Legal Words and Phrases

  • Mutatis mutandis’—Meaning—Matters or things are generally the same, but to be altered when necessary, as to names, offices and the like. State of Kerala v. Haridasan, P. (F. B.) I.L.R. 2015 (1) Kerala
  • Obiter Dictum and Ratio Decidendi—Explained. Valsamma v. Abraham I.L.R. 2013 (1) Kerala
  • ‘Suicide’—Explained with reference to authorities —The causes which drive a person to commit suicide are varied and at times obscure. Mony v. State of Kerala I.L.R. 2010(1) Kerala
  • ‘Trespass’ and ‘Possession’, explained—Mere ‘trespass’ does not amount to ‘dispossession’.Varkey v. Chacko I.L.R. 2013 (1) Kerala

 

JIJI THOMSON V. STATE OF KERALA [Kerala 2015]

Keywords:- withdrawal from Prosecution-

Just because some prosecution witnesses had died while the proceedings where pending, the court cannot grant permission to withdraw from prosecution—It is for the prosecution to take necessary alternative steps for proving the prosecution case.

IN THE HIGH COURT OF KERALA

AT ERNAKULAM

PRESENT: THE HONOURABLE MR. JUSTICE P.UBAID THURSDAY,

Date : 08.01.2015 [18TH POUSHA, 1936]

Crl.Rev.Pet.No. 990 of 2013

THIS CRIMINAL REVISION PETITION HAVING BEEN FINALLY HEARD ON 25-11-2014,

ALONG WITH CRL.MC. 1013/2013 AND CONNECTED CASES, THE COURT ON 0801-2015 PASSED THE FOLLOWING

: bp ‘C.R.’ P.UBAID, J.

ORDER

“Palmolein” is still live in the socio-political field in Kerala and has been under judicial process for about two decades. What lead to the so called Palmolein case, which is still under prosecution process, is a decision taken by the Government in power in October 1991 to import some quantity of Palmolein from Singapore to meet the urgent requirements of the people in the State of Kerala in connection with some festival. The irregularities, illegalities and improprieties involved in the said government decision and the consequent import of Palmolein were detected by the Comptroller and Auditor General in 1996, and a vigilance probe was ordered in March 1997. Thus commenced in 1997, undergone various contentious pre- trial proceedings at different levels in different courts; from Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 2 the trial level to the apex level, the Palmolein prosecution strived to reach the natural culmination by a fair and impartial trial process, but the prosecution process is still midway. At different stages of the prosecution one or the other party, or the interveners who intruded in the prosecution process as representatives of the people took up the matter before this Court or the Hon’ble Supreme Court, and such interventions even lead to some reported decisions concerning many legal aspects involved in the said prosecution. Whenever any measure is taken or any decision or order is made by the court, one or the other would challenge it upto the apex level, and thus the prosecution has still been pending. Nobody can, in fact be blamed for the delay, and the accused cannot be heard to contend that in view of such delay for about two decades the whole prosecution will have to be closed by way of withdrawal or otherwise. The accused had also contributed to the said delay. This aspect is incidentally mentioned because delay is also one of the grounds urged by the prosecution in this proceeding. Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 3 2. The accused involved in the Palmolein case are the bureaucrats at the secretary level, the ministers in power at that time, and also the intermediaries and importers who helped and managed import of Palmolein as decided by the government. Late Sri.K.Karunakaran, the Chief Minister of Kerala in power in 1991, with the junction of then minister for Civil Supplies, Sri.T.H Mustafa and some Government Secretaries took a decision to import 30000 metric tonnes of Palmolein from Singapore, to meet the requirements of the people of Kerala in connection with some festival. This decision lead to the present prosecution.

3. The prosecution case is that the then Chief Minister, late Sri.K.Karunakaran got this decision approved by cabinet, without discussing and disclosing the real facts concerning the said import, and thus imported that much quantity of Palmolein through the exporter, Power and Energy Ltd., Singapore, with the assistance of Mala Export Corporation, Chennai, without inviting global tenders and totally in violation of the Store Purchase Rules, with the object of making unlawful benefits, and thus causing heavy loss to the state exchequer. The then Chief Secretary to the Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 4 Government of Kerala, and also the Secretary to the Civil Supplies Department happened to be prosecuted along with the ministers and others, as the bureaucratic heads who involved in the process of import without complying with the provisions of the Store Purchase Rules and without inviting global tenders. On detection of the irregularities and the unholy involvement of the ministers and secretaries in 1996 by the Comptroller and Auditor General, the Public Accounts Committee of the Kerala State Legislative assembly conducted an enquiry into the alleged irregularities and illegalities. On enquiry, the Public Accounts Committee found out something vicious in the alleged deal made in haste without inviting global tenders and without complying with the provisions of the Store Purchase Rules, and this fact was reported to the Government. On getting the said report, the Government ordered a vigilance probe into the matter. Accordingly, a crime as V.C.1/1997/SCT was registered in March 1997 by the Vigilance under Section 120B of IPC and also under Sections 13(1)(d) and 13(2) of the Prevention of Corruption Act. After effective investigation, the Vigilance submitted final report in the case Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 5 on 1-11-1997 in the Special Sessions Court, Thiruvananthapuram. The final report was returned by the learned trial judge due to some defects including non- production of prosecution sanction. The final report was later resubmitted in court on 23-03-2001. The 1st accused Sri.K.Karunakaran, the Chief Minister in power when the crime was registered, died pending the proceedings, and thus the charge against him abated. The 2nd accused is the then Minister for Food and Civil Supplies, the 3rd accused in the final report is the then Chief Secretary to the Government, the 4th accused is the then Additional Chief Secretary to Government, the 5th accused is the then Managing Director of Civil Supplies Corporation, the 6th accused in the final report is a partner of Mala Export Corporation, the 7th accused is a Director of Power and Energy Limited, Singapore who facilitated import of Palmolein from Singapore, and the 8th accused is the then Secretary, Food and Civil Supplies Department.

4. The prosecution allegations are that the then Chief Minister, late Sri.K.Karunakaran hatched a criminal conspiracy with the Civil Supplies Minister Sri.T.H.Musthafa, Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 6 the Mala Export Corporation, Chennai and the directors of Power and Energy Pvt. Ltd., in October 1991 for the import of huge quantity of Palmolein under the guise of public need and requirement in connection with some festival, they, in continuation of the said process conspired with the then Chief Secretary Sri.Padmakumar, the Secretaries in charge of the Civil Supplies Department and the Civil Supplies Corporation, to bring about an action plan for such illicit import with the sanction of the Government of India, when the Government of India would not have normally granted such sanction, they accordingly came to terms with “Power and Energy Ltd.,” through “Mala Export Corporation, Chennai,” fixed the deal at a high rate, unaffordable by the Government at that time, thus decided to import Palmolein at such high rate without inviting global tenders for competitive rates of price and totally in violation of the Store Purchase Rules prevalent at that time, and by the said import at high rate the Chief Minister and others made unlawful benefits, the exporting agency also derived unlawful benefit from the illicit import, and thus the government exchequer lost crores of rupees in the said Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 7 vicious deal made in the name of people of Kerala, when the people had no such urgent requirement for Palmolein.

5. As stated above, the prosecution process went on, without sanction from the Government of India, as regards the Government Secretaries. However, the Government of Kerala granted necessary sanction as regards them under Section 197 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, for prosecution under Section 120B IPC. When the prosecution process thus went on, one or the other party keeping the issue aflame on one ground or the other by challenging every action or order, the Government of Kerala, with the object of putting an end to the prosecution process, took a decision to withdraw from prosecution. The legality and rationale of the said decision which lead to the filing of an application by the learned Public Prosecutor in charge of the case for permission to withdraw from prosecution, is under challenge in these proceedings. Sri.V.S Achuthanandan, the leader of opposition in the State Legislative Assembly, and Sri.V.S Sunil Kumar, a member of the legislative assembly intervened in the process as persons representing the public at large and objected the Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 8 government’s application for withdrawal from prosecution. When the learned Public Prosecutor in charge of the case brought application for permission for withdrawal on some grounds including absence of necessary sanction and also the unnecessary delay in the trial process for about two decades, the interveners Sri.V.S.Achuthananthan and Sri.V.S.Sunil Kumar objected the move for withdrawal on the ground that such a withdrawal will not in any manner serve public interest, and such withdrawal will in fact defeat the larger interest of the society which has always been alert, inquisitive and anxious to know about the nature and extent of the corruption involved in the said dishonest and vicious deal that caused heavy loss of crores of rupees to the state exchequer.

6. The final report in the case was originally filed in the Special Session Court for Vigilance cases at Thiruvananthapuram. When something unpleasant and unhappy happened during the process or when somebody made some unnecessary move to deface the system, this Court transferred the case to the Special Session Court at Thrissur, where it is now pending as C.C No.108/2011. Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 9 7. Pending the proceeding, the 5th accused made an application as Crl.M.P No.188/2011 for discharge on various grounds including the infirmity in prosecution without necessary sanction as against him under Section 19 of the Prevention of Corruption Act. After hearing both sides the learned trial judge dismissed the said application by order dated 7.5.2013 on the ground that absence of sanction under Section 19 of the Prevention of Corruption Act will not vitiate the whole prosecution when there is a definite charge against him under Section 120B of IPC, and the Government of Kerala has granted necessary sanction under Section 197 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The learned trial judge also found that the legality and propriety of the sanction under Section 197 of the Code of Criminal Procedure cannot be decided at the preliminary stage, when the court proceeds to frame charge. Aggrieved by the said order, the 5th accused filed Crl.R.P No.990/2013. Before filing the said revision, Crl.M.C10132013 was brought by the 5th accused under Section 482 of the Code of Criminal Procedure for quashing the prosecution as against him on the grounds urged by him in the application for discharge. Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 10 8. As already observed, the present Government in power in Kerala decided to put an end to the prosecution process in Palmolein case, purporting it to be in public interest, and accordingly directed the learned Public Prosecutor to file necessary application in court. G.O(Rt) No.145/2013/Vigilance dated 13.9.2013 was accordingly issued by the Government of Kerala. This government decision was infact a revival of the earlier decision taken by the government in 2005 as per G.O(Rt) No.105/2005/Vigilance dated 28.3.2005, which was later cancelled by the successor government in 2006 by Government order G.O(Rt) No.143/2006/Vigilance dated 25.7.2006. It is really unpleasant and unhealthy that withdrawal from prosecution has now become a matter of legal fight between the pro-right and pro-left groups in Kerala. In 2005 the government then in power decided to withdraw from prosecution, but necessary application could not be filed in court at the right time due to some legal and technical reasons. That decision was cancelled by the successor, pro-left government in 2006 on the finding that such withdrawal from prosecution will not serve any public Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 11 interest, and it will rather defeat public interest. When the pro-right government again came in power in 2011 the proposal for withdrawal, cancelled by the other government was seriously urged, and accordingly the government now in power decided to revive the earlier decision for withdrawal from prosecution, and accordingly issued G.O(Rt) No.145/2013/Vigilance dated 13.9.2013. Accordingly, the learned Public Prosecutor in charge of the case filed Crl.M.P No.508/2013 in the court below under Section 321 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, requesting the trial court to permit him to withdraw from prosecution. Finding that such withdrawal will defeat public interest Sri.V.S. Achuthananthan, the leader of opposition and Sri.V.S Sunil Kumar, MLA filed statement of objection in the trial court. As the statements of objections were filed in the form of request not to allow withdrawal from prosecution, those statements were received and numbered in the court below as petitions. Accordingly, the statement of objection filed by Sri.V.S Sunil Kumar, MLA was filed as Crl.M.P No.509/2013 and the statement of objection filed by Sri.V.S Achuthananthan, the leader of opposition, was filed as Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 12 Crl.M.P No.510/2013.

9. The learned Public Prosecutor in charge of the case has stated so many grounds in Crl.M.P No.508/2013, justifying his request for permission for withdrawal. The important among the grounds are: a) The whole prosecution as against the accused Nos.5 and 8 will be an exercise in vain when there is no sanction as against them under Section 19 of the Prevention of Corruption Act. Even the sanction granted by the Government under Section 197 of the Code of Criminal Procedure for prosecution as against them under Section 120B of IPC is illegal and improper, and such sanction was granted by the Government without application of mind. b) The decision taken by the Government of Kerala in 2005 as per G.O(RT) No.105/2005/Vigilance dated 28.3.2005 was wrongly cancelled by the successor government in 2006 as per G.O (RT) No.143/2006/Vigilance dated 25.7.2006 without assigning any ground or reason Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 13 for such cancellation, and the decision now taken by the present government as per G.O(RT) No.145/2013/Vigilance dated 13.9.2013 to withdraw from prosecution on revival of the first decision taken by the Government, will have to be accepted. c) Even assuming that the alleged import of Palmolein was made without inviting global tenders and in violation of the Store Purchase Rules, no loss was in fact caused to the state exchequer, and thus the deal did not involve any act of corruption. d) The report of further investigation made by the Vigilance, as ordered by the trial court pending the proceedings, will justify the actions on the part of the accused in the process of import of Palmolein, without inviting global tender, and the said report of further investigation will have to be accepted by the court. e) This prosecution cannot be allowed to be an unending process, and it will have to be put an Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 14 end to, when innocent persons are being unnecessarily harassed, they have been facing unnecessary prosecution for about two decades, and they will have to undergo the ordeal of prosecution for years quite unnecessarily, when the state exchequer had not incurred any loss. The Central Vigilance Commission, on enquiry has found that there is absolutely no material to implicate the accused Nos.5 and 8 in the alleged deal, and that these two Government Secretaries acted as responsible officers, only in terms of what the cabinet decided. f) Three important witnesses, cited by the prosecution as CW1, CW3 and CW12 to prove the alleged vicious transaction of the Kerala State Civil Supplies Corporation and the vicious and dishonest involvement of the 5th accused, died pending the proceedings. When such important witnesses are no more, the prosecution cannot in any manner prove the case against the 5th accused. g) The investigating officer has not been Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 15 able to collect any material or evidence to prove that any of the accused had derived any unlawful benefit or that the State exchequer has incurred any loss due to the alleged import of Palmolein without inviting global tenders and in violation of the Store Purchase Rules. h) The prosecution does not have any definite and satisfactory material to prove the case, especially when three important witnesses are no more, and when there is such paucity of evidence, the prosecution will definitely end in acquittal. In view of such a definite possibility of acquittal, the proceeding could be dropped at the earliest so that precious time of the judiciary can be saved and further loss of public money for such unnecessary prosecution can be avoided.

10. By way of Crl.M.P No.509/2013 and Crl.M.P No.510/2013 Sri. V.S Sunil Kumar, and Sri.V.S Achuthananthan, objected the move for withdrawal from prosecution made by the government on various grounds. The important among the objections are Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 16 a) The learned Public Prosecutor who made application under Section 321 of the Code of Criminal Procedure is really incompetent to file such an application, because he is not the prosecutor in charge of the case. b) This is not a case of total paucity of evidence, and if at all some witnesses are no more, the prosecution case can well be proved by other means, when documents and registers will speak about the role and involvement of the 5th accused. c) The report of further investigation made by the Vigilance, by which the accused are given a clean chit by the Vigilance, quite contrary to what the Vigilance earlier found, will have to be ignored by the court, and the court will have to decid during trial what report is acceptable. d) This is a clear case where definite and satisfactory materials are there to prove the unlawful benefits derived by the accused in the vicious deal of illegal import at high rate of Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 17 purchase without inviting global tenders and without complying with the provisions of the Store Purchase Rules, and such unlawful benefits made by the accused resulted in heavy loss to the state exchequer. e) Withdrawal from prosecution will not serve any public interest in any manner, and in fact it will defeat the interest of the public who have always been alert and anxious to know the nature and extend of the corruption involved in the alleged vicious deal of import of Palmolein, and such right of the public cannot be defeated on the ground that the accused have been facing prosecution for about 20 years.

11. After hearing both sides including the interveners Sri.V.S.Sunil Kumar and Sri.V.S Achuthanandan, the learned trial judge dismissed Crl.M.P No.508/2013 as per common order dated 13.1.2014 in Crl.M.P Nos.508/2013, 509/2013 and 510/2013. The common order passed by the court below on 10.1.2014 shows that practically it is only an order dismissing Crl.M.P No.508/2013. There is no definite order Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 18 allowing Crl.M.P Nos.509/2013 and 510/2013 because those two are in fact objections made by the interveners, though received in court as petitions, in view of the request made by them not to allow withdrawal from prosecution. Aggrieved by the order dismissing Crl.M.P No.508/2013, the Government of Kerala brought Crl.R.P No.139/2013. Though there is no definite order allowing Crl.M.P Nos.509/2013 and 510/2013, the government brought revision petitions against orders on those requests also. In fact the government could have made Sri.V.S Achuthananthan and Sri.V.S Sunil Kumar respondents in Crl.R.P No.139/2014 when they are in fact parties to the common order. However, the Government of Kerala brought Crl.R.P No.198/2014 against the order in Crl.M.P No.509/2013, and Crl.R.P No.199/2013 against the order in Crl.M.P No.510/2013. Crl.R.P No.372/2013 is the revision brought by the 2nd accused against the order in Crl.M.P No.508/2013.

12. The interveners Sri.V.S Achuthananthan and Sri.V.S.Sunil Kumar made vigorous contest before this Court, maintaining their definite stand that withdrawal from prosecution will serve only political interest, and it will not Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 19 serve any public interest in any manner. They also maintained a definite stand that withdrawal from prosecution will practically deny the right of the society to know what really happened in the alleged vicious transaction, whether it involves any element of corruption by way of unlawful benefits, and whether the state exchequer has lost anything in the said deal.

13. On a consideration of the various aspects urged by the prosecution as grounds justifying withdrawal from prosecution, the learned trial judge found that the learned Public Prosecutor, who made the application for withdrawal is not in fact competent as the Public Prosecutor in charge of the case as meant under Section 321 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, that the various grounds urged by the prosecution cannot be considered at this preliminary stage, those things will have to be considered at the trial stage, and that withdrawal from prosecution will not serve any public interest. As regards the request for discharge, the learned trial judge found that prima facie materials are there to prove the involvement of accused No.5 in the alleged vicious import of Palmolein as the Secretary in charge, and Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 20 that when such materials are there the case will have to go to trial for a just and final decision. As regards the question of sanction raised by the Government, the learned trial judge found that there is sanction under Section 197 of the Code of Criminal Procedure for prosecution under Section 120B IPC, though there is no such sanction under Section 19 of the Prevention of Corruption Act, and the legality of the sanction given by the Government under Section 197 of the Code of Criminal Procedure cannot be adjudged by the trial court in a proceeding under Section 321 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The Government having granted sanction for prosecution cannot turn round and say that it is improper and illegal. However, when there is a sanction granted by the competent authority, the legality and propriety of the sanction, as to whether it was made in compliance of the procedure established by law, or whether it was made without application of mind to the facts of the case and the legal aspects involved, can be decided only during trial. Finding that withdrawal from prosecution will serve only political interest and it will not serve any public interests, the learned trial judge disallowed the request for Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 21 withdrawal from prosecution.

14. The Government of Kerala alleges that the learned trial judge has exceeded the limits and has assumed the role of an appellate judge in the matter of withdrawal, when the Government has taken a just and legal decision to withdraw from prosecution on proper, valid and legal grounds. The government also alleges that the learned trial judge was influenced by extraneous considerations, and the learned trial judge has not seriously considered the various important aspects and grounds urged by the prosecution for withdrawal.

15. Before going to the factual and legal aspects, concerning the grounds for withdrawal and the rationale of the decision taken by the learned Public Prosecutor for withdrawal in terms of the government order, let me decide the preliminary issue raised by the other side, that the Public Prosecutor who made application for withdrawal is not competent to bring such an application. The interveners have raised such a contention on the ground that the Public Prosecutor who has been actually conducting prosecution in the court below is one Sri.Biju Manohar, Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 22 Additional Legal Adviser to the Vigilance, and that the Vigilance Legal Adviser Sri.Augustine figured in the process only for the purpose of making an application for withdrawal. They strenuously contend that just because Sri.Augustine is the Principal Legal Adviser to the Vigilance Department he cannot not make such an application under Section 321 of the Code of Criminal Procedure because he was never in charge of the case and he had not at any time conducted the case.

16. As regards the competence of the Public Prosecutor to make application for withdrawal, both sides referred to State of Punjab v. Surjit Singh [ 1967 SC1214, wherein the Hon’ble Supreme Court held that only the Public Prosecutor in charge of a case can make application for withdrawal from prosecution. The Hon’ble Supreme Court held thus: “In our opinion, the Pubic Prosecutor who can file an application under Section 494 of the Code must be the Public Prosecutor who is already in charge of the particular case in which that application is filed (para 30)………… ” The reasonable interpretation to be placed Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 23 upon Section 494, in our opinion, is that it is ony the Public Prosecutor who is in charge of a particular case, and is actually conducting the prosecution that can file an application under that Section, seeking permission to withdraw from the prosecution. If a Public Prosecutor is not in charge of a particular case and is not conducting the prosecution, he will not be entitled to ask for withdrawal from prosecution, under Section 494 of the Code”. (para 31).

17. The above precedent as regards the competence of the Public prosecutor was made by the Hon’ble Supreme Court when Section 494 of the old Code of Criminal Procedure did not contain a particular provision as is now found in the 1973 Code of Criminal Procedure. Only the Public Prosecutor in charge of a case can make application for withdrawal under Section 321,Cr.P.C. Even before such provision was made specifically in the 1973 Code, the Hon’ble Supreme Court made such a precedent in 1967 as regards the corresponding Section 494 of the old Code, with the object of preventing the possibility of some Public Prosecutor or the other having no charge of the case Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 24 making dishonest and mischievous application for withdrawal from prosecution. The precedent made by the Hon’ble Supreme Court was seriously considered by the parliament later, when the 1973 Code was enacted, and a specific provision was made in Section 321 of the present Code, that application for withdrawal can be made only by the Public Prosecutor who is in charge of the case.

18. Here, the question is whether the Public Prosecutor Sri.Augustine (Legal Adviser to the Vigilance and Anti Corruption Bureau) was in fact the Public Prosecutor in charge of the case. The contention raised by the respondents is that prosecution in this case was in fact conducted by the Additional Legal Adviser Sri.Biju Manohar and so only Sri.Biju Manohar could have made application under Section 321 of the Cr.P.C. In Aboobacker v. State of Kerala [ 2003 (1) KLT42, this Court held that the Public Prosecutor who is not in charge of the case is not competent to file a request for withdrawal from prosecution under Section 321 of Cr.P.C. Of course, it is true that Section 321 of Cr.P.C contains a specific provision as a pre- requisite that the Public Prosecutor who made application for Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 25 withdrawal must be the Public Prosecutor who is in charge of the case. The learned Advocate General, drew the attention of this Court to the decision of the Hon’ble Supreme Court in Sheonandan Paswan v. State of Bihar (AIR1987SC877] decided in 1987. That was a case where prosecution against a Chief Minister was sought to be withdrawn under Section 321 of Cr.P.C. When the said Chief Minister of Bihar regained power in 1980, his council of Ministers took a decision in February, 1981 to withdraw two prosecutions against the said Chief Minister, and accordingly a new panel of lawyers was also appointed by the Government to make such an application. The Public Prosecutor who till then conducted the case was removed, and a panel of lawyers headed by Sri. Lallan Prasad Sinha was appointed by the Government for the purpose of making application for withdrawal. Accordingly, Sri. Lallan Prasad Sinha made application under Section 321 of Cr.P.C. The issue including competence of the learned Public Prosecutor to make application came up for consideration before the Hon’ble Supreme Court in Sheonandan Paswan v. State of Bihar [(AIR1987SC Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 26 877]. In the said case, the Hon’ble Supreme Court accepted the appointment of Sri. Lallan Prasad Sinha and found in favour of the State that Sri.Lallan Prasad Sinha appointed by the Government was competent to file application under Section 321 of Cr.P.C as the Public Prosecutor in charge of the case. Thus, what is significant in view of the decision of the Hon’ble Supreme Court in Sheonandan case No.2 is that the Public Prosecutor who made application for withdrawal need not always be the person who had the case bundle with him, or the person who had represented the State before the Court till the application for withdrawal was made. The consideration must be whether the person who made application as Public Prosecutor was in fact in charge of the case. Whether the Public Prosecutor who made application was in fact in charge of the case will have to be looked into and decided by the court in the particular facts and circumstances of the case. In this case, the learned trial Judge found against the State on the ground that it was Sri.Biju Manohar, who represented the State in Court on all posting dates till the Legal Adviser Sri.Augustine made application for withdrawal. Just because Sri.Biju Manohar Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 27 had the case bundle with him or in his possession he cannot claim to be the person in charge of the case. Annexure – IX direction produced in the court below will show that he was directed to represent the Vigilance in the court below on a particular day as a stop-gap arrangement. Of course, this continued until the Legal Adviser made application for withdrawal, but there is nothing to show that Sri.Biju Manohar was in fact specifically authorised to take charge of the case and to conduct prosecution in the case. Just because he represented the Vigilance in the trial court, he cannot claim that he was in charge of the case. He came to the picture on a stop gap arrangement made by the Vigilance Department when the then Public Prosecutor resigned. For some reason or the other, the Vigilance Department could not make permanent alternative arrangement to put somebody in charge of the case, and so Sri.Biju Manohar happened to represent the Vigilance Department in Court on subsequent posting dates also.

