL DOCUMENTS

To those who keep slaves, and approve the practice[USA 1794]

Keywords : Slavery Richard Allen, 1794 The judicious part of mankind will think it unreasonable that a superior good conduct is looked for from our race, by those who stigmatize us as men, whose baseness is incurable, and may therefore be held in a state of servitude, that a merciful man would not doom a… Continue reading To those who keep slaves, and approve the practice[USA 1794]

CIVIL, POLITICAL DOCUMENTS

Petition from the Pennsylvania Society for the Abolition of Slavery[USA 1790]

Signed by Benjamin Franklin, President of the Pennsylvania Society, February 3, 1790 To the Senate & House of Representatives of the United States, The Memorial of the Pennsylvania Society for promoting the Abolition of Slavery, the relief of free Negroes unlawfully held in bondage, & the Improvement of the Condition of the African Races. Respectfully Sheweth,… Continue reading Petition from the Pennsylvania Society for the Abolition of Slavery[USA 1790]

CIVIL, POLITICAL DOCUMENTS

Washington’s Farewell Address[USA 1796]

President George Washington's Farewell Address — 1796 Friends and Fellow Citizens: The period for a new election of a citizen to administer the executive government of the United States being not far distant, and the time actually arrived when your thoughts must be employed in designating the person who is to be clothed with that… Continue reading Washington’s Farewell Address[USA 1796]

CIVIL, POLITICAL DOCUMENTS

Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address[USA 1861]

March 4, 1861 Fellow citizens of the United States: In compliance with a custom as old as the government itself, I appear before you to address you briefly, and to take, in your presence, the oath prescribed by the Constitution of the United States, to be taken by the President "before he enters on the… Continue reading Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address[USA 1861]

CIVIL, POLITICAL DOCUMENTS

The Pledge of Allegiance [1892]

The Pledge of Allegiance was written in August 1892 by the socialist minister Francis Bellamy (1855-1931). It was originally published in The Youth's Companion on September 8, 1892. Bellamy had hoped that the pledge would be used by citizens in any country. In its original form it read: "I pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic… Continue reading The Pledge of Allegiance [1892]