19. Chapter XIV of the Vigilance and Anti Corruption Bureau Manual issued by the Government of Kerala as per G.O (Rt) No.4/2002/Vig. Dated 3.1.2002 provides that the Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 28 Vigilance & Anti Corruption Bureau shall have a Legal Adviser and other additional Legal Advisers. Clause 203, as regards the functions of the Legal Adviser, provides that the Legal Adviser exercises general supervision and administrative control over the work of the Additional Legal Advisers, and that he shall prosecute all cases in which charge-sheets have been filed by the Special Investigation Unit, Thiruvananthapuram and Special Cell, Thiruvananthapuram. Here is a case where charge-sheet was submitted by the Special Investigation Unit, Thiruvananthapuram. If so, the Legal Adviser Sri.Augustine who made application in this case for withdrawal will be the competent person to conduct prosecution as Legal Adviser to the Vigilance and Anti Corruption Bureau. He will have general supervision and administrative control over the cases of the Vigilance including the work of the Additional Legal Advisers. As the Legal Adviser, he will have dominion and control over all the files, and he will have access to all the files. Just because he did not come before the court to make representation, or just because some other Additional Legal Advisers represented the Vigilance in court on some Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 29 posting dates, the competence and right of the Legal Adviser as the person in charge of the case and having access to all the case files, or having dominion over the prosecutions of the Vigilance Department, cannot be doubted or denied. As stated earlier, in Sheonandan case No.2, the application for withdrawal made by the Special Public Prosecutor appointed by the Government for the purpose of making application for withdrawal was accepted by the Hon’ble Supreme Court because he made application as the person who well studied the case and understood the factual and legal aspects involved in the case. In the present case also, the said decision of the Hon’ble Supreme Court will help the vigilance. By applying the principles laid down by the Hon’ble Supreme Court in the said case, the application made by Sri.Augustine, Legal Adviser to the Vigilance and Anti Corruption Bureau, will have to be accepted, and Sri.Augustine will have to be considered as the Public Prosecutor in charge of the case. As the Legal Adviser to the Vigilance Department, he had access to all the case files, he had control and dominion over all the case files of the vigilance, and he is even authorised to conduct Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 30 prosecution in the cases charge-sheeted by the Special Investigation Unit, Thiruvananthapuram. As the Legal Adviser and Public Prosecutor, who is authorised to conduct prosecution also under the Manual, he will have to be considered and accepted as the Public Prosecutor in charge of the case. As stated earlier, the question is not whether the particular person who made application had the case bundle in his possession, or had made representations in court on some posting dates. The Public Prosecutor who studied the case well and who understood the legal and factual issues involved in the case well, will have to be accepted and considered as the Public Prosecutor in charge of the case. Thus, I find that Sri.Augustine, the learned Public Prosecutor who made application for withdrawal in this case will have to be accepted and considered as the Public Prosecutor in charge of the case, as meant under Section 321 of Cr.P.C. Accordingly, the finding of the court below on the point, that Sri.Augustine cannot be accepted as the Public Prosecutor in charge of the case, will stand reversed.

20. Of course, it is true that much argument was not Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 31 made by either side regarding the locus standi of the respondents (Interveners) who objected the application for withdrawal. The learned Advocate General submitted that such an issue regarding the locus standi of the Interveners was not seriously raised in the trial court. The Interveners who objected withdrawal in this case are two representatives of the people. Whether such persons can initiate prosecution or object withdrawal from prosecution is an issue already decided by this Court and the Hon’ble Supreme Court. A civilised civic population in an organised democratic polity will welcome and accept honest, healthy and devoted politics, and that must be the nature and quality of a democratic polity. But unfortunately, we are in an era of dishonest, maligned, unhealthy and communalised politics. In such a situation, when prosecution is brought on political grounds, or when withdrawal from prosecution is objected on political grounds, under the guise of public interest, the court must be cautious and anxious. It must be the concern of the Court to ensure that such prosecution, or objection to withdrawal from prosecution, is not one brought under the guise of public interest, for political ends, and that Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 32 such objection is not tainted with political dishonesty or mala fides. Here, in this case, Sri.V.S.Achuthanandan, the opposition leader, and Sri.V.S Sunil Kumar, M.L.A, opposed withdrawal from prosecution in public interest. They are the representatives of the people. It is their concern that this is a case involving charges of corruption, that the accused persons made unlawful profits and benefits out of a vicious deal in the name of Government of Kerala, and the State Exchequer sustained a corresponding loss.

21. On a perusal of the case records, I find that there are materials prima facie to substantiate the allegations made by the prosecution regarding the vicious nature of alleged import of palmolein made in haste when there was no such absolute necessity or requirement in Kerala. There is reason to believe that somebody was in fact benefitted by the said vicious deal. It is a matter to be looked into and decided on trial, whether those persons include the accused also, and whether the State exchequer had sustained corresponding loss. In such a factual situation, the opposition made by the Interveners cannot be doubted or discarded by the court, saying that it is a Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 33 mere political objection.

22. In Sheonandan Paswan v. State of Bihar (case No.2 [AIR1987SC877, the Hon’ble Supreme Court held that in cases involving offences of corruption, criminal breach of trust etc, any member of the society can oppose application for withdrawal from prosecution when such offences are offences of serious nature against society.

23. In Nandakumar v. State [2008 (2) KLT913, a learned Single Judge of this Court held that any member of the society has the locus standi to resist a request for consent to withdraw, since withdrawal should be allowed only in furtherance of the cause of public justice.

24. The settled position as regards locus standi in cases involving public interest or public concern, or cases involving charges of corruption, is that any member of the society or any responsible member of the public, or any representative of the people can resist an application brought by the Government to withdraw from prosecution. So that aspect need not be further discussed, especially when such issue is not seriously raised by the State in these proceedings. Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 34 25. Now let us come to the different grounds urged by the learned Public Prosecutor for withdrawal from prosecution, before going to the legal aspects concerning withdrawal from prosecution under Section 321 of Cr.P.C.

26. One ground urged by the State in this case is that there is no prosecution sanction against the accused Nos.5 and 8 under Section 19 of the Prevention of Corruption Act. Even the sanction granted by the Government under Section 197 of Cr.P.C for prosecuting them under Section 120B I.P.C is not legal and proper. Of course as regards the offence under Section 120B I.P.C even sanction under Section 197 Cr.P.C is not required because making conspiracy for political or other other purposes is not at all the function of any employee or public servant. Such conspiracy at whatever level, for political or criminal or other ends cannot find any nexus with the official function of the public servant who faces charge of criminal conspiracy. State of Kerala v. V.Padmanabhan Nair [1999 (5) SCC690 is on the point. Anyway, here is a case where there is a sanction under Section 197 of Cr.P.C, though sanction is not there under Section 19 of the Prevention of Corruption Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 35 Act as regards the corruption charges under the Prevention of Corruption Act. This is not a case where there is no sanction at all. When there is a sanction granted by the competent authority, the legality and propriety of the sanction cannot be looked into and decided at the preliminary stage of framing charge, or when an application is made to quash the prosecution under Section 482 of Cr.P.C or even when application is made by the State to withdraw from prosecution. In a case where there is no sanction at all, the said fact can be agitated, and this can well be considered by the Court even at the preliminary state of taking cognizance itself. But when there is a sanction issued by the competent authority, the court will have to proceed for trial, and the legality or propriety of the sanction as to whether it was granted by the authority with proper application of mind, or in compliance of the procedure prescribed by the law, can be looked into and decided by the court only during trial. In Dineshkumar v. Airport Authority of India [ 2011 (4) KLT865SC ], the Hon’ble Supreme Court held that there is a distinction between absence of sanction and alleged invalidity on Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 36 account of non-application of mind in granting sanction. As regards total absence of sanction, the Hon’ble Supreme court held that such an issue can be agitated at the threshold itself, but the latter question whether sanction is bad in law, or invalid, is a question which has to be raised during trial. As observed earlier, the charge practically against accused Nos.5 and 8, is only under Section 120B I.P.C and the criminal conspiracy alleged as against them cannot find any nexus with their official function as Secretaries to the Government. Anyway, in this case, there is a sanction granted by the competent authority under Section 197 Cr.P.C, and this is not a case where there is total absence of sanction. Whether the sanction in this case is proper or legal, or whether it was granted on proper application of mind, or whether it was granted in compliance of the procedure established by law are all matters to be decided during trial. The said contention that the sanction is not valid, cannot be looked into by the court at this stage where the issue is only withdrawal from prosecution. The accused can raise the said legal question when the case itself goes to trial. Thus, I find that on the ground of invalid Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 37 sanction, the State cannot be allowed to withdraw from prosecution.

27. Another ground urged by the State is that the decision taken by the Government of Kerala in 2005 to withdraw from prosecution was wrongly cancelled by the successor Government in 2006. Of course, it is true that such actions will create unpleasant consequences in administration. But at the same time, it is not illegal also. Political standards and Governmental propriety demand that a decision taken by the Government will have to be honoured by the successor Government. Anyway, withdrawal is a matter to be permitted by the court. It is of no consequence that the decision taken by the Government in 2005 was cancelled by the successor Government in 2006 or that the 2005 decision was revived in 2013. Whether one decides or the other cancells the matter is always the subject matter of decision by the court, and so this particular ground urged by the State need not be further discussed.

28. Another ground urged by the state is that, even assuming that the alleged import of palmolein was made Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 38 without inviting global tenders or in violation of the Store Purchase Rules, no loss was caused to the State exchequer. This ground, or this contention cannot be now considered. As stated earlier, I find some material in the case records to indicate something vicious in the alleged deal. Admittedly it was made without inviting global tenders, and the price was fixed by the Government allegedly at a higher rate. That being so, it is a matter for decision on trial whether the State exchequer had sustained any loss due to such act of the accused. In these proceedings brought under Section 321 of Cr.P.C, such factual aspects cannot be discussed, gone into, or adjudicated.

29. Another very important ground on which the State seeks permission for withdrawal is that on further investigation made by the Vigilance as ordered by the trial court, the Vigilance has come to a finding in favour of the Government, that there was no violation of Store Purchase Rules. In fact, such further investigation was ordered by the court when a complaint came regarding the role of the prosecution witness No.23 who is the present Chief Minister of Kerala. On further investigation, the vigilance found that Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 39 the present Chief Minister had no role in the alleged deal or import of palmolein, and the Investigating Officer ventured to justify the alleged deal, and thus gave a clean chit to the accused with a report that import of palmolein without inviting global tenders for competitive price was not in fact against the Store Purchase Rules, and that the deal was not irregular. Thus, the report of further investigation is quite contrary to the final report submitted by the police under Section 173 (2) of Cr.P.C.

30. When there is a definite final report filed under Section 173 (2) of Cr.P.C, and when there is a contrary or inconsistent additional final report of further investigation made under Section 173 (8) of Cr.P.C, the trial court will have to decide whether the additional report is acceptable, or whether the second report contrary to the initial final report will have any value or acceptability. The legal position as regards the value and acceptability of such a contrary or inconsistent additional final report of further investigation was settled by this Court long back in 1988. In State v. Gopakumar [ 1988 (1) KLT924, this Court held that additional report of further investigation made Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 40 under Section 173 (8) Cr.P.C must be solely regarding such evidence which was not collected, or which was not available earlier when the final report under Section 173 (2) of Cr.P.C was submitted. The question of acceptance or rejection of the additional final report of further investigation, which is contrary to or inconsistent with the initial report is within the exclusive right and jurisdiction of the trial court, and under the guise of further investigation, the Investigating Officer cannot undo what is already done for effective prosecution. This Court explained that report of further investigation only means ” a report in addition to the original one. It may have the effect of adding to or subtracting from the original report. But a condition precedent to the exercise of that right as provided under Section 173 (8) itself is the obtaining of further evidence over and above what was collected or known earlier.” Discussing the legal aspects concerning the validity and acceptability of the report of further investigation, this Court further held thus:- “After having formed an opinion on the materials and placed the accused for trial before Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 41 the court, the Investigating Agency cannot have a second thought on the same materials and submit a further report arriving at a different conclusion.” (para-8 middle) Thus, it stands well explained by this Court in State v.Gopakumar [1988 (1) KLT924 that having once formed an opinion on the materials collected at the first round of investigation and after having submitted a positive final report for prosecuting the accused on those materials, the Investigating Officer cannot make a second thought and submit a further report on the basis of the same materials, contrary to what was earlier submitted under Section 173 (2) of Cr.P.C. When such a report comes before the court, it must be within the jurisdiction of the trial court to consider the two reports, examine and evaluate the contrary findings made by the Investigating Officer in the subsequent report, and decide whether the said subsequent report contrary to the earlier report can be accepted, or whether any legal value can be attached to it. Such decision will depend upon the acceptability of the evidence given by the Investigating Officer regarding the materials and circumstances on which Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 42 he came to such a contrary finding. Thus, just because there is a report of further investigation in this case in favour of the accused, the prosecution as such cannot be quashed, and the prosecution cannot be allowed to be withdrawn also. Whether the second report of investigation is acceptable, or whether the benefit of this report can be given to the accused, will be decided by the trial court when the case goes to trial. Thus, I find that permission for withdrawal cannot be granted on the ground that the Vigilance could manage a supplemental final report quite contrary to the final report submitted under Section 173 (2) of Cr.P.C.

31. Another important ground urged by the State is that three important witnesses cited by the prosecution are now no more. They are CW1, CW3 and CW12, cited to prove the alleged vicious role of accused Nos.5 in his capacity as the Secretary-in-charge of the Kerala State Civil Supplies Corporation . Just because some witnesses died pending the proceedings, the court cannot grant permission to withdraw from prosecution. Only in cases where death of any particular witness will leave a lacuna, which cannot be in any manner filled up, thus causing total paucity of evidence, the Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 43 court can grant permission for withdrawal. But, here there is no such situation. If at all CW1, CW3 and CW12are no more, the materials or circumstances sought to be proved through them, can be proved by the prosecution even otherwise, by way of available documents, or even the oral evidence of the witnesses, who can give evidence regarding the contents of those documents, however, with the permission of the court. When the trial court finds a situation that examination of other witnesses not cited by the prosecution will have to be permitted to prove material aspects, and if such necessity arises on the death of any material witness, the trial court can very well grant such permission. A case cannot die on the death of a witness. A case will die or abate on the death of the accused, but there cannot be such a situation abating a prosecution on the death of a witness. In such a situation the prosecution will have to take necessary alternative steps for proving the prosecution case. Allowing a case to die or abate on the death of a witness, will be against the principles of criminal law and criminal jurisprudence. On the ground that three witnesses died pending the proceedings, the prosecution Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 44 cannot be allowed to be withdrawn.

32. Yet another ground urged by the State to withdraw from prosecution is that there is total paucity of evidence in this case, and that if at all the case proceeds for trial, it will ultimately end in acquittal. Of course, in so many decisions, the Hon’ble Supreme Court has held that total paucity of evidence can, in certain circumstances, be accepted as a ground for withdrawal from prosecution. But here is no such case of total paucity of evidence. Here is a case where there is some material to substantiate the prosecution allegations regarding the vicious factors surrounding the alleged deal of import of palmolein from Singapore at a high rate, without inviting global or competitive tenders for ensuring the quality and reasonable price of palmolein. Who among the many accused had such vicious role, or who among the many accused was in fact benefited by such deal, or whether the State excheqer had lost anything in the said deal, or whether such deal was made, and got approved by the Council of Ministers for purely personal ends are all matters to be decided on trial. When some materials are there to indicate the alleged vicious role of the accused in Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 45 the import of palmolein, the prosecution cannot be quashed, or the accused cannot be given the benefit of discharge, or withdrawal from prosecution cannot be allowed by the court.

33. Having discussed the various grounds set up by the state for seeking permission for withdrawal from prosecution, let me examine the legal position settled by this Court and the Hon’ble Supreme Court regarding the circumstances in which such withdrawal can be permitted. On the factual and legal aspects governing the matter, the points for decision are (a) whether withdrawal from prosecution can be allowed in this case in public interest, (b) whether the plea for discharge made by the 5th accused can be accepted, and (c) whether the prosecution as such is liable to be quashed.

34. In Rajender Kumar Jain v. State [ (1980) 3 SCC435, the Hon’ble Supreme Court held that withdrawal from prosecution on political reasons can be permitted, if it is otherwise proper. The ultimate discretion in the matter of withdrawal must be that of the Public Prosecutor, though Government may give its suggestions, advice or guidance, Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 46 and the courts jurisdiction under Section 321 Cr.P.C is supervisory in nature, to evaluate and see whether the Public Prosecutor has applied his independent mind in the broader interest of public justice. This principle was followed in so many decisions by the Hon’ble Supreme Court.

35. Prosecution is a State function, performed by the State in the interest of public peace, public health, public safety and social harmony. Every prosecution, thus, will have positive results in society, though it may sometimes adversely affect persons or institutions individually. But withdrawal from prosecution will have negative results. It is true that power to prosecute includes power or discretion to withdraw from prosecution also. When withdrawal from prosecution will have negative results in society, or will convey wrong or negative message to society, withdrawal from prosecution cannot be justified on the ground that withdrawal is also part of state function. When prosecution by the State is its function for public interest, or for public safety, public health and public tranquility, withdrawal from prosecution also must have such effects in society. If withdrawal from prosecution cannot ensure and bring about Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 47 such results in society, withdrawal from prosecution cannot be permitted by the Court. This is the gist of what the Hon’ble Supreme Court and the various High Courts in the country laid down by various precedents.

36. In Subhash Chander v. The State (Chandigarh Admn) & Others [ AIR1980SC423, the Hpn’ble Supreme Court held thus: “The fact that broader considerations of public peace, larger considerations of public justice and even deeper considerations of promotion of long-lasting security in a locality, of order in a disorderly situation or harmony in a factions milieu, or halting a false and vexatious prosecution in a Court, persuades the Executive, pro bono publico, sacrifice a pending case for a wider benefit, is not ruled out although the power must be sparingly exercised, and the statutory agency to be satisfied is the Public Prosecutor”.

37. Though the Public Prosecutor in charge of the case is the authority to decide for withdrawal from prosecution, his decision is always subject to the courts’ supervisory role under Section 321 of Cr.P.C. In Rajender Kumar Jain’s case, the Ho’ble Supreme Court Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 48 summarised the position concerning the power of withdrawal and the circumstances of withdrawal under Section 321 Cr.P.C, that withdrawal from prosecution is an executive function of the Public Prosecutor, but is subject to the supervisory role and function of the court in granting its consent to withdrawal, that the Public Prosecutor cannot surrender his discretion in the matter of withdrawal to someone else, though the Government may suggest to the Public Prosecutor that he may withdraw from prosecution, but none can compel him to do so, that the Public Prosecutor may withdraw from prosecution not merely on the ground of paucity of evidence, but on other relevant grounds as well in order to further the broad ends of public justice, public order and public peace, and the broader ends of public justice will certainly include appropriate social, economic and political purposes, that the Court while exercising the supervisory powers, is not to re-appreciate the grounds which led the Public Prosecutor to request withdrawal from prosecution, but to consider whether the Public Prosecutor has applied his mind as a free agent uninfluenced by irrelevant and extraneous considerations, Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 49 and that the Court has a special duty in this regard as the ultimate repository of legislative confidence in granting or withholding its consent to withdrawal from the prosecution. In Balwant Singh &Others V. State of Bihar [1977 SC2265, the Hon’ble Supreme Court held that “the sole consideration of the Public Prosecutor when he decides to withdraw from prosecution is the larger factor of the administration of justice-not political favours, nor party pressures, nor like concerns. The interests of public justice being the paramount consideration they may transcend and overflow the legal justice of the particular litigation…….. The statutory responsibility of the Public Prosecutor in the matter of withdrawal is non-negotiable, and cannot be bartered away in favour of those who may be above him on the administrative side.” The Hon’ble Supreme Court held that when application comes for permission to withdraw from prosecution, the court has to be vigilant not to succumb to the executive suggestion made in the form of application for withdrawal.

38. In Sheonandan Paswan v. State of Bihar (AIR1987SC877], a larger Bench of the Hon’ble Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 50 Supreme Court consisting of five Judges decided the nature and extent of the powers of the Public Prosecutor in the matter of withdrawal from prosecution, and also the nature and scope of the powers of the court in granting permission or withholding permission. In the said case, the Hon’ble Supreme Court even held that withdrawal from prosecution cannot be permitted after the framing of charge on the ground of insufficient evidence or paucity of evidence. As regards locus standi of those who object withdrawal, the Hon’ble Supreme Court held that when a case involves serious offence of corruption, criminal breach of trust etc, any member of the society can oppose the application for withdrawal from prosecution. In that case, the Hon’ble Supreme Court held that once the charge-sheet is filed and the prosecution is initiated, it is not left to the sweet will of the State or the Public Prosecutor to withdraw from prosecution and the court will have a very important role when the court is entrusted with control over the prosecution.

39. The Supreme Court further held that whatever be the grounds urged by the prosecution for withdrawal, the Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 51 basic principle underlying all the grounds must be that withdrawal can be sought only for furthering the cause of public justice. All that the court has to see is whether the application made by the Public Prosecutor is in good faith, in the interest of public justice and not to thwart or stifle the process of law. The Hon’ble Supreme Court held, that under Section 321 of Cr.P.C, it is not necessary for the court to assess the evidence to discover whether the case would end in conviction or in acquittal. ” To contend that the court will have to aseess the evidence and find out whether the case would end in acquittal or conviction, would be to re-write Section 321 Cr.P.C and would be to concede to the court a power which the scheme of 321 does not contemplate”. In this case, the learned Advocate General submitted that sufficient evidence is not there to prosecute the accused, and that the ultimate result of a trial will be acquittal. This cannot be accepted as a ground for withdrawal in view of the clear position of law settled by the Hon’ble Supreme Court, that evidence cannot be assessed and possibility of acquittal ultimately cannot influence the court in taking a decision in the matter of withdrawal, Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 52 except when there is total paucity of evidence, and the prosecution cannot in any manner improve the case in such a situation of total lack of evidence and incriminating circumstances. In Abdul Karim v. State of Karnataka and others [ AIR2001SC116], the Supreme Court held thus:

“9. The law, therefore, is that though the Government may have ordered, directed or asked a Public Prosecutor to withdraw from a prosecution, it is for the Public Prosecutor to apply his mind to all the relevant material and, in good faith, to be satisfied thereon that the public interest will be served by his withdrawal from the prosecution. In turn, the Court has to be satisfied, after considering all that material, that the Public Prosecutor has applied his mind independently thereto, that the Public Prosecutor, acting in good faith, is of the opinion that his withdrawal from the prosecution is in the public interest, and that such withdrawal will not stifle or thwart the process of law or cause manifest injustice.

20. It must follow that the application under Section 321 must aver that the Public Prosecutor is, in good faith, satisfied, on consideration of all relevant material, that his Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 53 withdrawal from the prosecution is in the public interest and it will not stifle or thwart the process of law or cause injustice. The material that the Public Prosecutor has considered must be set out, briefly but concisely, in the application or in an affidavit annexed to the application or, in a given case, placed before the Court, with its permission, in a sealed envelope. The Court has to give an informed consent. It must be satisfied that this material can reasonably lead to the conclusion that the withdrawal of the Public Prosecutor from the prosecution will serve the public interest; but it is not for the Court to weight the material. The Court must be satisfied that the Public Prosecutor has considered the material and, in good faith, reached the conclusion that his withdrawal from the prosecution will serve the public interest. The Court must also consider whether the grant of consent may thwart or stifle the course of law or result in manifest injustice. If, upon such consideration, the Court accords consent, it must make such order on the application as will indicate to a higher Court that it has done all that the law requires it to do before granting consent.” Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 54 40. In Vinod v. State of Kerala & Another [ 2013 (2) KHC895 a learned Single Judge of this Court held hat in the matter of withdrawal from prosecution, the main question to be considered is whether the Public Prosecutor who made application for withdrawal has applied his mind independently in good faith, uninfluenced by irrelevant and extraneous considerations and the decision of the Public Prosecutor to withdraw from prosecution must serve some public interest. The learned Single Judge also held that the mere assertion made by the Public Prosecutor in his application that he had independently applied his mind in good faith is not sufficient, and that the court will have to verify the veracity and credibility of the said averment made by the Public Prosecutor and make a definite finding that he has in fact done so, and that his decision to withdraw from prosecution will definitely serve some public interest.

41. In this case, the application made by the Legal Adviser Sri.Augustine does not satisfactorily explain what public interest will be served, or how withdrawal from this prosecution will serve any public interest. As already Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 55 observed, the objective of prosecution at state hands is to secure public safety, public health,social tranquility, public morality and public order by enforcement of rule of law. When the State takes decision to withdraw from prosecution and the learned Public Prosecutor makes application to that effect, the State or the learned Public Prosecutor must convince the court exercising supervisory jurisdiction over the prerogative of the Public Prosecutor, that such withdrawal will also secure some public interest in the form of social good or public tranquility or social harmony or public order. Here, I fail to find what public good or public interest is sought to be served or achieved by the learned Public Prosecutor by withdrawing from the palmolein prosecution. No doubt, the accused will be benefited by such withdrawal, and the long standing prosecution which may take some more years for natural termination can be put an end to. But that cannot be the objective of withdrawal from prosecution. An examination of the history of this case shows that initiation of prosecution on the basis of the findings made by the Comptroller and Auditor General and also the Public Accounts Committee of the Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 56 Kerala Legislative Assembly was not in fact a politically motivated one though it subsequently, over the years, gained socio-political importance, being a case involving allegations of public corruption causing wrongful loss to the State Exchequer by way of wrongful gain and profits made by Ministers and Bureaucrats. When withdrawal from such prosecution is objected by the representatives of the people, or even any common man as a member of the public, such objection cannot be branded as politically motivated objection. Just because some representatives of the people under political banners intervened in public interest and objected withdrawal from prosecution, the case cannot be given political colour.

42. The learned Public Prosecutor has stated so many grounds in his application for withdrawal. I have discussed all these important grounds and found that on such grounds the State cannot be allowed to withdraw from prosecution. When withdrawal from prosecution is attempted and permission to that effect is sought from the court, the State or the Public Prosecutor is duty bound to explain what public interest is going to be served or achieved by such Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 57 withdrawal. Here, it is not known how withdrawal from prosecution will serve any public interest, or how will the society at large be benefited by such withdrawal, or whether such withdrawal will have the effect of securing and maintaining public good, social benefit or social harmony, or even political harmony.

43. The Government Order on the basis of which the learned Public Prosecutor decided to withdraw from prosecution also does not explain what public interest is going to be served by such withdrawal. On an examination of the entire case records, and also the various grounds urged by the learned Public Prosecutor, I find that withdrawal from prosecution in this case will only serve the personal interests of the accused, that the long standing prosecution can be put an end to, and the accused persons would be let free from further trauma of prosecution wherein they will have to face serious allegations of corruption. This can not at all be the object of withdrawal from prosecution.

44. As already observed, I find on an examination of the entire case records, that the prosecution has prima facie Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 58 materials to proceed for trial on the allegation that the alleged vicious deal made by the accused had caused some loss to the State exchequer by way of some unlawful benefits or profits gained by the accused, or some of them. In such a situation, the pre-trial termination by way of discharge, or the extreme step of closing the whole proceeding by way of orders under Section 482 of Cr.P.C cannot be thought of or resorted to.

45. On the facts of the case available in detail from the prosecution records, and on the basis of the judicial precedents discussed above, I make the following findings. (a) The interveners Sri.V.S.Achuthanandan and Sri.V.S.Sunil Kumar, who are two of the respondents herein, have the right and locus standi to object withdrawal from prosecution as representatives of the people. (b) The Legal Adviser (Public Prosecutor) Sri.Augustine who made application for withdrawal in this case is competent to make such application under Section 321 of Cr.P.C, and accordingly the findings of the court below on the point will stand reversed. Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 59 (c) However, on merits, it is found that withdrawal from prosecution in this case will not serve any public interest,and no public good is going to be achieved by such withdrawal. Such withdrawal may only help the accused personally or otherwise. (d) The learned Legal Adviser (Public Prosecutor) who made application for withdrawal has well studied the facts of the case, and applied his mind, but not in good faith. The application made by him will not satisfy the court that his decision to withdraw from prosecution will in any manner help the society or serve any public interest. On the other hand, such withdrawal may have the effect of thwarting or stifling the process of law and the serious prosecution involving allegations of corruption by Ministers and the Bureaucrats. (e) This is a case where the Public has also some concern in view of the allegations of corruption by Politicians and Bureaucrats; The right of the public to know about the nature and extent of such corruption, and whether such vicious deal made by the accused have in fact Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 60 caused any loss to the State exchequer or whether anybody stands gained by such deal under the pretext of public requirement, cannot be denied by such withdrawal from prosecution, which will have the effect of stifling the judicial process. (f) Application for discharge, made by the the 5th accused was rightly dismissed by the court below because such a pre-trial closure of the prosecution cannot be thought of in this case when the prosecution has some materials to go ahead with the allegations of corruption made by the accused. (g) The legal and factual aspects raised by the State and the accused for getting permission for withdrawal are in fact the grounds to be urged and considered on trial by the trial court, and those questions can be decided only when the case goes to trial. Such questions of law or facts cannot be now considered at this stage when the request is to withdraw from prosecution. The only consideration in larger public interest in the matter of withdrawal from prosecution must be, how such withdrawal will serve any public interest, and not whether the Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 61 prosecution suffers from any legal or factual infirmity, the benefit of which will ultimately go to the accused at the time of final disposal. (h) In the particular facts of the case where withdrawal from prosecution will have the effect of stifling or thwarting the legal process, and where there is absolutely nothing to indicate that the present prosecution is an abuse of legal process, the request made by the 5th accused to quash the prosecution under Section 482 of Cr.P.C also cannot be allowed. (i) The learned Public Prosecutor has miserably failed to convince the court exercising supervisory jurisdiction, that he has sufficient grounds to withdraw from prosecution in public interest, or that his decision to withdraw from prosecution will in any manner serve any public interest. (j) In view of the above findings, all these proceedings are liable to be dismissed. I find that decision in the matter of withdrawal, and also discharge, was properly and rightly taken by the court below. That the finding of the trial court Crl.R.P Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 & Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 62 regarding competence of the Public Prosecutor is reversed by this Court, will not go to the benefit of the State and the accused. On the material aspects this Court’s finding is that withdrawal cannot be allowed in this case in public interest, in exercise of the supervisory jurisdiction of the court. I do not find any illegality or irregularity or impropriety in the findings of the trial court or in the orders made by the trial court on withdrawal or on discharge. I do not find any reason or necessity for interference in the orders passed by the court below. The State will have to proceed with the prosecution, and the accused will have to face the prosecution in view of the serious allegations of corruption.

In the result, Crl.R.P.Nos.990/2013, 139/2014, 198/2014, 199/2014, 372/2014 and Crl.M.C No.1013/2013 are dismissed.

P.UBAID, JUDGE ma

Training of Judicial Officers [Law Commission of India Report No. 117]

Training of Judicial Officers

Forward to the Union Minister of Law and Justice, Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India by D.A. Desai, Chairman, Law Commission of India, on November 28, 1986.

Chairman,
Law Commission,
Government Of India,
Shastri Bhavan,
New Delhi.
November 28, 1986

Shri Ashok Kumar Sen,
Minister for Law & Justice,
Government of India,
Shastri Bhavan,

New Delhi.Dear Minister for Law and Justice,Quick on the heels of my letter forwarding One Hundred and Sixteenth Report of the Law Commission sent yesterday, I am happy to forward One Hundred and Seventeenth Report of the Law Commission on the topic: ‘The Training of Judicial Officers’ (Item No. 5) of the terms of reference in the context of studying judicial reforms.Justifiably assuming that you had time and opportunity to read the reports submitted by the present Law Commission, you must have noticed that they form a chain and provide continuity from topic to topic. To illustrate, the first report dealt with the mechanism for resolution of disputes in rural areas and thus catering to the needs of the rural population and encompassing 60% of the litigation coming to courts. It covered in part Item No. 1 of the terms of reference in the context of studying judicial reforms; the second report dealt with restructuring courts dealing with disputes under taxation laws with a view to their expeditious disposal and avoiding multiple litigation. It had the inbuilt tendency to reduce pressure on the High Courts helping them to clear the backlog of cases. It was in reference to Item No. 1 (iii) of the terms of reference in the context of studying judicial reforms.The third report dealt with the Formation of an All-India Judicial Service which formed Item No. 9 of the terms of reference hereinabove mentioned.This report deals with Item No. 5 as pointed out earlier recommending a comprehensive scheme for training judicial officers at various levels.You will appreciate that this establishes a chain in the matter of introducing judicial reforms, to wit, train the officers in the modern methods of resolution of disputes, make justice participatory so as to re-establish credibility of the justice system, restructure judiciary on an all-India level and deal with one aspect which had a major contribution in piling-up backlog of cases. You will appreciate that if any link in the chain is broken, the whole thing will go out of the gear.I will appreciate if the Ministry of Law & Justice keeps the Law Commission informed of the follow-up action taken in the matter of these reports as also the difficulties experienced in the implementation so that a two way traffic will expeditiously resolve the problems that may confront introduction of judicial reforms.With regards,Yours sincerely,

(Sd./-)
(D.A. Desai)Copy to:Shri Hans Raj Bhardwaj,
Minister of State for Law and Justice,
Government of India,
Shastri Bhavan,
New Delhi.

Traning of Judicial Officers


CHAPTER I

Introductory

1.1. Any organization—service-oriented in character—can be appraised in terms of: (a) effectiveness in the achievement of its objectives-goals-results, and (b) promotion of internal ‘efficiency’ in order to achieve the results. What are the goals or objects to achieve which justice delivery system was devised? Indian Judicial System is admittedly colonial in origin and imported in structure. Without even a semblance of change in the last four decades since independence, in its mode, method of work, designations, language, approach, method of resolving disputes, it has all the trappings of the system established by the foreign rulers.On the attainment of independence, this system was overnight expected to be an effective instrument of ushering in social revolution in Republican India. On the enforcement of the Constitution in January 1950, this system was expected to adapt itself to facilitate the transformation of Indian society into a nation and to become an effective instrument for carrying out the mandate of Article 38. Judiciary being an important instrumentality for exercise of State judicial power, it had to shoulder the burden along with other wings to set up a welfare State in which justice—social, economic and political—shall inform all the institutions of national life. It must also shoulder the primary responsibility of eliminating inequalities in status, facilities and opportunities not only amongst individuals but also amongst groups of people residing in different areas engaged in different vocations. It had the added responsibility of becoming a guardian angel for the protection of fundamental rights of the citizens. Thus, from a purely colonial institution operating more or less as a wing of law and order enforcement machinery, it was to become a sentinel on the qui vive.Human resources constitute a critical element of any organisation; the quality and quantity of human resources significantly influence the level of effectiveness as well as efficiency of organisation. The criticality of human resources is reflected in the oft-repeated adage that any organisation (its structure and systems included) is only as good as the people who operate it. The nature and degree of knowledge, skills and ethics of the people on the one hand, and clarity in their appreciation of, and commitment to, the objectives on the other, are critical to the internal efficiencies and external effectiveness of organisation.1 If the human resources of an organisation thus form a very important part of an organisation, it is undeniable that it must remain up-to-date both with regard to changes in the hopes and aspirations of the people, demands from the justice system and contemporary needs of the society, research in the field of law, new and revised methods of resolving disputes in the society, the concept of equality in a society consisting of unequals and the goals of the Constitution. Further, the Indian society is in a constant state of flux. Under the impact of technological advances coupled with developments plans, it is facing new challenges and problems. Bhopal gas disaster has thrown up numerous challenges to the Indian Justice system and necessarily the personnel manning the same. And yet what the Chief Justice Warren Burger said while addressing the American Bar Association mutatis mutandis applies to the present day Indian justice delivery system. He said, “In the final third of the century, we are still trying to operate courts with fundamentally the same basic methods, the same procedures and the same machinery, Roscoe Pound said, were not good enough in 1906.”2 What Lord Devlin said for British Justice system has equal validity for our system. He said, “If our business methods were as antiquated as our legal system, we would have become a bankrupt nation long back”. If it is thus undeniable that the judges have to be up-to-date and can afford to fall behind at their own peril, the updating can hardly be left to the voluntary effort of the judge to read modern literature on the subject. Add to this the hardship of availability of such literature in lower rung of the ladder where need to update knowledge is keenly felt. Thus, the need for imparting training to the members of the judiciary at every level with a view to improving performance and efficiency cannot be overemphasised. Knowledge is power and it can only be acquired by facilities for training. It is conceded that training can significantly upgrade the capability of everyone called upon to perform a duty. It is all the more so in the case of judicial officers, because sociology of law is acquiring new and added significance in the development of the society. Therefore, their knowledge, skills and attitudes require to be sharpened. In the report of the Law Commission for introducing participatory justice at the grass-roots level3 and in the report recommending all-India judicial service,4 Law Commission has reiterated the need for continuing and on-going programme of pre-service and in-service training for judicial officers. This report deals thus with Item No. 5 of the Terms of Reference in the Context of Studying Judicial Reforms assigned to the Law Commission which relates to “the training of judicial officers”.

1. Dr. G.R.S. Rao, Senior Faculty, Chairman, Public Policy and Systems Area, Administrative Staff College, Hyderabad: A note submitted to the Commission—September 1986.2. 1970 Address of Chief Justice Warren Burger to the American Bar Association.3. LCI, One Hundred Fourteenth Report.4. LCI, One Hundred Sixteenth Report.

CHAPTER II

Justification for Imparting Training

2.1. The need to impart technical training has not received its due recognition till recently. Pre-service institutional training for entrants to judicial service has hardly engaged the attention of the High Courts and the Supreme Court of India or the Government. It was assumed that standing at the Bar for certain number of years before entering judicial service would provide adequate training to be able to preside over the court to which one is appointed. Later on, schemes were devised for imparting practical training by attaching the new entrants to the service to the courts presided over by senior judges for a period extending roughly to three months. Observation in the court was to be the form of training. Before we examine the need for a comprehensive training programme for judicial officers, it is necessary to look around and gather information about the need and the scope of training for judicial officers.

2.2. France recognised the need for institutional training by invoking the famous dictum of Napoleon when he said:”Military qualities are required only in a few circumstances. Civil virtues which characterise a true Judge, have an influence every moment on public felicity.”One can enter judicial service in France after graduation without any qualifying previous practice at the Bar. This method has attracted young people with good talent to the service without the hazard of a waiting period at the Bar. It was believed that direct entry into service without some kind of practice at the Bar would eliminate the possible allegiance of the entrant to some senior members of the Bar as also any attachment to private interest, which might have provided legal work to him. For imparting training to judicial officers, the Ministry of Justice has set up the National Academy for the Judiciary which as such is an autonomous body. The administration vests in the Principal assisted by Vice-Principal in charge of practical training and a Director of Studies. The teaching staff consists of Professors and Readers of Law and Senior Judicial Officers appointed by the Principal in consultation with the Advisory Board. A competitive examination for the recruitment to judicial service is held every year. It is open to persons of both sexes aged 27 or less and possessing the degree of Bachelor of Law. The recruitment is according to the merit list prepared on the result of the examination. Institutes of Judicial Studies attached to Faculties of Law provide instructions for preparing to appear at the competitive examination. The written tests consist of an essay on general culture, one test in civil law, another in criminal law or public law and the preparation of a note with the help of documents relating to judicial problems. Those who qualify at the written test have to undergo oral tests consisting of a conversation of 30 minutes with the Board of Examiners, five oral tests of 15 minutes each on different branches of law and a test of 30 minutes in foreign language.1Ordinarily, the recruitment is primarily from the source of fresh graduates taking competitive examination. Few persons may also be admitted after a special examination, if need be, from advocates, notaries, sarishtadars, government servants specialised in legal activities, other persons who distinguished themselves in the juridical field, provided they all possess the degree of Bachelor of Law.The training lasts for 28 months and consists of a study in the Academy for 9 months, a period of practical training, a final practical training of two months after the final examination in the court where the officer is to be posted first and a period of specialised training of four months which should be completed within the four years of their appointment as judicial officers in one of the specialised branches of the judiciary.2The training aims at giving sufficient, expertise in the professional technique required for the performance of the duty of a judicial officer. Seminars, lectures on methodology, study of files, lectures on special subjects, are organised during the ‘period of training. Practical training is imparted in the courts. They are even allowed to observe the deliberations of the Benches of the judicial officers for arriving at judgments. It may be mentioned here that following the old French proverb “juge unique, juge unique, (single judge unfair judge)”, in France every court except the lowest is provided with a Bench of Judges and in no higher court does a single judge give decision.3 This gives them an opportunity to view the deliberations of judicial officers for arriving at judgments. Occasionally, they are invited to express their own opinion. As part of training, the trainees are sent for short periods to police stations, prisons, home for delinquents, industrial and commercial concerns and in some cases to foreign countries also. At the end of training, there is a final examination consisting amongst others of:(1) drafting judgments; and(2) oral test of 15 minutes consisting of penal or civil pleading.The French system has been extensively reproduced here to specifically emphasize the need for training, both institutional and practical.

1. David Annoussamy: Judiciary in France, Juurnal of the Bar Council of India, (1981), Vol. 8, p. 296.2. David Annoussamy: Judiciary in France, Journal of the Bar Council of India, (1981), Vol. 8, p. 298.3. Lehar Singh Mehta The French Legal System, Journal Section, All India Reporter, 1959, p. 83

.2.3. Article 80 of the Constitution of Japan provides that the judges of the inferior courts shall be appointed by the Cabinet from a list of persons nominated by the Supreme Court. Ordinarily, the recommendation of the Supreme Court is invariably accepted. The term of office for judges of the inferior court is of 10 years. They are generally re-appointed. If the Supreme Court does not recommend re-appointment, the judge is removed from judicial office without any recourse to an impeachment type process. According to the Courts Act, there are four categories of judges of the inferior courts. The are:(1) Presidents of the High Courts;(2) Judges;(3) Assistant Judges; and(4) Summary Court Judges.The matter worthy of notice is that assistant judges are appointed from amongst those people who have completed two years of training at the Legal Training and Research Institute, an agency of the Supreme Court. After having first passed the Bar examiration, summary court judges are appointed either:(1) from amongst those who have served for not less than three years as an assistant judge, public prosecutor or practising attorney;

Or

(2) from amongst those who have the knowledge and experience necessary for carrying out the duties of a summary court judge such as those who have engaged in judicial business for many years and have been recommended by the Supreme Court.1It thus appears that the entry at the grass-root level as assistant judges is from those who have completed two years training at the institute hereinabove mentioned. Before entering the institute, the candidate ought to have passed the national legal examination. The institutional training provides for class-room instruction, field training under the guidance of individual judges, etc., and a course in drafting. On the completion of the course spreading over two years and qualifying at the examination, one becomes eligible to be appointed as an assistant judge.22.4. The need to impart training, both pre-service and in-service, has been felt for a long time and has been nationally neglected so far, with the rather disastrous consequences to development and justice.3 Inefficiency, inexperience or inadequacy of knowledge of the judicial personnel had come to surface way back in the early fiftees. Training course for judicial officers was considered imperative to improve their efficiency. Some kind of training has been in vogue, the period varying from three months to two years. Topics for training were: the practical experience in the trial work in civil and criminal matters, in some cases in revenue work and administrative work.4 The approach at that time was that the training must be confined to equip the judge to handle day-to-day cases and effectively manage his office. This narrow view with regard to training remained in vogue for a long time. The Eighth Law Commission, while dealing with the question of delay and arrears in trial courts, expressed an opinion that the training course lasting for a period of three to six months for recruits to subordinate judiciary must be provided. Such period was to be utilised for giving intensive training to the judicial officers by competent and experienced members of the Bar, the stress in such course being to acquaint the recruits with procedural requirements for dealing with different stages of cases. The training, it was suggested, must be directed to inform the new entrant as to how to record statements of parties before framing issues, how to frame issues and how thereafter to record evidence and write judgments. Training may as well be imparted in the art of writing interlocutory orders. They may be familiarised with different stages of execution proceedings and they may be taught how to dispose of matters at each of those stages.5 The 1983 conference of the Chief Justices of High Courts adopted a resolution requesting the Government to set up regional training institutes for members of subordinate judiciary in four zones of the country where eminent professors, lawyers, judges and jurists could be invited to deliver lectures on various legal and other important subjects. A fresh approach indicating the width and content of training that was to be imparted to the members of the judiciary was clearly spelt out.

1. Hideo Tanaka (Edited) The Japanese Legal System, Ch. 6, section 2, pp. 554 to 556.2. Id. at section 4, p. 566.3. Blueprint forwarded by Chief Justice of India to Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India.4. LCI, Fourteenth Report, Vol. I, Ch. IX, paras. 42-46.5. LCI, Seventy-seventh Report, Ch. IX, para. 9.8

2.5. Pursuant to this resolution, the Government of India in the Department of Justice collected information from State Governments and Union Territories as regards the existing training facilities for judicial officers available in each State with a view to examining the feasibility of setting up of regional training institutes. The information collected is tabulated and annexed hereto as Appendix I will show at a glance the existing facilities available in each State for imparting training to judicial officers.Gleaning through the information, it transpires that institutional training at present is being imparted only at the North-Eastern Judicial Officers Training Institute at Guwahati and Andhra Pradesh State Judicial Academy of Administration at Secunderabad. Broadly stated, the judicial officers taking training in these Institutes have the benefit of a short-term pre-service training in the conduct of proceedings in the court and allied matters as also the management of office. No refresher course is being held at these Institutes with the result that the training begins and ends at the pre-service level and it is of a short duration. There is an Administrative Training Institute set up at Nainital by the Uttar Pradesh Government where pre-service training is imparted to judicial officers extending over a period of six to eight weeks. The relevant rules adopted by the State of Orissa provide for an elaborate training programme. In the rest of the country, fresh recruits to judicial service are given a semblance of training by being directed to work with senior civil judges and/or district or sessions judges for an average duration of three to six months before actual posting is given.

2.6. The most glaring omission in the existing training schemes is that they do not provide for in-service training or refresher courses, save and except a few selected individuals being deputed to attend training course on “crime and justice and criminology” conducted by the Institute of Criminology and Forensic Science, New Delhi, and some others are deputed to participate in the course “Administration of criminal justice” conducted by the Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi. The duration of these courses varies from one week to three weeks.Another lacuna in the present day schemes is emphasis only on giving practical training by observation in courts on how to conduct cases. This system has an in-built disadvantage of sustaining the past practice without any change or without any effort to tone it to the mores of the day. The basic aim of training briefly spelt out is to equip the trainees not only with tools to execute their work, but to endow them with vision as to what is expected of the system which they serve. What is meant by justice? What is decision making process? What are the goals of the Constitution? What is the direction in which law must move? What does the dictum justice according to law imply? And a horde of other questions must confront the authority in charge of the new in-coming judges.

2.7. Are these facilities adequate enough to impart requisite training, both pre-service and in-service, to judicial officers? Inadequacy of these training facilities stare into our face. If is not the opinion of the Law Commission but it is the opinion of all concerned. In August-September, 1985, the Chief Justice of India and the Ministry of Law and Justice jointly convened for the first time in the history of India a joint Conference of Chief Justices of High Courts, Chief Ministers and Law Ministers of all States to debate what ails the present justice delivery system and, after diagnosing the disease, to sort out and prescribe the remedies. The question of imparting training to judicial officers was in the forefront. It was unanimously resolved at this Conference that there should be an . institute or academy for the training of judicial officers to be set up by the Central. Government with the Chief Justice of India as Chairman. A governing body under the Chairmanship of the Chief Justice of India should be set up to be in charge of the administration of the institute or academy. The governing body was to devise a whole scheme of pre and in-service training for judicial officers as also to specify places where branches of the institute or academy should be set up. In fact the expectation was that the governing body will devise the structure of academy, the selection of entrants to the academy, faculty, syllabi and all other aspects relevant to the efficient functioning of the institute or academy.Thereafter, the Law Commission was requested as part of recommending overall judicial reform to study the advisability, need and operational requirement for imparting training to members of judiciary. The Commission set in motion its own enquiry.

2.8. Pursuant to the aforementioned resolution, the Chief Justice of India prepared and sent a blueprint for the establishment of an academy for the training of judicial officers. The Minister of State for Law and Justice forwarded a copy of the blueprint to the Law Commission for its consideration. As this report exclusively deals with the question of imparting training to judicial officers at every level, the blueprint of the Chief Justice of India would be carefully considered with respect it is entitled to in the course of this report. As has been the practice, the Law Commission, with a view to adequately informing itself of various currents and cross-currents relevant to the topic under examination, addressed detailed letters to the Chief Justice of India, all Judges of the Supreme Court, Chief Justice of each High Court and all Judges of the High Courts requesting them, inter alia, to give us the benefit of their detailed views on various topics relevant to judicial reforms, one such being training of judicial officers. As the question of training pertains to the field of expert academics, the Commission also wrote detailed letters to the principal of every law college in the country with a request to bring the letter to the notice of the professors working with him, to the Deans of Law Faculty of every university as also to bodies like Indian Law Institute, Indian Institute of Public Administration and Director, Administrative Staff College, Hyderabad. Bar Council of India claims that it has sole responsibility for legal education and allied subjects. Accordingly, the Commission also wrote detailed letters to the Chairman of the Bar Council of India and Chairmen of various State Bar Councils requesting them to accord benefit of their views to the Commission on all topics relevant to judicial reforms, specifically including therein training of judicial officers. Chairman of All-India Bar Council did not extend the courtesy of acknowledging the letter and wholly ignored it. The response from State Bar Councils was wholly inadequate. The Commission also invited information and views of the Supreme Court Bar Association and such other bodies as also organisations of judicial officers. All others responded with enthusiasm. A fair measure of the cross-country opinion is available to the Commission.

2.9. The Commission was informed that as a sequel to the resolution of the Joint Conference of Chief Justices of High Courts, Chief Ministers and Law Ministers of States, the officers of the Department of Justice, Government of India, drew up a tentative scheme of training for our consideration. The commission called for the proposed scheme drawn up by the Department of Justice. A skeleton scheme appears to have been drawn up. It is in fact a brief outline of what ought to be the approach to the question of training of judicial officers. The Department of Justice probably was unaware of the fact that the Law Commission dealing with recommending comprehensive judicial reforms would engage itself in examining the feasibility and advisability of setting up an all-India Judicial Service, to be styled as Indian Judicial Service. The Law Commission has submitted a comprehensive report recommending setting up of Indian Judicial Service to which there would be recruitment from fresh law graduates on the result of a competitive examination.1 The hitherto accepted norm of some minimum practice at the Bar as an essential qualification for entry in judicial service at any stage has been given a go-bye for very valid and vital reasons. Once the recommendation as to setting up of Indian Judicial Service is translated into action and in reality the service is set up, the whole gamut of imparting training would acquire a new dimension. The note proceeds on the assumption that both pre and in-service training will have to be imparted to such recruits to judicial service who have had some minimum stint at the Bar. The assumption would no more be valid. Therefore, even though the scheme may be examined for whatever it is worth, a de novo approach to the problem is necessitous.

1. LIC, One Hundred and Sixteenth Report.

2.10. The scheme in its bare outline deals with institutional and in-service training. Without specifying the period, it has been suggested that the existing institutional facilities for imparting training to the officers recruited to the State Civil Executive Service and State Police Service should be utilised to in part training to the recruits to the judicial service after suitably augmenting the existing facilities to meet the needs of the judicial service. The scheme further provides that the period of training for recruits to judicial service must be the same as for the recruits to executive and police service. The subjects for pre-service training include: (1) salient features of the Constitution of India; (2) Civil Law, criminal law and labour law; (3) local laws; (4) law relating to police excesses and customs and other economic offences; (5) law relating to conditions of service of employment; (6) nyaya panchayats, etc.; (7) relations with police and civil executive officers; (8) problems of Scheduled Castes/Tribes, other Backward Communities and weaker sections family disputes; (9) jail administration; (10) aspects to be taken care of by presiding officers of subordinate courts, with a view to minimising delay in disposal of cases and reducing arrears in courts: and of writing judgments; (11) historical development of legal and judicial system in India; and (12) cultural and social conditions and their impact on legal and judicial administration. The scheme also provides for refresher courses of short duratidn for judicial officers having put in eight to ten years of service. The refresher courses according to the scheme must include: (1) amendment of the Constitution and the civil, criminal and other laws in the last 10 to 15 years; (2) case law—decisions of the Supreme Court/High Courts; (3) new developments in the field of economic laws and constitutional law; (4) modern practices of office management’, including documentation and storage of judicial records; (5) modern jail administration; (6) measures to expedite disposal of cases in courts and reduce arrears; and (7) problems of Scheduled Castes and Tribes, other Backward Communities and weaker sections, family disputes. After quoting resolution adopted at the 1985 meeting hereinbefore referred to the framers of the scheme frown upon establishment of new regional training institutes as it would involve considerable expenditure and would, therefore, suggest feasibility of expanding the existing institutional arrangements available in the State of Andhra Pradesh and one set up at Gauhati by the Governments of Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur and Nagaland. It further refers to the possibility of providing facilities for refresher courses at Indian Law Institute, Delhi. This is the brief outline of the scheme.

2.11. It is time to advert to some suggestions received by the Commission in its search for concrete proposals for providing facilities for training of judicial officers. The search was a multi-pronged one in that what should be the institutional framework for imparting training, the subjects to be taught, the duration of the training and incidental and ancillary matters. In the words of a legal academic of repute, the basic aim for imparting training must be central to the programme of training. In his words the whole concept of judicial process has undergone metamorphosis, such as from an adjudication of conflicting claims to a creative dispute resolving process, balancing the competing interests with a view to maximising the total social interests through this process and as such it would be helpful if the judicial officers actively engaged in dispute resolving process are exposed from time to time to the emerging trends in legislative and judicial spheres.There was a broad consensus on traditional lines on the topics forming the curricula for training. The question to be posed is, in what subjects should the judges be trained? Traditionally stated, the answer was, court management, current developments in law, judgment writing, handling the ways of the Bar, solicitude for human rights of the impoverished. To this can be added goals and objects of the Constitution, more particularly as set out in Part IV of the Constitution, the goals and objects of justice system, what constitutes justice and the role of justice legal system in Republican India.The next question which was posed was the time frame for the training to be imparted pre-service, in-service, workshop, refresher courses, etc. It will also include the question up to what level judicial officers should receive training, the training varying from level to level. The emerging picture in this behalf from views received and discussions held was, in the words of an outstanding academic, that it should not be a one-shot affair. Depending upon the educational qualification and the length of practice at the Bar as minimum qualification, the pre-service training may vary from 1 to 2 years to 3 to 6 months. The refresher courses may be of the duration of 12 to 18 weeks. The training programme must include, apart from the pre-service training, continuous inservice exposure.On the question of constitution of faculty, those who responded to the queries of the Commission were broadly of the view that legal academics, judges and some top members of the Bar must be invited to be the faculty members. It was said, ‘It is the mistake, common enough in India, that knowledge grows necessarily in proportion to seniority, age and hierarchical position’.1 The suggestion was that, rejecting this untenable assumption, lawyers, judges and academics should be involved in terms of their specialists’ competencies. A novel suggestion worthy of acceptance was that ‘the victims of administration of justice may as well be invited to contribute to the training’2. One suggestion was that eminent citizens in different walks of life, not claiming to have direct specialisation in law, may as well be invited. One academic expressed the view that ‘if the bed-rock of the Constitution is a society which would be governed by laws rather than by men and that the entire transformation of the society was to be ushered in through law, then those responsible for implementing those laws ought to know the law and principles of justice’. A correlation, it was said, must be firmly ingrained in the minds of the entrants to judicial service between law and justice.There were numerous other suggestions more or less on the same line and primarily focussing upon the intensive training in the application of procedural laws (Civil Procedure Code and Criminal Procedure Code), understanding of the penal law and more especially the Indian Penal Code, Indian Evidence Act and certain local laws.Two distinct trends were noticeable bearing on the question of what ought to be the subjects of topics to be taught at the time of the pre-service training. One view was that an effective grasp of procedural laws would help in reducing delays and expeditious disposal of causes and controversies brought before the court. The other view was that the goal of justice system is not any other than the one enshrined in the preamblar statement of the Constitution, i.e., of transforming the society in which there will be no exploitation of man by man, justice, social, economic and political, will inform all institutions of the national life including judiciary. Therefore, the goals of Constitution must be specifically taught so that justice system makes its effective contribution in the transformation of society. For this purpose, it was suggested that the curriculum must be devised first for pre-service training and specific subjects should be reserved for refresher courses taking account of the developments in the field of law and administration of justice, both internal as well as external, from the time of entry in judicial service till the date of refresher course, the distance between the two should not in any case be more than five years.The Indian Institute of Public Administration holds refresher courses and it has an expertise in this behalf. Its view was that each judicial magistrate should be required to undergo three training programmes before he is able to reach the level of additional district judge. It was of the opinion that the pre-service training course must spread over a period of one and a half years and one month’s refresher course at an interval of 6 to 10 years of service, two weeks refresher course after 10 to 16 years of service and one week’s seminar after 16 to 20 years of service. It was of the opinion that three days’ conference of High Court Judges (biennial) and annual conference of Chief Justices of High Courts may as well be utilised for the purpose of acquainting the justices of the higher and highest courts in the developments and sociology of law. Such conference, it was suggested, may as well be utilised for a short duration to acquaint themselves of the effect of judgments rendered to determine whether the development has taken place in the right direction or not.A member of the Bar expressed an opinion that instead of providing institutional training to the entrants to the judicial service, which would entail huge cost, it would be advantageous to provide statutorily that anyone who wishes to join subordinate judiciary must have adequate training under senior lawyers practising exclusively either in civil or criminal courts for a period of six months each, which would adequately, according to him, impart training to make such person competent to become an effective and efficient judge. Before the advent of three-years degree law course, it was incumbent upon anyone wishing to join the Bar to enrol under a senior advocate for a period of one year to be trained in the art of advocacy. After evaluating this mode of training, it has been given a decent burial. It is not possible to retrieve it from the past where it is buried.Chief Justices of some of the High Courts responded to the query of the Commission. Sarvashri Satish Chandra and P.D. Desai jointly submitted their proposal. It was suggested that an entrant to Indian Judicial Service should be required to undergo a training. According to them, a direct recruit should be imparted institutional training for 11/2 years and 6 months’ training in court and a promotee to the service should receive training for a period of 6 months at the Training of Judicial Officers11institute. A further training should be imparted at the institute when a promotee is promoted to the senior scale. On the question of syllabus, they expressed an opinion.that the same may be adequately prescribed by a Committee of the Chief Justices. They recommended a proviso that anyone who is promoted to Indian Judicial Service at the age of 50 years or above shall be exempt from undergoing any training or passing any departmental examination. Almost an identical scheme was recommended by the High Court of Himachal Pradesh. Chief Justice Chandurkar of the Madras High Court was of the opinion that every person appointed to the service shall be required to undergo a training for one year at the end of which he must clear a departmental examination. In his view, anyone who is promoted to service at the age of 50 years or after shall be exempt from undergoing training. One more suggestion received from one of the Chief Justices was that a Judicial Administration School should be established to impart training for the entrants to the judicial service on the topics of fairness, impartiality, objectivity and independence from executive interference. They may be trained, according to him, to undertake administration of justice free from personal bias and ideology. One other suggestion emanating from the Chief Justice was that on entering the service, a judicial officer may be designated as an apprentice for a period to be determined by High Court in each case and the should not be put in independent charge until the High Court is satisfied that he is in a position to deal with cases coming before him. In his view, the training may take the form of observation in courts at all levels, coupled with lectures and discourses by the Judges of the High Court and Senior District and Sessions Judges.Rendering justice is the primary goal of any justice delivery system. In the context of Indian situation, rendering social justice is one of the imperatives for the justice system. Even if the system were to maintain a stance of ‘judicialprocessual neutrality’, it has to commit itself to the demands of change ordained by the Constitution. The shift in the objectives of Indian Judiciary should be traced to the imperatives of change, (with both value and materialistic orientations) emerge from the preamblar statement to the Constitution in terms of secularism, socialism, egalitarianism. This is juxtaposed to the existing realities in terms of abuse and misuse of law where “Rule of Law is operating more as a mask for the Rule of Class” as E.P. Thompson observes.3The Kerala High Court Staff Association expressed an opinion that more intensive training is now required to be imparted in view of the inadequate knowledge acquired at the law colleges. It was suggested that a training must take the form of practical working in courts as also discussions with those well-versed in law and allied subjects.There were suggestions from Professors attached to law colleges and a few lawyers, all of whom while conceding the imperative necessity of imparting training to the entrants to judicial service differed in specifics, about the method of imparting training and subjects to be taught.

1. Dr. Upendra Baxi-comprehensive note submitted to LCI.2. Ibid.3. E.P. Thompson Whigs and Hunter, 1975, p. 1259, cited in Dr. G.S.R. Rao’s note submitted to LCI.

CHAPTER III

Approach of The Law Commission

3. Law Commission has in its One hundred sixteenth Report recommended constitution of Indian Judicial Service to which recruitment would be from three independent sources: (i) direct recruitment on the result of a competitive examination through which fresh law graduates would enter service; (ii) promotion from the State Judicial Service; and (iii) direct recruitment from amongst senior and experienced members of the Bar. The time honoured approach envisages practice in the courts for a period ranging from two to three years before one can qualify for entering judicial service at the lowest rung of the ladder. Article 233(2) of the Constitution prescribes practice of not less than seven years at the Bar before being eligible for entering service at the level of district judge or the term as explained in Article 236. Standing at the Bar for a certain period was considered adequate to equip the entrants to judicial service for effectively handling causes and controversies and resolving them according to law. The assumption underlying this approach was that a certain number of years of practice at the Bar enables the person not only to be effectively acquainted with various stages of trial and the method of dealing with them but also observation of working of the court, so that the entrant to judicial service could be presumed to be adequately equipped for performing the duties of a judge. Apart from the fact that this assumption has been found to be wholly unsustainable,1 now that a fresh law graduate is being given an opportunity to enter judicial service, the need for pre-service training which was keenly felt since long as pointed out hereinabove, is further accentuated by this radical departure in doing away with the essential qualification for entering service, namely, standing at the Bar. A degree in law, presumably, may equip the holder thereof with the knowledge of rudiments of law. The art of advocacy is acquired in the course of standing at the Bar. Rendering justice is an art in itself and acquiring rudiments of art needs training. The minimum equipment to render justice requires a keen intellect to shift grain from the chaff, to perceive falsehood, to appraise relative claims, to evaluate evidence, a fair and balanced approach, needs of the society, the constitutional goals and above all a keen desire to do justice. None of these aspects are dealt with in the syllabus prescribed at law colleges. If training is imparted to an impressionable mind, not contaminated by some of the prevailing undesirable practices in vogue in the present day Bar, amongst others by judges who have mastered the art of rendering justice, the same can be acquired. In order therefore to equip a fresh law graduate to be a good judge a pre-service training is indispensable. Similarly, those who enter state judicial service at grass-roots level will equally need training in the art of rendering justice. While the basic tenets of training in respect of both may be same, the duration may vary depending upon the minimum qualification prescribed for becoming eligible for entering service. The Law Commission must cater to the needs for pre-service training at both the levels, institutional as well as practical training.

1. Civil Justice Committee in its Report, para. 8, page 183, observed that, “The rule in force in certain provinces required the candidates to have practised at the Bar for a period of three years or more furnished no guarantee that the candidates have acquired any real useful experience.”

CHAPTER IV

Scheme of Training

4.1. A comprehensive training scheme must comprehend the institutional format, scope and content of training, the duration of training, the syllabus and the faculty. Each limb may now separately be examined.

Institutional Format

4.2. Only two recognised institutions are at present functioning for imparting training to judicial officers. They are:—(i) Andhra Pradesh State Judicial Academy of Administration at Secunderabad; and(ii) North Eastern Judicial Officers Training Institute at Guwahati.A training institute for judicial officers was set up by the Government of Maharashtra at Nagpur in the year 1972, but it appears to have been wound up in 1978 on the spacious plea that the cost of maintaining institute far outweighs the benefits. The Government of Gujarat has set up a training institute for labour judiciary named Gandhi Labour Institute at Ahmedabad. This was in pursuance of a recommendation made by the Gujarat Labour Law Review Committee in 19741. The Chief Justice of India in his blueprint has adopted the suggestion put forward in the resolution adopted by the joint conference of Chief Justices, Chief Ministers and Law Ministers held on 31st August-1st September, 1985, in New Delhi which recommended the setting upof an Academy by the Central Government for imparting training to judicial officers with a view to improving their quality and efficiency. At a conference on the Indian Legal System organised by the Indian Law Institute to celebrate its silver jubilee in February, 1983, the Committee on judicial reforms expressed an opinion that “it was agreed that a training college or a college and research institute be established for Judges and that refresher course be introduced for judicial officers to keep them abreast of development’s in law and to inculcate decision making skills. The importance of a training centre or college for Judges was emphasised and so also the importance of continuing legal education”. The draft scheme prepared by the officers of the Department of Justice, Ministry of Law and Justice, envisages setting up of regional institutions in four zones of the country for providing training facilities for judicial officers. There is in vogue, in various States, a method of imparting practical training by attaching entrants to judicial service to Judges of some standing. The present system, method and facility for imparting training to judicial officers is wholly inadequate and it has in no way helped the judges to acquire proficiency in the art of rendering justice. It is absolutely necessary to set up a Central Academy at a suitable place in the country for providing intensive training to new entrants to Indian Judicial Service. All those who qualify at a competitive examination and are recruited to Indian Judicial Service and are allocated to the States shall have to take training in the Academy.The Academy may suitably be located at a central place. The Chief Justice has recommended Bangalore as the seat of the Academy which, if otherwise found to be suitable, may be accepted.1. Report of Labour Law Review Committee, Gujarat, 1974, Ch. 4, para. 19.

Scope of Training

4.3. What ought to be the scope of training must next engage our attention. In recent years, expectations from Judiciary have increased manifold. Widening scope of locus standi, public interest litigation, epistolary jurisdiction, relaxing considerably the mandate of procedural laws, legal aid and Lok Adalats, have contributed to the expanding horizon of judicial duties and functions. Union and State Governments accepting the mandate of part IV of the Constitution, have enacted plethora of legislations with a view to improving the lot of the poor, the down-trodden and the deprived. The labour laws have brought to fore a different kind of causes and controversies. Members of the Judiciary aiming to translate into action the concept of socio-economic justice within the framework of the Constitution must be fully equipped to meet the challenges facing the Judiciary. This equipment can come from institutional training. The scope of training must comprehend all these aspects. The Commission is of the view that the recommendations of the Omrod Committee of the United Kingdom would not be adequate for imparting sufficient training to the new entrants to the judiciary. That Committee recommended the setting up of an institute of professional legal status to offer continuing legal education in five broad sections:—(i) Courses in Judicial duties;(ii) Refresher courses;(iii) Courses in new legislation;(iv) Specialist’s courses; and(v) Inter-disciplinary courses.Undoubtedly, courses in judicial duties may include topics such as fair and unbiased approach, critical appreciation of evidence, object and purpose behind legislation and achievement of constitutional goals. If such be the splitting-up of heads then, of course, the five broad sections indicated by the Omrod Committee may provide adequate scope for imparting training to judicial officers. While broadly indicating syllabus, topics to be included in the three distinct courses will be specifically set out. Suffice it to say at this stage that the training must be comprehensive so as to equip a fresh young entrant to judicial service with all such qualifications as would make him an ideal and useful judge.

Duration of Training Course

4.4. What should be the length of training is not easy to answer? The period may vary for different categories of entrants to judicial service. The virtual indispensability of training is for that class of entrants to judicial service who would be fresh law graduates, recruited on the result of a competitive examination. Their exposure to law would be what they learnt in the law colleges. The academy atmosphere and the court atmosphere materially differ. Undoubtedly, innovative approaches such as, moot courts and case method system have to some extent helped the students in law colleges to have a glimpse into the working of the court system. However, this peripheral knowledge could hardly be said to be adequate for being effectively posted as a Judge. At any rate, the curriculum vitae in the law colleges do include procedural laws but not the art of advocacy, recording of evidence, decision-making process and writing of judgments. Further, a day-to-day working in a courtroom requires a skill to handle the Bar, to effectively dispose of frivolous objections, the adjournment mania etc. Therefore, extensive training is a sine qua non for such fresh law graduates entering judicial service. In their case, the duration of institutional training should extend to a period of one year. We consider the suggestion in the blueprint of the Chief Justice of India that the foundation course duration for new entrants as direct recruits as District Judges and other judges should extend from 12 weeks to 18 weeks wholly inadequate. A fresh law graduate in the age group of around 24 years should be exposed to intensive training in an academic environment by giving him instructions in various topics directly and indirectly connected with trial of causes and controversies not merely by acquainting him with processual stages but to bring to bear upon the subject, the wisdom, the sagacity, broad mindedness, catholicity of outlook, constitutional culture and the goals of justice system. Such extensive training cannot be compressed within a period of 12 to 18 weeks. Therefore, the Commission is of the firm opinion that for entrants to Indian Judicial Service on the result of a competitive examination from fresh law graduates, the institutional training must extend over a period of one year. While discussing the syllabus, the detailed heads of instruction would be pointed out.

4.5. An institutional training for a period of one year by itself would not develop the faculties of trainee to such an extent as to qualify him for conferment of power of adjudicating causes. A further practical training is absolutely a must. The court atmosphere, the trial of cases, the art of advocacy cannot be reproduced adequately in a moot court in the institution. Therefore, at the end of training for a period of one year, the fresh recruit to Indian Judicial Service should be given further training of a practical nature involving technique of applied law by first posting him as a super-numerary officer in the court of Munsif/Civil Judge/Judicial Magistrate First Class for a period of three months. Thereafter, he must be posted in the same capacity and for the same duration in the court of Civil Judge, Senior Division or the Judge having unlimited pecuniary jurisdiction. He must then be posted for six weeks to sit with Metropolitan Magistrate and other six weeks with Judge, Small Causes Court. In the next three months, he must be attached to the court of District and Sessions Judge at the District Headquarters.

4.6. During the period of his attachment with various Courts, he must perform the obligatory duties of sitting with the Judge concerned. Throughout the working day, he must listen to all the cases being tried by the Principal Judge of the Court. If the evidence is being recorded, he must record for his own benefit the evidence. He must listen to all arguments. He must read all the case papers of the cases being heard in his presence in the court. At the conclusion of the trial after listening to the arguments, he must prepare his own judgment. This is the extensive training to which he must be exposed in all the courts to which he is attached for a period of one year. All the judgments or orders written by him shall be submitted to the District Ji!dge who must, after calling for remarks from the concerned Principal Judge with\whom the supernumerary Judge was sitting, analytically examine the same and prepare his own comments. Thereafter, the person concerned should be called for personal discussion and the merits and demerits of his work should be brought to his attention. The District Judge should then submit a comprehensive report to the High Court who would forward it with its own remarks to the National Judicial Service Commission that the person concerned has adequately utilised the training facilities provided to him. He must also clear a test at the end of a training period of two years. Thereafter, he must be given a substantive posting. Thus, the raw graduate, fresh from the law college, will have an extensive training for a period of two years, both institutional and practical, which it is hoped would adequately equip him to undertake the task of deciding causes and controversies at the lowest level of judicial service. This intensive training would adequately compensate for having no practice at the Bar before joining judicial service. The Law Commission is of the opinion that the two years intensive training would outweigh the advantage, if any, of three years practice at the Bar which often enough hardly helps in the matter of equipping oneself.

4.7. The next cadre for whom training facility must be provided is the one of promotees from State Judicial Service to Indian Judicial Service. They must be given institutional training for a period of 12 weeks. It is unnecessary to provide for them any practical training course because it is assumed that the promotees would have to be in active judicial service of seven years and over before being promoted to Indian Judicial Service. For them, in-service training as herein indicated, would be adequate.

4.8. It is a matter of regret for the Law Commission to more that while in all other disciplines workshops, seminars and symposia are held at regular intervals, the judges are hardly, if ever are exposed to it. In fact, the Law Commission has information which it considers reliable that there is some reluctance on the part of High Courts to permit the District Judges and Judges subordinate to it to participate in workshops and seminars. The Commission came across an incident which is worth referring here. In one of the Northern States, a body set up by the local Government and charged with a duty to expand legal aid service convened a workshop at a district level for setting up local legal aid body. The workshop was presided over by a Judge of the High Court having jurisdiction in the State. Surprisingly, neither the District Judge, nor the Judges subordinate to the District Judge participated in the workshop. On an enquiry at the proper place, the information given was that the High Court does not favour exposure of judges in such seminars and workshops. The Law Commission found this closed-door non-exposure approach un-understandable. Therefore, over and above the in-service training for promotees to Indian Judicial Service, there should be regular refresher courses for each judge at the interval of 5 years. Workshops, seminars and symposia may be held for discussing latest trends in the development of law, inter-disciplinary relations and expanding goals of justice system. It must be the obligatory duty of the High Court to make provision for convening such workshops, seminars and symposia for District Judges with the active participation of the Judges of the High Courts, teachers from the faculty of law and leading advocates. This is how comprehensive training is conceived for judicial service.

CHAPTER V

Syllabus

5. Any training scheme, to be effective, useful and result-oriented, must have comprehensive syllabus. It must be frankly confessed that drawing up a comprehensive syllabus by a body composed of non-academics is a challenging task. The Law Commission, with a view to acquainting itself about the topics to “be ‘prescribed for training, has held long discussions with the Chief Justice of India, Chief Justices of High Courts and some legal academics. The Commission had a close look at the five years’ law course prescribed by the Bar Council of India. Judgeship can be appropriately styled as a multi-disciplinary office. To be a judge worthy of his office, the incumbent must know sociology, economics, humanities, constitutional culture, unbiased approach, psychology to understand the litigant and witnesses, decision-making process, modern management techniques and, above all, social orientation of rural society, problems of poverty and the problems of the neglected sections of the society, such as members of the Scheduled Tribes, Scheduled Castes and the underdog. To draw up a comprehensive syllabus incorporating all these topics is a difficult task. To some extent the Commission is relieved from undertaking this exercise in view of the blueprint submitted by the Chief Justice of India in which comprehensive syllabus has been drawn up. The same is being annexed here as Appendix II to this report for ready reference. The authorities in charge of the academy proposed to be set up for imparting training in collaboration with the National Judicial Service Commission will draw up a comprehensive syllabus for training in the academy. Without being exhaustive, those topics which must be given priority may be briefly set out hereunder:—

Sociology of Law

(1) Goals of justice system;(2) Role of judiciary in the development of society;(3) Concept of justice;(4) Goals set out in the Constitution of India;(5) Conciliation, not confrontation, as a method for resolution of disputes;(6) Method of expeditious disposal of causes and controversies;(7) Problems of poverty;(8) Affirmative State action or positive discrimination in favour of the weaker sections of the society;(9) Recent decisions of the Supreme Court of India indicating the direction in which law is moving.

Modern Court Management Techniques

(1) Internal management of office, including the computerised management;(2) Inter-relations with allied branches, such as Bar, Police, Jail, etc.;(3) Classification of records;(4) Preservation of old records, including micro-filming of them, etc.

Criminal

(1) Problems of victims of crime;(2) Sentencing process;(3) Approach in the matter of violation of socially beneficent legislations, such as Minimum Wages Act, Bonded Labour Abolition Act, etc.;(4) Theory of punishment.

Procedure

(1) Important provisions of Procedural laws, both civil and criminal;(2) Art of writing judgments.

CHAPTER VI

Faculty

6. Selecting competent faculty for manning training course in the academy is of vital importance. Ordinarily, every member of the society comes directly or indirectly in contact with the judiciary. Expectation from the judiciary by the society is very high. An honest, intelligent and upright judge inspires so much confidence in the society that any investment in producing such judges should not be viewed from the standpoint of cost benefit syndrome. To train and produce such judges, the academy will have to assemble highly qualified members of the faculty. It can be broadly indicated here that they must be drawn from outstanding legal academics, justices of the High Court and Supreme Court, senior and outstanding members of the Bar, and even leading citizens rendering social service though not equipped by any formal legal knowledge. The last category would draw up a picture of a judge in the society and what the society expects of him. The authorities in charge of the Academy and the National Judicial Service Commission will draw up a detailed requirement of the members of the faculty and select the same.

CHAPTER VII

The Constitution of the Academy and the Incidental Managerial Aspects

7.1. The Academy herein recommended must be set up by the Government of India. The Chief Executive Officer of the Academy would be the Director who would be in overall charge of the administration of the Academy. In order to avoid multiplicity of bodies dealing with one or other aspects of judicial services, National Judicial Service Commission should act as an advisory body for the Academy. Broad policy framework should be laid down by the National Judicial Service Commission in the capacity of an advisory body of the Academy. The function of selecting the Faculty must be entrusted to a committee of experts to be set up by the National Judicial Service Commission in consultation with the director of the Academy. The Director will set up a committee of himself and four senior members of the faculty to be in charge of the internal administration of the Academy. The administrative staff may be selected and appointed as per the requirements of the Academy by this committee.

7.2. Separate reports are being submitted by the Law Commission dealing with different terms prescribed with reference to judicial reforms. However, they form a chain not permitting any link to be broken. The Law Commission in its earlier report1 referred to National Judicial Service Commission while dealing with the question of Indian Judicial Service. The body therein conceived is to be charged with multifarious duties, one such being to be the advisory body for the Academy recommended in this report. Its constitution, composition and functions would form the subject-matter of a separate report to be handed in shortly. It is accordingly suggested that National Judicial Service Commission will be the advisory body for the Academy of which Director will be the Chief Executive Officer.

CHAPTER VIII

Regional Training Centres

8. The need for imparting training to those who would enter State Judicial Service cannot any more be under-estimated. The reasons for imparting training to the members of Indian Judicial Service will mutatis mutandis apply for imparting training to the entrants to the State Judicial Service. The duration of the institutional training for such recruits must not be less than three months. This is predicated on the assumption that the States would retain minimum practice qualification at the Bar for entering into State Judicial Service. However, every State cannot afford to set up its own judicial training centre nor would it require the facility of such a training centre for few entrants to its judicial service from year to year. Therefore, the proper thing to do is to set up regional training centres catering to the needs of three to four States contiguously situated. To illustrate, the training centre at Secundrabad in Andhra Pradesh must cater to the needs of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka. One centre may be set up at Nagpur. There was already one there as pointed out earlier but it has been wound up. It must be restarted. The training centre at Nagpur must cater to the needs of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat. The third training centre must be set up at Allahabad which must cater to the needs of Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. The centre at Guwahati which is already functioning must also cater ,to the needs of West Bengal, Sikkim and Orissa. The States taking advantage of the various centres must contribute proportionately to the cost and expenses of running the centre. The topics to be selected for training may be appropriately selected from those herein above mentioned subject to the requirement that goals of justice system, art of writing judgment and court management must be among the core subjects.The Law Commission accordingly recommends the setting up of an academy, regional training centres, courses for pre-service and in-service training and allied subjects.D.A. Desai, Chairman.S.C. Chose, Member.V.S. Rama Devi, Member-Secretary.New Delhi,
Dated: 28th November, 1986.

Appendix I

Training Facilities for Judicial Officers in Various States

S. No.

State

Officers to whom traning is imparted

Nature of Traning

Duration of Traning

Future Plans

Others Remarks

Traning Institute

Other Forums

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

Andhra Pradesh District Munsifs Andhra Pradesh State Judicial Academy of Administration, Secundrabad Refresher course fpr all Officers under contemptation

2

Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur and Nagaland (i) Munsifs and Judicial Magistrates. (ii) Additional District and Sessions Judge North Eastern Judicial Officers Traning Institute, Guwahati (i) 4 months (ii)

3

Bihar No traning institute and no provision for refresher courses.

4

Delhi Judicial Officers Servece Attached to civil judges and Session Judges 4 weeks To set up a traning institute

5

Gujarat Civil Judges(Jr. Division) In courts Depending of the experience at Bar of the candidate Concerned No Objection to traning institute at the Central level

6

Jammu and Kashmir Traning courses for new recruits and refersher courses for senior judicial officers were started in 1972 but have creased to function since long

7

Karnataka Munsifs of 1980 batch At High Court Setting up of Traning Institute under active consideration

8

Kerala (i) Munsifs and Judicial Magistrates II Class (ii) District Judges and Chief Judicial Magistrate (i) At High Court (ii) Course conducted by Indian Institute of Public Administration and Institute of Criminology and Forensic Sciences (i) 6 months

9

Madhya Pradesh Civil Judges Under District Judges 6 months

10

Maharashtra Civil Judges cum Magistrates Under District Judges 6 months Judicial Officers Traning Institute, Nagpur started in 1972 but closed in 1978 as expenses were no commensutate with advantages derived

11

Orissa (i)Munsifs (ii) Officers of Lower and Higher judicial Services In-service traning for a refresher course Provision for 2 years which may be shortened by High Court Favour traning programmes with extensive refresher courses

12

(i) Punjab and Hariyana (ii) Himachal Pradesh Judicial Officers Traning courses at Institute of Criminology and Forensic Sciences Himachal Pradesh proposes to train their new officers at Himachal Pradesh Institute of Public Adminstration

13

Tamil Nadu (i) Judicial Magistrate II Class (ii) Judicial Magistrate 1st Class (iii) State Judicial Service officers (i) State Departments (ii) Institute of Criminology and Forensic Science (ii) (i and ii) (i) 39 weeks (ii) 3 weeks Traning of Judicial officers at Central level not necessary

14

Uttar Pradesh Judicial Service Officers Administrative Traning Institute, Nanital 6-8 weeks No refresher course organised at present

15

West Bengal Junior Judicial Officers With Senior Judicial Officers Short duration

Other Central for Traning of Judicial Officers

16

Gandhi Labour Institute, Ahmemdabad Labour Judiciary If the Institute has capacity, can it be used for traning other judicial officers also.

17

Indian Institute of Public Adminstration New Delhi Short duration Offer courses in Adminstrative Law and Criminal Justice Adminitration

18

Institute of Criminology and Forensic Sciences, New Delhi Short duration Offer courses in Crime and Justice, Criminology and Forensic Sciences

Vappendix II

Proposal for Setting up an Academy for Training of Judicial Officers

I. Introduction

It is absolutely Imperative for improving the quality and efficiency of the Judiciary to set up an Academy for training of Judicial Officers at an All-India level. The need for such an Academy was recognised at the Joint Conference of Chief Justices, Chief Ministers and Law Ministers held on 31gt August — 1st September, 1985 in New Delhi and a resolution almost to the same effect was passed. The resolution provided that the Academy should be set up by the Central Government with the Chief Justice of India as the Visitor and that the Academy should be under the supervision of a Governing body to be appointed in consultation with the Chief Justice of India. It is therefore proposed to set up such an Academy to be called ‘National Academy for Training of Judicial Officers.

II. Objectives

Training for the entrants and in-service training of officials for state and union services is now an accepted national priority. The need for such training for Judicial Officers has been nationally neglected so far, with the rather disastrous consequences to development and justice. Any investment made in the training of Judicial Officers is an investment in democracy and national development.The entrants to judicial services need foundational training in the administration of justice. They must be equipped with skills and competence in their daily tasks; they must, at the same time, stand informed by a wider perspective of national development (including science and technology policy planning); nation-building and national integration.The in-service training will also be oriented to the development of the wider perspective, along with endowment in competence for justice-system management.The Academy will also design advanced seminars/colloquia for senior appellate justices. On many issues—especially the role of law in science and technology—advances symposia will be designed for senior appellate justices to impart to them necessary cognitive competence.

III. Venue

The National Academy may be set up in Bangalore where fortunately space is available.

IV. Governing Body

The Governing Body of the National Academy shall consist of the following:

1.

Chief Justice of India

Visitor

2. Retired Chief Justice of India or retired Judge of the Supreme Court nominated by the President of India in consultation with the Visitor.

Chairman

3. Two Judges of the Supreme Court of India to be nominated by the Chairman in consultation with the Visitor.

Members

2

4. Four Chief Justices of High Courts to be nominated by the Chairman in consultation with the Visitor.

Members

4

5. Minister for Law and Justice of the Government of India.

Member

1

6. Minister In-charge of Department of Personnel and Administration.

Member

1

7. Minister of State for Law and Justice of the Government of India.

Member

1

8. Chairman of the Law Commission of India.

Member

1

9. Two Ministers of Law from the States to be nominated by the Govt. of India in consultation with the Visitor.

Members

2

10. Law Secretary of the Government of India.

Member

1

11. Attorney-General of India.

Member

1

12. Director, The Indian Law Institute.

Member

1

13. Director, The National Law School of India.

Member

1

14. Three Law Academics to be nominated by the Chairman in Consultation with the visitor

Members

3

15. The Director

Member

1

Total

20

V. Finances

The National Academy will be financed by the Government of India but the costs of lodging and boarding of the Judicial Officers who come from the States will have to be borne by the respective State Governments and the Government of India may, if possible, arrive at a mutually acceptable arrangement by which the State Governments may be persuaded to bear some part of the cost of running of the National Academy since the Judicial Officers of the States will be getting the benefit.

VI. Faculty

The National Academy will have broadly the following staff:1. Director who may be a retired High Court Judge taken on tenure basis or a senior Judicial Officer to be nominated by the Chairman in consultation with the Visitor.

2. Additional Director who shall be a Law Academic to be nominated by the Chairman in consultation with the Visitor.

3. Five Members of the Faculty to be selected by a Selection Committee to be appointed by the Governing Council.

4. Administrative Officer to be appointed by the Governing Council and the supportive staff.The proposal in regard to the staff is not comprehensive or exhaustive and it may become necessary to have additional staff as the Academy progresses.

VII. Content and Duration

The Courses will be of three types :(a) Foundation Courses for new entrants ;(b) In-service refresher courses ;(c) Seminars and symposia for appellate judges.

Duration

Course (a): For direct recruits to District Judges and other Judges 12 weeks for District Judges; 18 weeks for other Judges.
Course (b): 10 Weeks.
Course (c): 3-4 Weeks.

Contents for the Three Types of Courses (to be Suitably Adopted)

A. Court ManagementA.1 Docket Management (Arrears)A.2 Record Systems.A.3 Discipline over staff.A.4 Computerized Management and Information Retrieval to the extent applicable.A.5 Management of Ex-parte Stay, Interim Orders.A.6 Management of Adjournment Motions.A.7 Library Management.A.8 Monitoring Judicial Performance.A.9 Patterns of Feedback to High Courts.A.10 Management of Legal Aid including Lok Adalats.

B. Training in Systems ManagementB.1 Understanding of the law as a mutually intricating cultural, institutional, normative behavioural system.B.2 Systemic interrelations:(a) Jail(b) Police(c) Bar(d) Legal/social activists.(e) Law colleges/departments.(f) High Court.

C. Law and Legal PrinciplesC.1 Fundamental principles of procedural jurisprudence.C.2 Constitutional Law, Administrative Law and other important All-India legislation.C.3 Forensic science and criminology.C.4 Broad principles of law of evidence, evidentiary problems in trial courts, etc.C.5 Procedural laws : proper use of procedural laws and preventing their misuse or abuse.C.6 Principles governing exercise of judicial discretion.C.7 Eliminating causes of delay.C.8 Art of judgement writing—civil and criminal.C.9 Maintenance of decency and decorum in courts including certain aspects of work of Judicial Officers, court-craft, code of conduct and ethics.C.10 Accounts and financial matters.

D. Substantive Law developmentsD.1 Methods of keeping abreast with the decisional law of High Courts and the Supreme Court.D.2 Orientation to the nature of Judicial process.D.3 Problems of the Scheduled Castes/Tribes, Women, Children and Weaker Sections of Society, problems of rural poverty, exploitation and injustice.D.4 Awareness of legislative developments.D.5 Awareness of plans and policies designed to fulfil the Directive Principles of State Policy.

E. Sentencing Discretion.E.1 Patterns of Sentencing Discretion.E.2 Probations of Offenders.E.3 Socio-economic Offences.E.4 Crimes against weaker sections of society—problems of sentencing discretion.E.5 Crimes against the State—sentencing policies and patterns.E.6 Constitutionality of sentencing discretion.E.7 Feedbook from the Supreme Court and High Courts on sentencing discretion.

F. Related Matters of Judicial Policy.F.1 Awarding of costs.F.2 Compensating for violation of fundamental rights.F.3 Human rights in the administration of civil and criminal justice.F.4 Science and technology developments in relation to the law.F.5 National development and Integration through the law.F.6 Interaction between legislative policies and the judicial process.F.7 Interaction between executive policies and the judicial process.

G. General OrientationG.1 Cultural and socio-economic conditions and their impact on legal and judicial administration.G.2 Creating awareness of new judicial thinking and using law as an instrument of socio-economic change and a vehicle for delivery of social justice : combating exploitation and injustice through the process of law.G.3 Visit to rural areas: discussions with interested groups, pressure groups and victim groups.G.4 Legal Aid in all its aspects and dimensions.G.5 Lok Adalats.The subjects mentioned above at Items A to G shall form part of the courses for both types of courses at (a) and (b) but so far as seminars and symposiums mentioned in (c) are concerned, the subjects at items D, F and G shall form the subject-matter of such seminars and symposiums.

Practical training

The trainee Judges who are new entrants and who are doing foundation course mentioned in (a) shall also be given practical training as part of the foundation course. The practical training will include sitting with senior presiding officers of the civil, criminal and revenue courts and they will also be instructed in regard to procedural matters such as—

I. Civil(a) Daily cause list.(b) Calling out of cases, and the situation arising on the lawyers or the party not attending; control of court proceedings.(c) Issue of notices and scrutiny of service reports and the orders and procedure for ex parts proceedings.(d) Court decorum and ethics.(e) Examination of parties before issues under Order X, CPC.(f) Framing of issues.(g) Maintenance of diary and fixing dates for evidence.(h) Recording of evidence and problems arising therein.(i) Questions of relevancy and admissibility and dealing with objections re: want of stamp and registration of document.(j) Closing of evidence.(k) Arguments.(1) Cutting down of delays : preventing abuse or misuse of procedural laws.(m) Delivery of judgements.(n) Court registers—their maintenance and scrutiny.(o) Functioning of revenue department, police department and other government department.

II. Criminal(a) Putting in of challans/filing of private complaints and their registration.(b) Bail/Remand work.(c) Procedure of issuing notices, summons and warrants, their services on the accused/respondent and the agency responsible for service.(d) Framing of charge, essentials therefor and the necessity for hearing both the sides for the purpose.(e) Recording of plea of guilty/non-guilty.(f) Maintenance of diary and finding cases for evidence.(g) Prosecution/complainant’s evidence.(h) Examination of the accused under section 313 of the Cr. P.C. its significance and mode.(i) Defence List, its scrutiny and recording of defence.(j) The need/necessity of summoning and the procedure for recording evidence of court witnesses where necessary in particular cases.(k) Avoidance of avoidable adjournments in hearing of cases and arguments and the practical method for securing attendance of witnesses.(1) Cutting down of delays and preventing misuse or abuse of procedural laws.(m) Hearing arguments.(n) Judgement.(o) Court Registers—their maintenance and scrutiny.

Regional Academy

The foundation course outlined above must be followed by a course of training at the State level for a period of at least two to three months so that the trainee Judge should acquire sufficient familiarity with local laws and legal practices as also with the local socio-economic conditions and local problems and difficulties. This can be done best by setting up in the first instance regional academies and subsequently State academies, but since the setting up of regional academies and State academies may take some time and moreover it would require a large outlay of expenditure, it is suggested that there should be a core visiting faculty provided by National Academy which can visit every State capital for giving legal training to the trainee Judges after the foundation course. This faculty can be assisted by local faculty provided by the State Government. This may require additional teaching staff at the National Academy but it would be worthwhile to have more staff at the National Academy for providing the visiting faculty than to immediately set up regional and State Academies. The ultimate goal should however be that every State should set up a State-level Academy for providing training to trainee Judges following upon the foundation course. It would be useful for the trainee Judges who are entrants to watch the conduct of cases in the concerned High Court for about a week after the completion of the foundation course consisting of theoretical, and practical training, mentioned above, so that they may imbibe the judicial culture, broaden the horizon of their knowledge and acquire familiarity with the judicial process.


 

Law of Citizenship [Law Commission of India Report No. 107] 1984

Law of Citizenship

Forward to the Union Minister of Law and Justice, Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India by K.K. Mathew, Chairman, Law Commission of India, on December 3, 1984.


Chairman,
Law Commission,
Government of India.
December 3, 1984

Shri Jagannath Kaushal,
Hon’ble Minister of Law and Justice,
New Delhi.My Dear Minister,I am forwarding herewith the One Hundred and Seventh Report of the Law Commission on “LAW OF CITIZENSHIP”. The subject was taken up by the Law Commission on its own.The Commission is indebted to Shri Vepa P. Sarathi, Part-time Member, and Shri A.K. Srinivasamurthy, Member-Secretary, for their valuable assistance in the preparation of the Report.With regards,Yours sincerely,

Sd/-
K.K. Mathew

Law of Citizenship


CHAPTER 1

Law of Citizenship

1.1. Articles 5 to 9 of the Constitution.—The law relating to Indian citizenship is set out in Articles 5 to 11, in Part II of the Constitution of India, and in the Citizenship Act (57 of 1955). Article 5 deals with the citizenship of persons who stayed in the territory allotted to India after partition of the country in 1947 into India and Pakistan. Such persons became Indian citizens provided they had their domicile in India by birth or descent, or, if they had been domiciled in India and were ordinarily resident in India for not less than five years immediately before the commencement of the Constitution. Article 6 deals with persons who were residing in the territory allotted to Pakistan, at the time of partition, but who wished to acquire an Indian domicile and become citizens of India. Article 7 deals with persons who, after March 1, 1947, had left India, that is the territory allotted to India on partition, for the territory allotted to Pakistan. Such persons were not deemed to be citizens of India. The proviso to the Article deals with the possibility that some of these persons might have left for Pakistan because of the violence and disorder which preceded and followed the partition, but since then desired to return to India. If such persons returned to India under a permit for resettlement or permanent return, they are deemed to be Indian citizens. Article 8 confers Indian citizenship on Indians residing abroad if they complied with the provisions of that Article. Article 9 provides that a person shall not be a citizen of India if he has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of any foreign State. The Supreme Court held that Article 9 applies only to cases of acquisition of citizenship of a foreign State prior to the commencement of the Constitution because of the phrase ‘has voluntarily acquired’ in the Article. This has led to the anomaly that the acquisition of foreign citizenship after January 26, 1950, did not involve the loss of Indian citizenship. Parliament, however, in section 9(1) of the Citizenship Act, 1955, dealt with the situation by providing that any citizen of India who, by naturalization registration or otherwise voluntarily acquires or has at any time between the 26th January, 1950, and the commencement of the Act voluntarily acquired, the citizenship of another country shall, upon such acquisition or, as the case may be, such commencement, cease to be a citizen of India. That is to say, if a person acquired foreign citizenship after January 26, 1950, and before the commencement of the Citizenship Act (December 30, 1955) then such person would cease to be an Indian citizen only on and from December 30, 1955.

1.2. Articles 10 and 11 of the Constitution.—Article 10 provides that any person who is a citizen of India, shall continue to be such citi.e.,subject to the provision of any law made by Parliament and Article 21 gives power to Parliament to legislate on the acquisition and termination of citizenship, and other matters relating to citizenship, even to the extent of modifying or overriding Articles 5 to 9.

1.3. Citizenship Act, 1955, sections 3 to 7.—The Citizenship Act, 1955, was passed in exercise of the power conferred on Parliament by Article 11. It deals with the acquisition and termination of citizenship on or after January 26, 1950. The Act provides for five modes of becoming an Indian citizen—(1) citizenship by birth (section 3); (2) Citizenship by descent (section 4); (3) Citizenship by registration (section 5); (4) Citizenship by naturalisation (section 6); and (5) Citizenship by incorporation of territory as part of India (section 7).

1.4. Sections 8 to 10, Citizenship Act.—Section 8 of the Act deals with renunciation of citizenship; section 9 with termination of citizenship and section 10 with deprivation of citizenship.

1.5. Sections 11 and 12, Citizenship Act.—Section 11 deals with Commonwealth citizenship and section 12 with the right of the Central Government to confer the rights of an Indian citizen on citizens of any other country.

1.6. Sections 13 to 19, Citizenship Act.—Section 13 provides for certifying that a person is a citizen of India in case of doubt and the remaining sections 14 to 19 deal with procedural and miscellaneous matters.

CHAPTER 2

The Problems

2.1. Problems relating to citizenship.—The Law Commission has suo motu examined the law relating to citizenship and has noticed the following problems in working the Citizenship Act:(1) How to make the provisions of rule 3, Schedule III of the Citizenship Rules, 1956, effective?(2) What is the scope of rule 9 of the Citizenship Rules?(3) Whether there should be a time limit for disposal of applications under section 9(2), Citizenship Act.

2.2. The First Problem.—The first problem relating to rule 3, Schedule III of the Citizenship Rules, arises in the following manner.

2.3. Sections 9(1) and (2), Citizenship Act.—Sections 9(1) and (2) of the Citizenship Act, 1955, are as follows:”(1) Any citizen of India who by naturalization, registration or otherwise voluntarily acqui.e., or has at any time between the 26th January, 1950 and the commencement of this Act voluntarily acquired the citizenship of another country shall, upon such acquisition or, as the case may be, such commencement, cease to be a citizen of India:Provided that nothing in the sub-section shall apply to a citizen of India, who, during any war in which India may be engaged, voluntarily acquires the citizenship of another country, until the Central Government otherwise directs.(2) If any question arises as to whether, when or how any person has acquired the citizenship of another country, it shall be determined by such authority, in such manner and having regard to such rules of evidence, as may be prescribed in this behalf.

2.4. Rule 30, Citizenship Rules.—Rule 30 of the Citizenship Rules provides that:”(1) If any question arises as to whether, when or how any person has acquired the citizenship of another country, the authority to determine such question shall, for the purposes of section 9(2) be the Central Government, and(2) the Central Government shall, in determining any such question, havedue regard to the rules of evidence specified in Schedule III.”

2.5. Rule 3, Schedule III, Citizenship Act.—Rule 3 of Schedule III provides:”The fact that a citizen of India has obtained on any date a passport from Government of any other country shall be conclusive proof of his having voluntarily acquired the citizenship of that country before that date.”

2.6. Judicial interpretation of section 9(2) and rule 3, Schedule III.—The scope of section 9(2) and rule 3, Schedule III has been the subject matter of several decisions. Some of them1 took the view that the idea of ‘conclusive proof’ is a matter of substantive law arid not a rule of evidence, and hence, rule 3, Schedule III was beyond the scope of section 9(2) and hence ultra vires. Others2 have taken the view that rule 3, Schedule III only provides for rule of evidence and is ultra vires section 9(2). This conflict was recorded by a majority of 3 to 2 by the Supreme Court in favour of the latter view that rule 3, Schedule III, is intra vires.1. Md. Zhan v. Andhra Pradesh, AIR 1957 AP 97; Sharafat v. Uttar Pradesh, 1960 All 637.2. AIR 1958 Raj 172; AIR 1969 Born 192; and AIR 1961 Mad 129.

2.7. The problem.—Assuring that rule 3, Schedule III of the Citizenship Act only provides for a rule of evidence, the validity of the rule is still doubtful and the majority decision of the Supreme Court1 may not be correct.Article 5 of he Constitution provides:”At the commencement of the constitution, every person who has his domicile in the territory of India and—(a) who was born in the territory of India; or(b) either of whose parents was born in the territory of India; or(c) who has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India for not less than five years immediately proceeding such commencement;shall be a citizen of India.”The relevant portion of Article 9 of the Constitution provides: No person shall be a citizen of India by virtue of Article 5………If he has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of any foreign State. (Emphasis supplied).Therefore, when section 9(2) of the Citizenship Act deals with the question of acquisition of the citizenship of another country, it contemplates voluntary acquisition as provided for in Article 9 of the Constitution. If this is so, under rule 30 of the Citizenship Rules, the Central Government is the authority to decide whether a person has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of another country, and the Central Government shall do so in accordance with the rules of evidence specified in Schedule III. In the case of a person who has obtained a passport of any other country, since rule 3, Schedule III is a rule of evidence, the Central Government will have to automatically decide that such person has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of another country and ceased to be a citizen of India under Article 9. This leads to the following contradiction. The question whether a person did something voluntarily is a question of fact because it is a question regarding his state of mind. But rule 3, Schedule III, does not allow any inquiry into by state of mind of the person who has acquired a passport from another country. The rule is thus repugnant to section 9(2), Citizenship Act, which contemplates an enquiry, and hence void.1. AIR 1962 SC 1052

.2.8. The second problem.—The second problem relating to rule 9, Citizenship Rules, has arisen because of a decision of the Calcutta High Court.11. AIR 1965 Cal 160.

2.9. Section 5, Citizenship Act.—Section 5 of the Citizenship Act provides for the acquisition of citizenship by registration. Sub-section (1)(a) provides that subject to the provisions of the section and such conditions and restrictions as may be prescribed, the prescribed authority may, on application made in this behalf, register as a citizen of India any person who is not already such citizen by virtue of the constitution or by virtue of any of the other provisions of the Act and belongs to any of the following categories: (a) persons of Indian origin who are ordinarily resident in India and have been so resident for 6 months immediately before making an application for registration.

2.10. Rules 8 and 9, Citizenship Rules.—Rules 8 and 9 of the Citizenship Rules provide:”Rule 8—The authority to register a person as a citizen of India under section 5 shall be the Collector, and in any other case under these rules, the Central Government.Rule 9—The Collector shall, before registering a person under section 5(1)(a), satisfy himself that the person—(a) is of Indian origin and has been actually resident in India for 6 months immediately preceding the date of application;(b) has close connection in India;(c) has an intention to make India his permanent home;(d) has signed an oath of allegiance specified in the Second Schedule to the Act;(e) is of good character and is otherwise a fit and proper person to be registered as citizen of India.”

2.11. Calcutta High Court decision.—On the question whether a summary dismissal of an application under section 5(1)(a) without making any enquiry was in contravention of rule 9, it was held that it was not, because, the Collector may inform himself in such manner as he thinks fit, that is, by making confidential enquiries, or act on his own personal knowledge. The Calcutta High Court observed that neither the Act nor the Rules require him to make an enquiry in case he rejects the application, since the action of the Collector is an executive and political act, and the Collector is not bound to register an applicant as a citizen even if all the conditions of rule 9 are satisfied, and that he is not bound to assign any reason for the grant of refusal of the application.

2.12. The Third Problem.—The third problem relating to quick disposal of applications under section 9(2), arises in the following circumstances.

2.13. Decision of the Allahabad High Court.—In a case from Allahabad,1 the petitioner who came to India was ordered to be arrested and deported under the Foreigners Act, while his application to the Central government under section 9(2) that he be declared a citizen of India was pending. The Court observed that any action could be taken against the petitioner only after the question of his citizenship was determined by the Central Government. The point to be noted however is that in that case the petitioner applied under section 9(2), Citizenship Act, in 1958, and the matter was not disposed of even till 1964, when the matter was considered by the High Court. According to the High Court, no action could be taken against him because his application was pending before the Central Government. If it was ultimately decided that he was a foreigner, the result would be that an undesirable foreigner gets a stay in India for more than seven years and this makes the Foreigners Act, an ineffective statute.1.AIR 1965 All 191.

CHAPTER 3

Comments Received

3.1. Comments.—In response to the working paper issued by us, we have received the following comments:(1) The Advocates Association1 has commented that the first problem need not be dealt with by the Commission in view of the fact that that decision of the Supreme Court2 has been the law for the last 22 years. As regards the second problem the Association agrees with the suggestion of the Commission; and as regards the third, the Association doubted whether a mere fixation of time limit would be sufficient.(2) One gentleman3 has pointed out that some persons, living in foreign countries, take up foreign citizenship for professional purposes and that such an action thrusts foreign citizenship on the minor children. He suggested that Indian citizenship should be automatically restored to such persons and the children or the Government of India should recognise dual citizenship for such persons.There is at present a provision for a minor to apply for Indian citizenship when he becomes a major. As regards the person who has acquired foreign citizenship, he also can apply for Indian citizenship,(3) An Advocate4 has pointed that in Bombay, the application under section 5(1)(a), Citizenship Act in to be filed before the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate, that the application is then forward to the CID office, then to the Passport section in the Bombay Secretariat and finally to the Home Office or Foreign Office at New Delhi. He pointed out that this processing of the application causes enormous delay in the disposal of the application.1. Law Commission File No. 2(11)/84-L.C., S. No. 9(R).2. Izhar Ahmed’s case, AIR 1962 SC 1052.3. Law Commission File No. 2 (11)/8-L.C., S. No. 7(R).4. Law Commission File No. 2(11)/8-L.C., S. No. 6(R).

3.2. Commission’s views.—The Commission has given full consideration to the views expressed for which it records its appreciation. After giving adequate consideration, the Commission has made the suggestion set out in the next Chapter.

CHAPTER 4

Recommendations

4.1. Problem re: rule 3, Schedule III.—The decision in Izhar Ahmed’s1 case, has been approved in the later decision of the Supreme Court2that rule 3, Schedule III is intra vires. The Supreme Court in the later decision has however taken the view that, in spite of rule 3, the obtaining of a foreign passport does not operate as conclusive proof that the applicant has acquired foreign citizenship. In view of this coherent conflict on the scope and effect of the rule (not a section of the Act), the Commission feels that the matter should be left to the Supreme Court of India to resolve the conflict. The Commission is therefore not making any suggestion with respect to the matter.1. Izhar Ahmed v. Union of India, AIR 1962 SC 1052.2. Md. Ayub Khan v. Union of India, AIR 1965 SC. 3.

4.2. Problem re: opportunity under section 5(1)(a) and time limit under section 9(2).—As regards problems (2) & (3) considered by it, the Commission makes the following suggestions:—Problem (2): The Commission considers that there should be an enquiry with adequate opportunity to the applicant under section 5(1)(a), Citizenship Act before his application is rejected by the Collector under rule 9, Citizenship Rules.Problem (3): The Commission considers that a reasonable time limit of six months should be fixed in the Citizenship Act for disposal of the application under section 9(2), so that quick action can be taken against undesirable foreigners.

K.K. Mathew Chairman.J.P. Chaturvedi Member.Dr. M.B. Rao Member.P.M. Bakshi Part-time Member.Vepa P. Sarathi Part-time Member.A.K. Srinivasamurthy Member-Secretary.

Dated: 3rd December, 1984.

We as Nation-Bharatiya Sanskriti

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It is said what binds India[BHATAT] together is its “Sanskriti” (culture), and that people from Afghanistan to Burma, and Tibet to Sri Lanka, have the same forefathers. Even though we see different pictures, our forefathers were the same from 40,000 years ago, from Afghanistan to Burma, and from the slopes of Tibet in China to Sri Lanka in south, the DNA of the people say their forefathers are the same. This is something that connects us.

1. Shrinwantu vishwe amritasya putra-
    Arya dhamani divyani thasthu
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    Tvameva vidhithva atimrityu methi, nanyah pantha vidyathe ayanaya

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History of Hindu Nation

Root of Hindu civilization

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Canara Bank and Another Vs. Lalit Popli (D) through LRS[SC 2017 December]

KEYWORDS:-Dismissal-

Capture

 High Court was not justified in setting aside the decision of the bank to recover the amount of loss sustained by it from the respondent, particularly when the bank is empowered to do so

DATE: December 6, 2017

ACTS: Rule 12 of the Canara Bank Employees’ Gratuity Fund Rules (for short, ‘Gratuity Rules’), Clause 19 of the Canara Bank Staff Provident Fund Regulations, 1994 (for short, Provident Fund Regulations) and Rule 3(4) of Chapter VIII of the General Conduct Rules

SUPREME COURT OF INDIA

Canara Bank and Another Vs. Lalit Popli (D) through LRS.

[Civil Appeal No. 9666 of 2010]

MOHAN M. SHANTANAGOUDAR, J.

1. The judgment dated 12.09.2008 in LPA No. 553 of 2008 passed by the Division Bench of the High Court of Delhi is called in question in this appeal.

2. Brief facts leading to this appeal are: The respondent – Lalit Popli, who is now dead and represented through his legal heirs, was employed as a clerk in appellant’s bank and was dismissed from service on 30.06.1995, consequent upon a departmental enquiry in which he was found guilty of fraudulently withdrawing an amount of Rs.1,07,000/- from the saving account of a customer. The Manager of the Bank (Shri Meenakshisundaram), an officer (Shri S.S. Bhutani) as well as Special Assistant (Shri Rakesh Tyagi) was also indicted and they were also found guilty of negligence in relation to the very same incident.

The disciplinary authority by its order dated 18th September, 1994 awarded the punishment of ‘censure’ to the Manager of the Bank (Shri Meenakshisundaram) and ordered recovery of Rs.77,000/- from him. Likewise, the disciplinary authority by its order dated 23rd January, 1995 awarded the punishment of ‘censure’ to Shri S.S. Bhutani and Shri Rakesh Tyagi and ordered recovery of Rs.15,000/- from each of them. The appeals filed by the said three employees challenging the orders of the disciplinary authority were also dismissed and they did not carry the matter any further and they deposited the amount, as ordered against them. Insofar as the respondent – Lalit Popli is concerned, the disciplinary authority by its order dated 30th June, 1995 awarded the punishment of ‘dismissal from service’.

3. The respondent preferred Writ Petition (Civil) No. 2269 of 1995 challenging the order of dismissal, which came to be allowed by learned Single Judge of the High Court vide his order dated 7th August, 1998 and the order of dismissal was set aside. The appellant – Bank filed an appeal against the order of the learned Single Judge of the High Court being LPA No. 465 of 1998. During the pendency of the Letters Patent Appeal before the High Court, it was decided by the bank to withhold an amount of Rs.74,180.09, payable to the respondent, which included the gratuity and provident fund(employer’s contribution) and to keep the same in a fixed deposit with a view to adjust the said amount towards any loss caused to the bank by the respondent. LPA No. 465 of 1998, after hearing, was allowed by the Division Bench of the High Court and the order of dismissal was restored.

Further appeal by the respondent was dismissed by this Court by a detailed judgment on 18.02.2003 (reported as Lalit Popli vs. Canara Bank, (2003) 3 SCC 583). After the dismissal of the matter by this Court, the respondent made number of representations to the bank to release the amount of gratuity and the employer’s contribution towards provident fund, which was held up by the bank, by pointing out that the bank had already recovered the entire amount of loss caused to the bank from the other three employees as mentioned supra, and therefore it was not justified on the part of the bank in withholding the terminal benefits payable to the respondent.

The bank replied to the respondent that since the matter was sub judice before the Court, the bank was unable to accede to his request. After the dismissal of the matter by this Court, the bank vide its order dated 24.06.2003 decided to recover the amount of Rs.1,07,000/- from the respondent and to refund the amount already recovered from the other three employees, to them. By then, the amount of Rs.74,180.09, which was kept in a fixed deposit, had attained the maturity value of Rs.1,08,923/-. The bank ordered that out of Rs.1,08,923/-, an amount of Rs.1,07,000/- be adjusted against the loss caused to the bank by the respondent, who had withdrawn the said amount by forging the signature of the account holder.

Though, the bank had earlier decided to recover the said amount from the respondent, the bank could not recover from the respondent since the matter as against the respondent was sub judice before the Courts of law at various stages. Only after the litigation ended in finality up to this Court, the bank passed an order to recover Rs.1,07,000/- from the respondent and therefore the bank adjusted Rs.1,07,000/- out of Rs.1,08,923/- (the maturity value of Rs.74,180.09), towards loss caused to the bank by the respondent and remaining amount of Rs.1,923/- was released in favour of the respondent.

4. Being aggrieved by such action of the bank, the respondent approached the High Court by preferring Writ Petition(Civil) No. 6149 of 2003, which came to be allowed by the learned Single Judge of the High Court holding that the bank had already recovered the loss caused to the bank from the other three employees, who were indicted and punished in relation to the very incident and therefore any further amount sought to be recovered from the respondent would be impermissible inasmuch as the bank would be doubly enriching itself. The order of the learned Single Judge is affirmed by the Division Bench of the High Court in LPA No. 553/2008, which is impugned before this Court in this appeal.

5. Heard learned counsel for the parties, who argued in support of their respective cases.

6. This Court in the first round of litigation by its judgment dated 18.02.2003 had given a categorical finding that it was the respondent who committed forgery which ultimately led to the loss caused to the bank. Thus, his case stood on a different footing from the other three employees. Since the amount recovered from the other three employees, who were imposed penalty of ‘censure’, is refunded to them, the bank had to recover the amount of loss caused to it from the person who was the author of the forgery.

Looking to the material on record, we find that the other three officials were held to be negligent in their duty and as held by this Court in its judgment dated 18.02.2003, that it was the respondent, who committed forgery of the signature of the account holder, consequent upon which the bank had suffered loss to the tune of Rs.1,07,000/-. Therefore, the bank has taken an equitable decision to recover the entire amount from the respondent and to refund the amount already recovered from the other three officials, because they were only found to be negligent in their duty.

7. Rule 12 of the Canara Bank Employees’ Gratuity Fund Rules (for short, ‘Gratuity Rules’), Clause 19 of the Canara Bank Staff Provident Fund Regulations, 1994 (for short, Provident Fund Regulations) and Rule 3(4) of Chapter VIII of the General Conduct Rules, governing the services of the employees fully support the action taken by the bank against the respondent in withholding the amount of gratuity and employer’s contribution towards provident fund.

8. Rule 3(4) of Chapter VIII of the General Conduct Rules states that “an employee who is dismissed for misconduct shall not be entitled to gratuity”.

Rule 12 of Gratuity Rules reads thus: “Rule 12. Notwithstanding anything contained in the preceding Clauses where an employee has been dismissed for misconduct and such misconduct has caused financial loss to the Bank, he shall not be eligible to receive the gratuity to the extent of the financial loss caused to the Bank.”

Likewise, Clause 19 of Provident Fund Regulations reads thus:

“Clause 19. If a member causes financial loss to the Bank by misconduct, fraud, gross negligence or other conduct of like nature and is dismissed from the service of the Bank or is permitted to leave the service of the Bank in consequence of such misconduct, fraud, gross negligence or other like conduct, the amount of such financial loss sustained by the Bank shall be deduced by the Trustees from the Bank’s contribution out of the amount due to the member and be paid to the Bank.”

Special Rules relating to gratuity, mentioned supra, makes it amply clear that the employee who has been dismissed for his misconduct and if such misconduct has caused financial loss to the bank, he shall not be eligible to receive the gratuity to the extent of financial loss caused to the bank. So also, Clause 19 of the Provident Fund Regulations permits the bank to deduct the payment of provident fund to the extent of financial loss caused to the bank from the bank’s contribution. Both the aforementioned Clauses are plain and simple.

They are unambiguous. Since Rule 12 of the Gratuity Rules and Clause 19 of the Provident Fund Regulations permit the bank to withhold gratuity and deduct the bank’s contribution towards provident fund, in such matters, the bank was justified in recovering the amount of financial loss sustained by it, which was caused by the respondent, from out of the gratuity and employer’s contribution towards provident fund payable to the respondent/employee.

9. Thus, in our considered opinion, the High Court was not justified in setting aside the decision of the bank to recover the amount of loss sustained by it from the respondent, particularly when the bank is empowered to do so, as discussed supra. Accordingly, the instant appeal is allowed. The judgment and order passed by the Division Bench of the High Court in LPA No. 553/2008 dated 12.09.2008 dismissing the appeal filed by the bank, as also, by the learned Single Judge of the High Court allowing Writ Petition(C) No.6149 of 2003 dated 30.05.2008 filed by the respondent are set aside and the Writ Petition(C) No. 6149 of 2003 filed by the respondent stands dismissed and it is held that the bank has rightly recovered the loss of Rs.1,07,000/- sustained by it from the respondent. However, there shall be no order as to costs.

 [ARUN MISHRA]

 [MOHAN M. SHANTANAGOUDAR]

Bhogireddi Varalakshmi & Ors. Vs. Mani Muth upandi & Ors [SC 2017 December]

Keywords:- future prospect-loss of consortium

Capture

Claimants are entitled to an addition of 15% towards future prospects

The widow shall be entitled for loss of consortium to the tune of Rs.1,00,000/- and the children together are entitled to compensation of Rs.1,00,000/- towards loss of love, care, guidance and protection. The compensation shall carry interest at the rate of 9 per cent from the date of filing of the claim petition.

Date : DECEMBER 05, 2017.

Acts: Motor Vehicle Act

SUPREME COURT OF INDIA

Bhogireddi Varalakshmi & Ors. Vs. Mani Muthupandi & Ors.

[Civil Appeal No(S). 20882 of 2017 @ Special Leave Petition (C) Nos. 1636/2016]

KURIAN, J.

Leave granted.

2. On 03.03.2017, this Court passed the following order:-

1. Aggrieved by the inadequacy of compensation awarded by the Motor Accident Claims Tribunal (for short ‘the Tribunal’) and the High Court, the petitioners have filed this Special Leave Petition. Taking note of the fact that the deceased was aged 52 years, the Tribunal in the award dated 22.10.2008, declined to grant any addition for future prospects in the salary and adopted the multiplier as “6.31”.

An amount of Rs.15,000/- was granted towards loss of consortium to the wife and Rs.2,500/- towards funeral expenses. The compensation amount was to carry interest at the rate of 7.5 per cent per annum.

2. The claimants/petitioners, not satisfied with the compensation, approached the High Court.

3. As per the impugned Judgment dated 24.03.2015, the appeal was disposed of. The learned Judge took note of the decision of this Court in Sarla Verma (Smt.) and others v. Delhi Transport Corporation and another1 in adopting the multiplier and observed that going by the said decision, the multiplier to be applied is “11”.

However, taking note of the fact that the deceased would have retired at the age of 60 years, fixed the multiplier as “8”. In the matter of consortium, it was observed that “… deceased died not in the prime of his youth but at his middle age”, and hence the widow was granted consortium of Rs.25,000/-. No addition was made towards future prospects.

4. It is shocking and disturbing that the learned Judge declined to follow the principles laid down by this Court in unmistakeable terms in Sarla Verma (supra) as far as multiplier is concerned. We do not want to say anything more. Therefore, in this case, the multiplier is taken as “11”.

5. As far as consortium is concerned, this Court in Rajesh and others v. Rajbir Singh and others2 has held that consortium is the right of the spouse to the company, 1 (2009) 6 SCC 121 2 (2013) 9 SCC 54 2 care, help, comfort, guidance, society, solace, affection and sexual relations with his or her mate. It was also held in the above case that the children are also entitled for award of compensation for loss of love, care and guidance.

This emotional element has nothing to do with the expected life span. Having observed that it was time to revisit compensation granted under the conventional heads, it was held that the widow was entitled to loss of consortium to the tune of Rs.1,00,000/-. Towards loss of love, care and guidance for minor children, an amount of Rs.1,00,000/- was also awarded.

6. It was also held in Rajesh (supra) that in case, the deceased is above the age of 50 years, the enhancement of 15 per cent was to be given towards loss of future prospects.

7. Close to Rajesh (supra), there was another decision of this Court, again of the strength of three Judges, in Reshma Kumari and others v. Madan Mohan and another3, rendered on 02.04.2013.

8. While Rajesh (supra) went a step ahead of Sarla Verma (supra) in awarding 15 per cent enhancement towards loss of future prospects, the decision in Reshma Kumari (supra) reaffirmed the principles laid down in Sarla Verma (supra) which declined any addition towards future prospects after the age of 50 years.

9. It may be noted that there was no reference of Reshma Kumari (supra) in Rajesh (supra), apparently, since the said judgment had not been reported by the time Rajesh (supra) was rendered.

10. On 02.07.2014, a two-Judge Bench of this Court in National Insurance Company Limited v. Pushpa and others, taking note of the conflicting positions as far as addition of future prospects after the age of 50 years, in Reshma Kumari (supra) and Rajesh (supra), has made a Reference of this aspect to a larger Bench. We are informed that the Reference is still pending.

11. Under the above circumstances, we are inclined to pass an interim Order on compensation as far as the undisputed areas are concerned and then post this petition after the Reference is answered by the larger Bench.

12. Therefore, by way of an interim measure, it is ordered that the petitioners shall be entitled to enhancement of compensation by fixing the multiplier as “11”. The widow shall be entitled for loss of consortium to the tune of Rs.1,00,000/- and the children together are entitled to compensation of Rs.1,00,000/- towards loss of love, care, guidance and protection. The compensation shall carry interest at the rate of 9 per cent from the date of filing of the claim petition. The Insurance Company shall re-work the compensation as above and deposit the amount with the Tribunal within three weeks. On such deposit, it will be open to the claimants to withdraw the same.

13. As far as enhancement under the head “future prospects”, post this petition after the Reference is answered by the larger Bench.”

3. In view of the recent judgment dated 31.10.2017 rendered by the Constitution Bench of this Court in National Insurance Company Limited v. Pranay Sethi & Others, reported in, the claimants are entitled to an addition of 15% towards future prospects. Therefore, this appeal is disposed of as follows: In addition to what has already been ordered in the order extracted above, the claimants shall be entitled to further enhancement of 15% on future prospects. In all other respects including the rate of interest also the order extracted above is maintained.

4. The appeal is, accordingly, disposed of.

5. Pending applications, if any, shall stand disposed of.

6. There shall be no orders as to costs.

 [KURIAN JOSEPH]

 [AMITAVA ROY]

Bank of India Vs. Yadav Consultancy Services Pvt. Ltd. and Ors [SC 2017 December]

Keywords:- Suit for Recovery-

Capture

When the proceedings were lawfully conducted before the quasi-judicial authorities like DRT and DRAT, having trappings of the civil court, MSMEDF Council had no jurisdiction to entertain the application filed by the first respondent; more so, when the orders passed by the DRT were accepted and acted upon by respondent No.1.

Date : December 5, 2017

Acts: Section 31-A of Recovery of Debts due to Banks and Financial Institutions (RDDBFI) Act, 1993-Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development (MSMED) Act, 2006-Section 34 of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996

Bank of India Vs. Yadav Consultancy Services Pvt. Ltd. and Ors.

[Civil Appeal No. 5150 of 2017]

R. BANUMATHI, J.

This appeal is preferred against the judgment dated 19.11.2015 passed by the High Court of Judicature at Bombay in ARA No. 15 of 2014 dismissing the appeal of the appellant Bank thereby affirming the judgment of the District Judge, Pune and the award passed by the MSMEDF Council directing the appellant Bank to pay Rs.1,62,82,079/- with interest at the rate of 24% to respondent No. 1 and also pay cost of Rs. 5,00,000/- to respondent No. 1.

2. The matter has a chequered history of two decades. Brief facts which led to filing of this appeal are as follows:- The appellant Bank filed suit in Special Suit No. 628 of 1998 for recovery of Rs.9.55 lakhs along with interest against one M/s Sona Aluminium Finishers (P) Ltd. The said suit was decreed on 30.01.1999. Since the decreed amount exceeded rupees ten lakhs, in view of Section 31-A of Recovery of Debts due to Banks and Financial Institutions (RDDBFI) Act, 1993, the recovery proceedings were transferred to the Recovery Officer, Debt Recovery Tribunal (DRT), Pune and registered as R.P. No. 06/2002.

After attachment of the property, the property was auctioned on 08.03.2006. By order of DRT dated 14.07.2006, certificate of sale was issued in favour of auction purchasers-respondents No. 3 to 5. Since the Certificate Debtors (Mortgagor/Guarantor) were said to be creating obstruction in delivery of possession of the property to the auction purchasers, by order dated 26.07.2006, the Recovery Officer, DRT, Pune appointed respondent No.1 as “Court Commissioner”. The appellant Bank was directed to pay service charges to the first respondent. Respondent No. 1 took possession of the property on 09.11.2006. Auction purchasers filed an application in R.P. No. 06 of 2002 on 13.11.2006 and DRT, Pune on the same date i.e. 13.11.2006 directed respondent No. 1 to hand over the possession of the subject property to the auction purchasers.

3. There was then a dispute between the appellant Bank and M/s Sona Aluminium Finishers (P) Ltd. – Certificate Debtor and the same came to be compromised; however the same failed due to non-compliance of the terms and conditions of the compromise. Appellant Bank sent letter dated 04.05.2007 informing the first respondent that they had decided to discharge the Court Commissioner with effect from 08.05.2007 and the Bank also paid the charges of respondent No. 1 up to 08.05.2007. However, the Recovery Officer by his order dated 12.06.2007 directed the appellant Bank to continue to pay the charges to respondent No. 1 which was challenged by the appellant Bank before the Presiding Officer, DRT, Pune by preferring Appeal No. 25 of 2007.

In Appeal No. 25 of 2007, vide order dated 24.07.2008, DRT set aside the order of the Recovery Officer and directed the first respondent to take steps for recovery of its charges from the auction purchasers from 08.05.2007. Be it noted, respondent No. 1 had not challenged the order dated 24.07.2008; but filed an application on 07.11.2008 in R.P. No. 06/2002 seeking for direction to the auction purchasers to pay its charges.

Only the auction purchasers challenged the order of DRT dated 24.07.2008 before Debt Recovery Appellate Tribunal (DRAT), Mumbai in Appeal No. 589 of 2008 wherein respondent No. 1 was one of the respondents. When the said appeal filed by the auction purchasers was pending before DRAT, the first respondent filed Writ Petition No. 10259 of 2011 seeking direction from the High Court to expedite hearing of the said appeal and dispose the same at an early date. The said writ petition was disposed of by order dated 16.01.2012 directing DRAT, Mumbai to decide the appeal within a period of three months and accordingly, the said Appeal No. 589 of 2008 was dismissed for default on 30.05.2012.

4. After so pursuing the matter before DRT, DRAT and the High Court, the first respondent instead of challenging the order dated 30.05.2012, sought arbitration before Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Facilitation Council (MSMEDF Council), Pune under Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development (MSMED) Act, 2006.

The MSMEDF Council passed an ex parte award on 12.09.2012 directing the appellant Bank to pay a sum of Rs. 1,62,82,079/- to respondent No. 1 within the period of one month from the date of award i.e. 12.09.2012 with interest at the rate of 24%. In the incidental proceedings arising out of the award passed by the MSMEDF Council, by order dated 19.03.2013 in Writ Petition No. 2877 of 2013 filed by the appellant Bank, the High Court stayed the order of the District Judge, Pune passed in DKT No. 1741 of 2012, subject to deposit the entire decretal amount that is Rs. 1,93,22,590/- within one week with the Registrar, High Court of Judicature at Bombay and the appellant Bank had deposited the said amount.

Appeal filed by the appellant Bank under Section 34 of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 being Civil Application No. 352 of 2013 was dismissed by the District Judge, Pune vide order dated 16.06.2014. Further appeal filed by the appellant Bank under Section 37 of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 in Arbitration Petition No. 15 of 2014 came to be dismissed by the High Court inter alia on various grounds:-

(i) DRT has no jurisdiction to entertain the appeal and therefore order dated 24.07.2008 would be non est;

(ii) MSMED Act, 2006 was specially enacted to deal with dispute of delayed payments to service providers and the MSMEDF Council had jurisdiction to adjudicate the dispute; and

(iii) Bank has not taken any step to take possession from Court Commissioner after paying the charges; but it has simply refused to pay the charges and dragged the litigation. Being aggrieved, the appellant Bank preferred this appeal.

5. We have heard at length Mr. Dushyant Dave, learned senior counsel appearing for the appellant Bank and Mr. Prakash Wamanrao Yadav-the first respondent who appeared in-person. We have carefully considered the rival contentions and perused the impugned judgment and the materials on record.

6. Upon consideration of the rival contentions, the following points arise for consideration in this appeal:-

i. When the obligation of the appellant Bank to pay the charges expired on 30.11.2006, when the physical possession of the subject property was handed over to the auction purchasers and when the order dated 24.07.2008 of Debt Recovery Appellate Tribunal, Pune has attained finality, can the first respondent claim charges for security services from the appellant Bank?

ii. Whether the High Court was right in saying that DRT had no jurisdiction to entertain the appeal and that the order dated 24.07.2008 would be non est?

iii. When the first respondent was appointed as Court Commissioner through the order of the Recovery Officer in the proceedings before DRT in R.P. No. 06/2002 and when the parties were vigorously pursuing the matter before DRT, DRAT and also before the High Court, whether the first respondent was right in approaching the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Facilitation (MSMEDF) Council, Pune; -andiv. Whether the award passed by the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Facilitation (MSMEDF) Council, Pune affirmed by the District Court and also by the High Court is sustainable?

7. The auction of the property was conducted on 08.03.2006 and the sale of the auctioned property was confirmed on 14.07.2006 and the sale certificate was issued in favour of the auction purchasers on the same date. The Recovery Officer appointed the first respondent as Court Commissioner on 26.07.2006 and the fees of the first respondent to be directly paid by the Certificate Holder Bank. On 13.11.2006, the appellant Bank filed purshis praying to hand over the possession of subject property (Pavitra Hall) to the auction purchasers and on the same date i.e. 13.11.2006, on the application filed by the auction purchasers, possession of the subject property was handed over to the auction purchasers and they have also issued acknowledgement of possession.

On the same date i.e. 13.11.2006, purshis on behalf of the auction purchasers was also filed in R.P. No. 06 of 2002 before DRT in and by which the auction purchasers undertook to pay all expenses as required to protect their possession. Purshis of expenses filed by the auction purchasers reads as under:- “Purshis of expenses Purshis on behalf of auction purchaser is as under:

a) That from the time of taking possession i.e. 13.11.2006 of auctioned property as purchased i.e., “Pavitra Hall”, the Auction Purchaser shall bear all the expenses as may be required to protect their possession, including payments if required to be made to the security personnel. That the Auction Purchaser shall be liable accountable & duty bound to safeguard the possession to the exclusion of all others

b) Hence this purshis.”

8. The appellant Bank sent the communication to the first respondent on 04.05.2007 calling upon him to get his bill cleared for Rs. 30,866/- being the charges for security services at “Pavitra Hall” up to 08.05.2007. In the said communication, Bank had made it clear that “…..no further payment will be made to you (Yadav Consultancy) by the Bank…..”; however, the Recovery Officer by his letter dated 12.06.2007 directed the appellant Bank to continue to pay the charges for security services to the first respondent.

Appellant Bank challenged the said order of Recovery Officer dated 12.06.2007 before DRT in Appeal No. 25 of 2007. DRT set aside the said order of the Recovery Officer and directed the Recovery Officer to recover Court Commissioner charges from 08.05.2007 from the auction purchasers. We may usefully refer to the said order of the DRT dated 24.07.2008 which reads as under:-

“…….The Court Commissioner was appointed at the instance of the Recovery Officer and the Recovery Officer has wrongly saddled the appellant to pay the charges. The Court Commissioner should not suffer in the present proceeding and, therefore, Recovery Officer is directed to recover Court Commissioner charges from 08.05.2007 till his discharge from the auction purchasers……..”

9. The first respondent has not challenged the order of DRT dated 24.07.2008; but even filed application on 07.11.2008 before DRT, Pune seeking for direction to the auction purchasers to pay the Court Commissioner charges to the first respondent. The first respondent had also filed contempt petition against the appellant Bank and the auction purchasers. The Recovery Officer had heard all the parties including the Certificate Debtor (CD) who prayed for setting aside the sale of the auction property “Pavitra Hall”.

The Bank inter alia prayed that the auction purchasers be directed to pay the Court Commissioner charges only up to 13.11.2006 and discharge the Court Commissioner from that date. After considering the rival claims of all the parties, by order dated 25.03.2009 in R.P. No. 06/2002, the Recovery Officer held that the continuation of respondent No. 1 for safeguarding the auctioned property was solely on behalf of auction purchasers and his duty as “Court Commissioner” had ceased to exist on 13.11.2006.

10. Order of the Recovery Officer dated 25.03.2009 makes it clear that the continuation of the services of the first respondent was only on behalf of auction purchasers and that only the auction purchasers were bound to pay the charges for security services to the first respondent. The relevant portion of the order of the Recovery Officer reads as under:-

“8……The Auction Purchasers have not filed any application to discharge the said Agency, therefore, they have opted to continue the services, of the said Agency, in exercise of their discretion and in furtherance of their Exh 225. This Tribunal would therefore not be inclined to accept the prayer of CH to discharge the said Agency, as doing so is likely to prejudice the Auction Purchaser’s rights, in the matter of preservation and protection of the auctioned property, and violation of their rights, and discretion, as the CH has no concern in the preservation or protection of the auctioned property from 13.11.2006 i.e., since the Auction Purchasers having filed Undertaking at Exh 225.

9……….The status of the said Agency as “Court Commissioner” appears to be lost from 13.11.2006, as thereafter the “Court Commissioner” appears to have continued to safeguard the auctioned property for and on behalf of the Auction Purchasers, in furtherance of their private arrangement, particularly in light of Exh 225 of the Auction Purchaser. The term “Court Commissioner” as used by CH in its application Exh 308 therefore is a misnomer.

The said Agency from 13.11.2006 does not appear to have rendered services to the Auction Purchasers as “Court Commissioner” but as a private agency………… The order of the Hon’ble PO dated 24.07.2008, passed in Misc. Civil Appeal 25/2007 whereby, it appears, relief is granted to the Auction Purchasers, who have been directed to pay the Court Commissioner charges w.e.f. 08.05.2007. Therefore, I am not required to go into the said aspects again, as the same having reached finality, as from the available record and papers, no appeal appears to be filed against the said order dated 24.07.2008….”

The above order of the Recovery Officer makes it clear that the continuance of respondent No. 1 for safeguarding the auctioned property was solely on behalf of auction purchasers and the first respondent’s duty as “Court Commissioner” had ceased to exist on 13.11.2006. After 13.11.2006 or at least after 24.07.2008 (Order of DRT), for the services of respondent No. 1, if any, were availed by the auction purchasers, only the auction purchasers are liable to pay the said charges to respondent No. 1. The appellant Bank, therefore, was under no obligation to pay the charges to the first respondent in any case after 24.07.2008. The High Court has not kept in view the order of DRT dated 24.07.2008 and the order of the Recovery Officer dated 25.03.2009. The High Court was not right in saying that DRT had no jurisdiction to entertain the appeal and, therefore, the order dated 24.07.2008 would be non est.

11. After the above order of the Recovery Officer, respondent No. 1 filed MA No. 35 of 2009 before DRT seeking payment of charges for security services from the auction purchasers as directed by DRT in its order dated 24.07.2008 which clearly indicates that the first respondent had accepted the said order of DRT and also acted upon it. Be it noted, the proceedings of the Recovery Officer dated 25.03.2009 in which all the parties participated proceeded mainly on the basis of the order of DRT dated 24.07.2008. But, strangely, respondent No. 1 made submission before the High Court that “….DRT had no jurisdiction to entertain Appeal No. 25/2007 against the order of the Recovery Officer dated 12.06.2007……..”.

The said submission of respondent No. 1 was accepted by the High Court and it was held that “………DRT had no jurisdiction to entertain Appeal No. 25/2007, the order dated 24.07.2008 passed by it …… would be non est and hence must be ignored.” In our view, the High Court did not keep in view that the respondent No. 1 had not challenged the order of DRT dated 24.07.2008; and had acquiesced to the said order dated 24.07.2008 and also acted upon it. As discussed earlier, the subsequent proceedings clearly show that respondent No. 1 and other parties have accepted the order of DRT dated 24.07.2008 and acted upon it. The findings of the High Court that DRT had no jurisdiction to entertain the appeal against the order of Recovery Officer cannot be sustained.

12. Next question falling for consideration is whether in the facts of this case, the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act, 2006 would apply. As discussed earlier, the proceedings were conducted before DRT under RDDBFI Act, 1993 which finally culminated in DRT’s order dated 24.07.2008 and had become final and binding and was also accepted and acted upon by respondent No.1. As per Section 5 of the RDDBFI Act, the Debt Recovery Tribunal is headed by the Presiding Officer who is or has been or is qualified to be a District Judge. Likewise, as per Section 10 of the said Act, the Appellate Tribunal is headed by the Chairperson who is or has been or is qualified to be a judge of a High Court. DRT and DRAT are not merely having the trappings of the courts but also vested with the powers of ordinary civil court including the power to summon and examine the witnesses on oath, the power to order inspection of the documents etc.

When the proceedings were lawfully conducted before the quasi-judicial authorities like DRT and DRAT, having trappings of the civil court, MSMEDF Council had no jurisdiction to entertain the application filed by the first respondent; more so, when the orders passed by the DRT were accepted and acted upon by respondent No.1. The High Court did not consider the question of lack of jurisdiction of MSMEDF Council.

13. The High Court mainly seems to have proceeded with the matter as if it is a regular appeal arising out of the award passed by the MSMEDF Council and commenting upon the conduct of the Bank in not seriously pursuing the matter in challenging the award. The High Court did not consider the earlier proceedings before DRT, DRAT and before the High Court except merely referring to certain proceedings before DRT and DRAT.

The High Court did not consider various orders passed by DRT and DRAT and the conduct of the parties who have been vigorously pursuing the matter before DRT, Recovery Officer and DRAT. The High Court also did not keep in view that the parties were bound by the earlier orders passed by DRT and Recovery Officer which clearly held that charges towards security services are payable only by the auction purchasers. The impugned order passed by the High Court thus suffers from serious infirmity and is liable to be set aside.

14. Pursuant to the order dated 19.03.2013 passed by the High Court, an amount of Rs.1,93,22,590/- was deposited by the appellant Bank. By an order dated 30.03.2016 passed by DRT, Pune, respondent No.1 has withdrawn an amount of Rs.1,22,00,000/- (Rs.1,00,00,000/- plus accrued interest). The balance amount of Rs.93,22,590/- is lying in deposit with the District Court, Pune. By order dated 22.04.2016, this Court has granted interim stay of the impugned order of the High Court.

However, by order dated 24.10.2016, respondent No.1 was permitted to withdraw 50% of the said amount Rs.93,22,590/- on furnishing a bank guarantee. The first respondent has not withdrawn the said 50% amount of Rs.93,22,590/- as he has failed to furnish bank guarantee. We have set aside the impugned judgment of the High Court and resultantly the award passed by the MSMEDF Council is also set aside.

15. The impugned order is set aside and this appeal is allowed. The appellant Bank is free to recover the amount of Rs.1,22,00,000/- withdrawn by the first respondent after adjusting the payments due upto 24.07.2008. The bank is permitted to withdraw the amount of Rs.93,22,590/- along with accrued interest. So far as the charges towards security services payable to the first respondent after 24.07.2008, liberty is granted to the first respondent to proceed against the auction purchasers-respondents No. 2 and 3 in accordance with law. No order as to costs.

 [KURIAN JOSEPH]

 [R. BANUMATHI]

Balwant Vithal Kadam Vs. Sunil Baburaoi Kadam [SC 2017 December]

KEYWORDS:- earnest money-specific performance

Capture

There lies a distinction between an agreement to sell, and sale. The latter creates an interest in the land once accomplished as defined under Section 54 of the T.P. Act.

DATE : December 05, 2017

ACTS :  Section 54 of the T.P. Act

SUPREME COURT OF INDIA

Balwant Vithal Kadam Vs. Sunil Baburaoi Kadam

[Civil Appeal No.6069 of 2008]

Abhay Manohar Sapre, J.

1. This appeal is filed by the defendants against the final judgment and order dated 24.07.2006 passed by the High Court of Bombay in Second Appeal No. 426 of 2004 whereby the High Court dismissed the second appeal filed by the appellants herein and affirmed the judgment and order dated 03.10.2002 passed by the 8th Additional District Judge, Satara in R.C.A. No.9/1996, which arose out of judgment/decree dated 29.11.1995 passed by the 2nd Joint Civil Judge, Satara in R.C.S. No. 265 of 1989.

2. In order to appreciate the controversy, which lies in a narrow compass, few relevant facts need mention hereinbelow.

3. The appellants are the defendants whereas the respondent is the plaintiff in a suit out of which this appeal arises.

4. The respondent filed a suit being Civil Suit No. 265/89 in the Court of 2nd Joint Civil Judge, Satara against the appellants for specific performance of the two agreements, dated 11.10.1982(Ex.48) and 11.04.1983(Ex.68) to purchase 1/12th share of the appellants in the land which belonged to them situated at Eastern potion of Gat. No.594/1 admeasuring hectares 18 Acre situated at Malegaon Taluka and District Satara(hereinafter referred to as “suit land”).

5. The sale consideration was fixed at Rs.10,000/-. The respondent had paid Rs.3,000/- by way of earnest money to the appellants. The sale deed was to be executed within 6 months. Since the dispute arose between the parties and no sale deed was executed, the respondent filed a suit to seek specific performance of the said agreement against the appellants in relation to the suit land.

6. The appellants contested the suit by filing their written statement. Parties adduced evidence. The Trial Court, by judgment/decree dated 29.11.1995 in R.C.S. No.265/1989, dismissed the suit.

7. The respondent (plaintiff) felt aggrieved and filed first appeal being Regular Civil Appeal No. 9/1996 in the Court of VIIIth Additional District Judge, Satara. By judgment/decree dated 03.10.2002, the VIIIth Additional District Judge, allowed the appeal, set aside the judgment/decree of the Trial Court and decreed the respondent’s suit.

8. Felt aggrieved, the appellants (defendants) filed second appeal in the High Court of Bombay being S.A. No. 426/2004. By impugned judgment/decree, the High Court dismissed the defendants’ second appeal, which has given rise to filing of the present appeal by way of special leave in this Court by the defendants.

9. Initially, there were two appellants. By order dated 28.10.2013 passed by this Court, the appeal against appellant No.1 was held abated.

10. Heard Mr. Sudhanshu Chaudhari, learned counsel for the appellant and Mr. Varun Mathur, learned counsel for the respondent.

11. Learned counsel for the appellant (defendant No.2) while assailing the legality and correctness of the impugned judgment argued that, firstly, the respondent’s suit was misconceived inasmuch as no specific performance in relation to the agreement in question was permissible in the light of bar created by Section 31 of the Bombay Prevention of  Fragmentation and Consolidation of Holdings Act (hereinafter referred to as “the Act”) which, according to learned counsel, prohibited any transfer of holding and, more particularly, a fragment such as the one in the case at hand.

12. In the second place, learned counsel attacked the findings of the High Court recorded on three pleas raised by the appellant in the second appeal and contended that all the three pleas deserve to be upheld in appellant’s favour.

13. Learned counsel for the respondent, in reply, supported the reasoning and the conclusion of the High Court and contended that the impugned judgment does not call for any interference and hence deserves to be upheld.

14. Having heard the learned counsel for the parties and on perusal of the record of the case, we are inclined to dismiss the appeal finding no merit therein.

15. This is how the High Court dealt with three pleas in the impugned judgment:

“2. Shri Thorat appearing for the Appellants submitted that as the suit agreement for sale was executed in contravention of section 48(d) of the Maharashtra Cooperative Societies Act, 1960 the agreement itself was void and therefore, specific performance of the agreement could not have been granted. He submitted that the finding of the trial Court on the issue of readiness and willingness of the original Plaintiff has been upset by the Appellate Court without dealing with the reasoning of the trial Court. Lastly he submitted that the suit filed by the original Plaintiff was barred by limitation.

3. I have considered the submissions. In my view section 48(d) of the said Act of 1960 will not affect the legality of the suit agreement. In view of section 54 of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882 agreement for sale does not create any interest in favour of the purchaser in respect of the immovable property. Therefore, agreement for sale cannot be treated as alienation or transfer within the meaning of clause (d) of section 48 of the said Act of 1960. Apart from this fact, the Appellate court has observed that the original Defendant Nos. 1 and 2 have agreed to sell only a small portion of the property over which charge has been created in favour of the Land Development Bank and part of the loan has been repaid.

4. So far as the second submission regarding readiness and willingness is concerned, I find that the Appellate Court has discussed the entire evidence. The Appellate Court after considering the pleadings and oral and documentary evidence on record has come to the conclusion that the Plaintiff has established his readiness and willingness to perform his part of the contract. The Appellate Court has observed that if at all any permission for transfer was to be obtained, the same was the obligation of the Defendants. So far as the bar of limitation is concerned, I find that in the Appellate Court the said issue was not specifically raised. The same was the case with the trial Court. The issue of limitation is a mixed question of law and fact considering the relevant provisions of the Limitation Act, 1963 which deal with the limitation for suit for specific performance.”

16. In our considered opinion, no fault could be found in the three findings of the High Court recorded on three pleas as the reasoning and the conclusion arrived at by the High Court is just and proper calling for no interference by this Court in the appeal.

17. So far as the plea relating to validity and enforceability of the agreement in question is concerned, it was rightly held by the High Court to which we concur that the agreement in question is not hit by Section 48 of the Maharashtra Co-operative Society Act inasmuch as the agreement to sell in itself does not create any interest in the land nor does it amount to sale under Section 54 of the T.P. Act. It only enables the intending buyer to claim specific performance of such agreement on proving its terms. In other words, there lies a distinction between an agreement to sell, and sale. The latter creates an interest in the land once accomplished as defined under Section 54 of the T.P. Act. It was also rightly held on facts to which we concur that since the dues of the Land Development Bank were repaid, the question of applicability of Section 48 did not arise. We, therefore, find no ground to disagree with this factual finding.

18. So far as the plea relating to readiness and willingness is concerned, it was again rightly held by the High Court to which we concur that this being a finding of fact, it could not be disturbed in second appeal and was binding on the High Court. It was more so when the first Appellate Court had recorded its finding by appreciating the entire evidence on record. We, therefore, find no ground to disagree with this finding of the High Court.

19. So far as the plea relating to limitation is concerned, it was rightly held by the High Court to which we again concur that, firstly, it was neither raised before the Trial Court and nor before the first Appellate Court; and secondly, it being a mixed question of law and fact, the same could not be examined, for the first time, in second appeal by the High Court. We agree with the finding of the High Court calling for no interference.

20. Now, so far as the plea relating to applicability of Section 31 of the Act to the agreement in question is concerned, the appellant, in our view, cannot be permitted to raise such plea, for the first time, in this appeal.

21. It is for the reason that, firstly, this plea was neither raised by the appellant before the Trial Court and nor before the first Appellate Court and lastly, nor before the High Court.

22. Secondly, in order to enable the appellant to raise any challenge to any plea, the party concerned has to first lay foundation in the pleadings of such plea which, in this case, was not. It is more so when a plea is a mixed question of law and fact.

23. This Court being the last Court of appeal does not, therefore, consider it proper to allow the appellant to raise such plea, for the first time, under Article 136 of the Constitution in this appeal.

24. Learned counsel for the appellant, however, contended that the appellant had raised this point in the arguments before the High Court but the same was not considered. We do not find it to be so. When we read the impugned judgment, we find that the High Court has specifically noted in Para 2 the three pleas raised by the appellant, which did not include this plea.

25. Learned counsel for the appellant next contended that the agreements in question were not meant for sale of the land but were in the nature of security for the loan transaction entered between the parties. We are afraid we can go into this question in this appeal. It is again for the reason that firstly, it is a question of fact and secondly, it was not urged before the High Court.

26. In the light of foregoing discussion, we find no merit in any of the submissions urged by the learned counsel for the appellant dealt with supra.

27. As a result, the appeal is found to be devoid of any merit and thus it fails and is accordingly dismissed.

 [ABHAY MANOHAR SAPRE]

 [NAVIN SINHA]

Rupajan Begum Vs. Union of India & Ors[ SC 2017 December]

KEYWORDS:-Public document-Private document-

Capture

“a conjoint reading of the provisions of the Assam Panchayat Act, 1994 i.e. Sections 19(1) (vi), 21 and 122, it would appear that directions for issuance of such certificate can come within the ambit of the jurisdiction of the authorities under the Act in which event the view taken by the High Court and the contentions advanced on behalf of the State that the said document is a ‘private document’ would be legally fragile”

DATE:- December 5, 2017

ACTS:- Section 6A of the Citizenship Act, 1955-Assam Panchayat Act, 1994 i.e. Sections 19(1) (vi), 21 and 122

SUPREME COURT OF INDIA

Rupajan Begum Vs. Union of India & Ors.

[Civil Appeal No.20858 of 2017 arising out of Special Leave Petition (Civil) No.13256 of 2017] [Civil Appeal No. 20862 of 2017 arising out of Special Leave Petition (Civil) No.13259 of 2017] [Civil Appeal No. 20859 of 2017 arising out of Special Leave Petition (Civil) No.13260 of 2017] [Civil Appeal No. 20861 of 2017 arising out of Special Leave Petition (Civil) No.13258 of 2017] [Civil Appeal No.20860 of 2017 arising out of Special Leave Petition (Civil) No.12647 of 2017] [Civil Appeal No.20863 of 2017 arising out of Special Leave Petition (Civil) No.13257 of 2017] [Civil Appeal No.20864 of 2017 arising out of Special Leave Petition (Civil) No.28935 of 2017]

[Special Leave Petition (Civil) No.16441 of 2017]

RANJAN GOGOI, J.

1. List the Special Leave Petition (Civil) No.16441 of 2017 separately. SPECIAL LEAVE PETITION (CIVIL) NOS.13256/2017, 13259/2017, 13260/2017, 13258/2017, 12647/2017, 13257/2017 AND 28935/2017

2. Leave granted in Special Leave Petition (Civil) Nos.13256/2017, 13259/2017, 13260/2017, 13258/2017, 12647/2017, 13257/2017 and 28935/2017.

3. The challenge in this group of appeals is to an order of the Gauhati High Court dated 28th February, 2017 by which document No.xiii (i.e. Certificate issued by the Secretary of the Village Panchayat and countersigned by the local revenue official in respect of females who have migrated to other villages after marriage or such certificates issued by jurisdictional circle officers in respect of urban areas) mentioned in the ‘illustrative list of documents admissible’ as a supporting document has been held by the High Court to be invalid in law and hence of no effect in the process of verification of claims for inclusion in the NRC.

The High Court had passed the aforesaid order in a writ proceeding [i.e. Writ Petition (Civil) No.2634 of 2016 (Monowara Bewa @ Manora Bewa Vs. The Union of India & Ors.)] wherein the validity of an order of the Foreigners Tribunal holding the writ petitioner – Monowara Bewa @ Manora Bewa to be a foreigner was in question. The High Court found the contentions advanced in the writ petition to be without any merit and substance and the order of the Tribunal, on the materials before it, holding the writ petitioner – Monowara Bewa @ Manora Bewa to be a foreigner to be justified in law.

4. The writ petitioner – Monowara Bewa @ Manora Bewa in support of her claim to be an Indian citizen had additionally laid before the High Court a certificate issued by the Gaon Panchayat Secretary of the kind noticed above. The High Court could have and, in fact, had decided the writ petition on the basis of the materials laid before the Tribunal without adverting to the aforesaid certificate and on that basis could have terminated the proceedings in question. However, the High Court took the view that the question of validity of the certificate issued by the G.P. Secretary is of considerable public importance and needed a resolution. Accordingly, the High Court after dismissing the writ petition on merits went on to answer the aforesaid question terming the same to be a “larger issue”.

5. As the opinion of the High Court holding the said certificate to be invalid has the potential of affecting a large number of persons who were not before the High Court a series of Special Leave Petitions have been filed by such persons before this Court challenging the aforesaid part of the order of the High Court. Leave to file Special Leave Petitions has been granted and the grievances raised have been heard.

6. The Appeal arising out of the Special Leave Petition filed by the aggrieved writ petitioner before the High Court i.e. Monowara Bewa @ Manora Bewa has also been entertained and heard along with the above group of appeals.

7. We have heard the learned counsels for the parties.

8. A reading of the order of the High Court would go to show that according to the High Court the document in question was a means to facilitate a claim for inclusion in the NRC by reference to a document which is post 24th March, 1971 i.e. cut off date on the basis of which citizenship under Section 6A of the Citizenship Act, 1955 is required to be determined. The High Court took the view that all the other documents listed in the ‘illustrative list of documents admissible’ are prior to the cut off date and, therefore, there cannot be any special reason for inclusion of the said document i.e. contemporaneous G.P. Secretary certificate in the said list, even as a supporting document. In this regard, the High Court took the view that this Court in Sarbananda Sonowal Vs. Union of India has held that the State of Assam is facing “external aggression” and “internal disturbance” on account of huge influx of illegal migrants and keeping in mind the seriousness of the problem the use of the document in question to establish citizenship for inclusion in the updated NRC cannot commend for acceptance.

9. The High Court also took the view that under the provisions of the Assam Panchayat Act, 1994 issuance of such certificate is not contemplated and/or authorized. Referring to the provisions of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 the High Court was also of the opinion that as the said certificate is not issued by the G.P. Secretary on the basis of any official records, the same is not a ‘public document’ and, in fact, the said certificate partakes the character of a ‘private document’ issued by the G.P. Secretary. The evidentiary value of the same, therefore, is open to serious doubt. It is on the aforesaid broad basis that the High Court thought it proper to invalidate the certificate in question.

10. The invalidation of the certificate which was an agreed document in the matter of processing of claims for inclusion in the updated NRC undoubtedly has the effect of affecting a large number of claimants who may have filed their applications for inclusion in the NRC.

11. It may therefore be necessary to very briefly notice the circumstances in which the illustrative list of documents including the certificate of the G.P. Secretary appearing at Serial No.13 of the said list had come into existence.

12. A set of modalities for preparation of the NRC was formulated by the State Government through a Cabinet sub-committee. The sub-committee which was initially constituted on 3rd August, 2010 had been reconstituted from time to time. The modalities were discussed after  several rounds of deliberations with various stakeholders including All Assam Students’ Union (“AASU”) and  Ethnic Unions as well as All Assam Minorities Students’ Union (“AAMSU”). The list of documents were part of the aforesaid modalities which after being finalized by the State Government were sent to the Government of India on 5th July, 2013.

The approval of the Union Government of the said modalities was communicated by a letter dated 22nd November, 2014 of the Union Home Secretary addressed to the Chief Secretary of the Government of Assam. After the aforesaid approval of the Union Home Secretary, the State Coordinator (NRC) informed the Registrar General of India of the decision of the Union Government and sought instructions of the said Authority, i.e., R.G.I. with regard to issuance of such certificates. This was communicated by a letter dated 9th April, 2015 of the State Coordinator. In response to the said letter, the R.G.I. by communication dated 5th May, 2015 approved the format of the certificate(s) to be issued by the G.P. Secretary/Executive Magistrate.

Thereafter, the State Coordinator by a communication issued on the same day i.e. 5th May, 2015 informed all the Deputy Commissioners of the States of the decision of the R.G.I. and the approval of the format of the certificates that are to be issued by a G.P. Secretary in rural areas and Executive Magistrate in the urban areas for married women migrating to a new place on account of marriage. The required protocol to be followed in issuing such certificates was also communicated by the said letter of the Coordinator dated 5th May, 2015.

13. From the above it would appear that the list of illustrative documents including the G.P. Secretary certificate were agreed to by all stakeholders in the process of updation of the NRC and the same also had the approval of the Union Government as well as the State Government pursuant to which instructions were issued to the district level officers in the matter of issuance of such certificate in tune with the required protocol.

14. The exercise in question was undertaken by the High Court to consider an issue not strictly arising in the proceedings before it. Resolution of the issue was not indispensable for answering the writ petitions under consideration of the High Court. The issue had the potential of affecting the large number of citizens who were not before the High Court. No notice under the provisions of Order I rule 8 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 was also issued to enable the persons likely to be affected to contest the matter in a representative capacity. Though, the order of the High Court insofar as the issue of the validity of the certificate is liable to be interdicted on the above basis alone, we are of the view that we should proceed further in the matter and record our views on the issue of validity of the certificate in question to dispel all doubts in the matter and to avoid any further litigation on the issue.

15. The certificate issued by the G.P. Secretary merely acknowledges the shifting of residence of a married woman from one village to another. The said certificate by itself and by no means establishes any  claim of citizenship of the holder of the certificate. This is made clear in the illustrative list of documents itself by specifying the same to be only a supporting document. The certificate in question only enables its holder to establish a link between the holder and the person from whom legacy is claimed. It has been made clear in the several reports of the learned State Coordinator, NRC, Assam that a claim accompanied by such a certificate, without details of the legacy person, is to be discarded and in the event information as to the legacy person has been furnished, the certificate in question is to be used for the limited purpose of providing a linkage after due enquiry and verification.

16. The certificate issued by the G.P. Secretary, by no means, is proof of citizenship. Such proof will come only if the link between the claimant and the legacy person (who has to be a citizen) is established. The certificate has to be verified at two stages. The first is the authenticity of the certificate itself; and the second is the authenticity of the contents thereof. The latter process of verification is bound to be an exhaustive process in the course of which the source of information of the facts and all other details recorded in the certificate will be ascertained after giving an opportunity to the holder of the certificate.

If the document and its contents is to be subjected to a thorough search and probe we do not see why the said certificate should have been interdicted by the High Court, particularly, in the context of the facts surrounding the enumeration and inclusion of the documents mentioned in  the illustrative list of documents, as noticed above. In fact, the said list of illustrative documents was also laid before this Court in the course of the proceedings held from time to time and this Court was aware of the nature and effect of each of the documents mentioned in the list.

17. The above apart, from a conjoint reading of the provisions of the Assam Panchayat Act, 1994 i.e. Sections 19(1) (vi), 21 and 122, it would appear that directions for issuance of such certificate can come within the ambit of the jurisdiction of the authorities under the Act in which event the view taken by the High Court and the contentions advanced on behalf of the State that the said document is a ‘private document’ would be legally fragile.

18. For all the aforesaid reasons we set aside the order of the High Court insofar as the invalidity of the certificate issued by the G.P. Secretary is concerned and allow the present appeals to the above limited extent. We make it clear that the certificates issued by the G.P. Secretary/Executive Magistrate will however be acted upon only to establish a linkage between the holder of such certificate and the person(s) from whom legacy is being claimed. The certificate will be put to such limited use only if the contents of the certificate are found to be established on due and proper enquiry and verification.

19. Civil Appeal arising out of Special Leave Petition (Civil) No.12647 of 2017 will now be listed before the appropriate Bench for disposal on merits so far as the order of the High Court holding the writ petitioner – appellant (i.e. Monowara Bewa @ Manora Bewa) to be a foreigner is concerned.

 (RANJAN GOGOI)

 (ROHINTON FALI NARIMAN)

B. Sunitha Vs. State of Telengana & ANR [SC 2017 December]

Keywords:- Advocates’ Fee Rules-legal profession-Professional ethics-

sc

DATE: 5 December, 2017

  • To attract the penal provisions under Section 138 N. I. Act, a cheque must have been drawn by the accused on an account maintained by him with a banker for payment of any amount of money to another person from out of that account for the discharge in whole or in part, of any debt or other liability due. That means , the cheque must have been issued in discharge of debt or other liability wholly or in part. The cheque given for any other reasons not for the satisfaction of any debt or other liability, even if it is returned unpaid-, will not meet with penal consequences.
  • Role of the legal profession in strengthening the administration of justice must be in consonance with the mandate of Article 39A to ensure equal opportunity for access to justice.

 Acts :-Section 138 of the Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881-Section 23 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872

SUPREME COURT OF INDIA

B. Sunitha Vs. State of Telengana & ANR.

[Criminal Appeal No. 2068 of 2017 arising out of Special Leave Petition (CRL.) No.10700 of 2015]

ADARSH KUMAR GOEL, J.

1. This appeal has been preferred against the order dated 14th October, 2015 of the High Court of Judicature at Hyderabad in CRLP No.3526 of 2015, thereby, the High Court declined to quash the proceedings initiated against the appellant under Section 138 of the Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881(‘the Act’).

2. The proceedings were initiated by the respondent who is an advocate in whose favour the appellant executed a cheque allegedly towards his fee. The same was dishonoured. The stand of the appellant is that Section 138 of the Act is not attracted as there was no legally enforceable debt. The appellant having already paid a sum of Rs.10 lakhs towards fee, the cheque was taken from the appellant by way of abuse of position and the transaction was void under Section 23 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872 (‘Contract Act’).

Claim for fee based on percentage of the decretal amount was unethical. It was submitted that the appellant, as a client, being in fiduciary relationship, burden to prove that the fee was reasonable and had been voluntarily agreed to be paid was on the Advocate. The Advocate by using his professional position could not be allowed to exploit a client by taking signatures on a cheque and no presumption of enforceable debt arises, specially when no account maintained in regular course of business was furnished.

3. Reference may be briefly made to the facts on record. The appellant’s husband died in a motor accident on 30th July, 1998. She along with her children and parents of the deceased filed a claim before the Motor Accident Claims Tribunal (MACT) through the respondent as an advocate. The MACT awarded compensation. The appellant paid a sum of Rs.10 lakhs towards fee on various dates. However, the respondent forced the appellant to sign another cheque of Rs.3 lakh on 25th October, 2014 despite her 3 stating that she was unable to pay more fee as she had no funds in her account. The respondent sent e-mail dated 2nd November, 2014 claiming his fee to be 16% of the amount received by the appellant.

4. Complaint dated 11th December, 2014 was filed before the Court under Section 138 of the Act stating inter alia that the cheque which was issued in discharge of liability having been returned unpaid for want of funds, the appellant committed the offence for which she was liable to be punished. The appellant was summoned by the Court against which she approached the High Court stating that there was no legally enforceable debt as fee claimed was exorbitant and against law. The claim was in violation of Advocates Fee Rules and Ethics as fee could not be demanded on percentage of amount awarded as compensation to the appellant. Her signatures were taken when she was under distress.

5. The petition was contested by the respondent by submitting that the appellant having agreed to pay the professional fee and having availed his professional services, she could not contest the claim for fee. It was submitted that the respondent had engaged services of other senior advocates and paid huge amount for their services at various courts including the Supreme Court.

6. The appellant, in support of her prayer for quashing, inter alia, argued before the High Court that the fee claimed by the respondent was against the A.P. Adovcates’ Fee Rules, 2010 of Subordinate Courts. It was also submitted that the claim of the respondent was against ethics and public policy and hit by Section 23 of the Contract Act.

7. The High Court held that Advocates’ Fee Rules are only for guidance and there was no bar to fee being claimed beyond what is fixed under the Rules. The claim of the respondent was that the amount included his fee for engaging an advocate in the High Court and the Supreme Court. Thus, the High Court dismissed the quashing petition.

8. We have heard learned counsel for the parties and perused the record.

9. The main contention raised on behalf of the appellant is that charging percentage of decretal amount by an advocate is hit by Section 23 of the Contract Act being against professional ethics and public policy, the cheque issued by the appellant could not be treated as being in discharge of any liability by the appellant. No presumption arose in favour of the respondent that the cheque represented legally enforceable debt. In any case, such presumption stood rebutted by settled law that claim towards Advocate’s fee based on percentage of result of litigation was illegal. Signing of the cheque was by way of exploitation of fiduciary relationship of Advocate and the client.

10. In support of his submission that charging of exorbitant fee and calculating the sum with reference to the result of the litigation was against public policy, reliance has been placed on judgments of this Court in the matter of Mr. G., a Senior Advocate of the Supreme Court1, R.D. Saxena versus Balram Prasad Sharma2, V.C. Rangadurai versus D. Gopalan3

11. Learned counsel for Respondent No.2-complainant supports the impugned order. He submitted that the cheque of the appellant having dishonored, statutory presumption was available in his favour and no ground was made out for quashing. There was no legal bar to the claim of the complainant towards his professional fees. Learned counsel for the complainant did not dispute that a sum of Rs.10 lakhs has already been received towards fee. There was no written agreement about the quantum of fee nor any account was maintained. He also did not dispute the e-mail dated 2nd November, 2014 wherein basis of the claim of fee is 16% of the decretal amount received by the appellant.

12. The first question which needs consideration is whether fee can be determined with reference to percentage of the decretal amount. Second question is whether the determination of fee can be unilateral4 and if the client disputes the quantum of fee whether the burden to prove the contract of fee will be on the advocate or the client. Third question is whether the professional ethics require regulation of exploitation in the matter of fee.

13. One of the issues was dealt with by a single Bench Judgment of the Madras High Court in C. Manohar versus B.R. Poornima5. R. Banumathi, J (as her Lordship then was) held that no presumption could arise merely by issuance of a cheque that amount stipulated in the cheque was payable towards fee. In absence of independent proof, issuance of cheque could not furnish cause of action under Section 138 of the Act in the context 4 J.S. Vasu versus State of Punjab (1994) 1 SCC 184, para 20 5 (2004) Crl.L.J 443 7 of an advocate or client.

The observations relevant in the context are as follows : “The case in hand is an example of the present day trend of the legal profession. Legal profession is essentially service oriental. Ancestor of today’s lawyers was no more than a spokesperson, who rendered his services to the needy members of the society, by putting forth their case before the authorities. Their services were rendered without regard to remuneration received or to be received. With the growth of litigation, legal profession became a full time occupation. The trend of the legal profession has changed … profession has almost became a trade. There is no more service orientation.

12. The relationship between the lawyer and the client is one of trust and confidence. The client engages a lawyer for personal reasons and is at liberty to leave him for the same reasons. Considering the relationship between the lawyer and the client and the present day trend in the profession, it has to be carefully seen whether the complainant has proved that the amount due of Rs. 43.600/- is being payable towards him.

13. To attract the penal provisions under Section 138 N. I. Act, a cheque must have been drawn by the accused on an account maintained by him with a banker for payment of any amount of money to another person from out of that account for the discharge in whole or in part, of any debt or other liability due. That means, the cheque must have been issued in discharge of debt or other liability wholly or in part. The cheque given for any other reasons not for the satisfaction of any debt or other liability, even if it is returned unpaid-, will not meet with penal consequences.

14. Case of the complainant is that on behalf of the accused, he has filed claim petitions in M. C. O. P. Nos. 2339 of 1992 and 246 of 1993. Two civil cases were also filed. There is nothing to show that the complainant/Advocate himself has paid the stamp duty and bore the legal fees. The complainant has not produced any agreement showing as to what was the arrangement between him and the accused, as to how much is the fee payable and whether the accused agreed for payment of stamp duty by her counsel itself.

In the absence of any agreement, Ex. P-1 cheque cannot be said to have been issued for the purpose of discharge of any substantial debt or liability. Urging the Court to raise the presumption under Section 139 N. I. Act, the learned counsel for the appellant has relied upon M/s. Modi Cements Ltd. versus Kuchil Kumar Nandi [(1998) 3 SCC 249] wherein the Supreme Court has held that once the cheque is issued by the drawer a presumption under Section 139 N. I. Act must follow and merely because the drawer issues a notice to the drawee (Payee) or to the Bank for stoppage of the payment it will not preclude an action under Section 138 of the Act by the drawee (Payee) or the holder of a cheque in due course.

Of course, under Section 139 N. I. Act, there is a presumption that unless the contrary is proved, the holder of the cheque received the cheque for the discharge in whole or in part of any debt or other liability. But even in Section 139 N. I. Act, the legal presumption is created only for the cheque so received for the discharge in whole or in part of any debt or other liability. In the case on hand, the complainant being a practising advocate, has not proved the debt amount payable towards him by the accused, who has engaged him as his lawyer to conduct the case. The finding of the trial Court that there is no debt or legally enforceable liability’ does not suffer from any infirmity warranting interference.”

14. The Bombay High Court in Re: KL Gauba6 held that fees conditional on the success of a case and which gives the lawyer an interest in the subject matter tends to undermine the status of the profession. The same has always been condemned as unworthy of the legal profession. If an advocate has interest in success of litigation, he may tend to depart from ethics.

15. In in the matter of Mr. G.: A Senior Advocate of the Supreme Court7, this Court held that the claim of an advocate based on a share in the subject matter is a professional misconduct.

16. In VC Rangadurai versus D. Gopalan8, it was observed that relation between a lawyer and his client is highly fiduciary in nature. The advocate is in the position of trust.

17. Rule 20 of Part VI, Chapter II, Section II of the Standard of Professional Conduct and Etiquette reads as follows : “An advocate shall not stipulate for a fee contingent on the results of litigation or agree to share the proceeds thereof.”

18. Thus, mere issuance of cheque by the client may not debar him from contesting the liability. If liability is disputed, the advocate has to independently prove the contract. Claim based on percentage of subject matter in litigation cannot be the basis of a complaint under Section 138 of the Act.

19. In view of the above, the claim of the respondent advocate being against public policy and being an act of professional misconduct, proceedings in the complaint filed by him have to be held to be abuse of the process of law and have to be quashed.

20. We may note that after the hearing was concluded, learned counsel for Respondent No.2 mentioned the matter to the effect that Respondent No.2 wanted to withdraw the complaint. An e-mail to this effect was also handed over to Court. The same has been kept on the record. However, we did not permit this prayer. Having committed a serious professional misconduct, the respondent No.2 could not be allowed to avoid the adverse consequences which he may suffer for his professional misconduct. The issue of professional misconduct may be dealt with at appropriate forum.

21. Thus, while proceedings against the appellant will stand quashed, the issue of professional misconduct is left to be dealt with at the appropriate forum.

22. However, apart from the present individual case, the general issue, having been highlighted, may need further consideration by this Court in the larger interest of the legal profession and the system of administration of justice.

23. Undoubtedly, the legal profession is the major component of the justice delivery system and has a significant role to play in upholding the rule of law. Significance of the profession is on account of its role in providing access to justice and assisting the citizens in securing their fundamental and other rights. Can justice be secured with the legal professionals failing to uphold the professional ethics? This Court has even earlier expressed the concern on the falling professional norms in the legal profession. In Tahil Ram Issardas Sadarangani versus Ramchand Issardas Sadarangani , this Court noted the trend of increasing element of commercialization and decreasing element of service.

In VC Rangadurai (supra)11, this Court observed that confidence of the public in the legal profession was integral to the confidence of the public in the legal system. Commercialization to the extent of exploiting the litigant and misbehavior to the extent of 9 R.K. Anand v. Delhi High Court (2009) 8 SCC 106, para 333 ; Sanjiv Datta, Deputy Secretary, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, In Re. (1995) 3 SCC 619, para 20. 10 1993 Supp. (3) SCC 256, 11 Paras 30 to 32 12 browbeating the Court, breach of professional duties to the court and the litigant on the part of some members of the legal profession, affecting the right of the litigants to speedy and inexpensive justice, need to be checked. This has also been observed earlier in the decisions of this Court12.

24. In its 131st Report dated 31st August, 1988, the Law Commission of India, examined the role of the legal profession in strengthening the system of administration of justice.

The issue considered included :

(i) the state of profession and its public image;

(ii) profession’s attitude towards the policy of social change intended under the Constitution;

(iii) the functioning of the Bar Councils and the question of disciplinary jurisdiction;

(iv) the strike by lawyers, its implications and fall out;

(v) the question of hobnobing between the Bar and politicians, between the Bar and the Judiciary;

(vi) regulation and standardization of fees chargeable by the members of the profession in relation to the 12 O.P. Sharma versus State of Punjab (2011) 6 SCC 86, paras 18 to 23; R.D. Saxena versus Balram Prasad Sharma (2000) 7 SCC 264, paras 14,28,41,42 13 monopolistic character of the profession.”

25. It was observed that recurring strikes by the bar had contributed to the piling up of arrears jeopardizing the consumers of justice and has thus led to weakening the system of administration of justice. While considering the mounting cost of litigation, it was observed that fee charged by some senior advocates are astronomical in character. The corporate sector is willing to retain talent at a high cost. It develops into a culture and it permeates down below. Role of the legal profession in strengthening the administration of justice must be in consonance with the mandate of Article 39A to ensure equal opportunity for access to justice.

The legal profession must make its services available to the needy by developing its public sector. It was observed that like public hospitals for medical services, the public sector should have a role in providing legal services for those who cannot afford fee15. Maintenance of irreducible minimum standards of the profession is a must for ensuring accountability of the legal profession16. The methodology was required to be devised 13 Para 2.17 14 Paras 2.22, 2.24 15 Para 3.30 16 Paras 3.4, 3.8, 3.25 14 as a part of social audit of the profession wherein consumers of justice were required to be given role17.

26. Referring to the lawyers’ fee as barrier to access to justice, it was observed that it was the duty of the Parliament to prescribe fee for services rendered by members of the legal profession. First step should be taken to prescribe floor and ceiling in fees18.

27. With regard to the role of the legal profession for strengthening the administration of justice, it was observed that members of the legal profession could have a decisive say in law making being largest group in legislative bodies19. They could contribute to reduce the litigation instead of perpetuating disputes by counseling the parties and could contribute to reduce the delay in proceedings20. Alternative modes of resolution of disputes should be explored and one such may be pre-trial conciliation proceedings21. Reducing the number of witnesses to be examined by deleting the irrelevant witnesses reducing the length of cross-examination by avoiding unnecessary questions22 and avoiding adjournments could help the administration of justice.

28. Though the 131st Report was submitted in the year 1988, no effective law appears to have enacted to regularize the fee or for providing the public sector services to utmost needy litigants without any fee or at standardized fee. Mechanism to deal with violation of professional ethics also does not appear to have been strengthened. Success of administration of justice to a great extent depends on successful regulation of legal profession in the light of mandate under Article 39A for access to justice. Deficiency in the working of the present regulatory mechanism has been acknowledged by this Court in several decisions23. Mandate for the Bench and the bar is to provide speedy and inexpensive justice to the victim of justice and to protect their rights. The legal system must continue to serve the victims of injustice.

29. In view of this mandate, this Court requested the Law Commission to have a re-look at the regulatory mechanism and expressed the hope that the Government of India will consider the recommendation of the Law Commission. In its 266th Report dated 23rd March, 2017 submitted in the light of decision of this Court in Mahipal Singh Rana (supra), it was noted that conduct of members of the legal profession who do not follow ethics 23 Mahipal Singh Rana Advocate versus State of Uttar Pradesh (2016) 8 SCC 335, para 56 16 contributes to the pendency of cases. Element of public service has to remain predominant. The Commission noted that there was a huge loss of working days by call of unjustified strikes in jurisdiction of various High Courts resulting in denial of justice to the litigant in public.

Such dilatory tactics including seeking adjournments on unjustified grounds affect the speedy disposal of cases. The Commission also noted the instances of browbeating the courts for getting favourable orders obstructing administration of justice. The Law Commission also noted the contemptuous conduct of some members of the legal profession.

30. The Law Commission thereafter considered the issue of review of regulatory framework of the legal profession. Referring to the developments in other countries it was observed that there was dire necessity of reviewing regulatory mechanism not only in the matter of discipline and misconduct but also in other areas. It was suggested that constitution of the Bar Council required a change for which an Amendment Bill was also recommended.

31. We hope that the concerned authorities in the Government will take cognizance of the issue of introducing requisite legislative 24 Para 6.3 25 Paras paras 8.7 to 8.12, 8.14 to 8.19 26 Chapter IX 27 Para 17.10 17 changes for an effective regulatory mechanism to check violation of professional ethics and also to ensure access to legal services which is major component of access to justice mandated under Article 39A of the Constitution.

32. The appeal stands disposed of accordingly.

 [ADARSH KUMAR GOEL]

[UDAY UMESH LALIT]

5 December, 2017

Revanasiddayya Vs. Gangamma @ Shashikala & ANR [SC 2017 December]

KEYWORDS :- decree for dis-possession -suit for specific performance-

sc

The possession of the appellant on the suit land, after the dismissal of his suit for specific performance, became unauthorized and illegal thereby entitling the respondents to claim back the same from the appellant on the strength of their ownership. The appellant was, however, entitled to defend his possession over the suit land by taking recourse to the provisions of Section 53-A of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882 (hereinafter referred to as “T.P. Act”) but once his suit for specific performance stood dismissed, the protection available under Section 53-A of the T.P. Act was no longer available to him.

ACTS:  Article 142 of the Constitution

December 05, 2017

SUPREME COURT OF INDIA

Revanasiddayya Vs. Gangamma @ Shashikala & ANR.

[Civil Appeal No.5039 of 2009]

Abhay Manohar Sapre, J.

1. This appeal is filed by defendant No.1 against the final judgment and order dated 25.10.2006 passed by the High Court of Karnataka at Bangalore in Regular First Appeal No.242 of 2004 whereby the High Court allowed the first appeal filed by respondent No.1(plaintiff) and modified the judgment/decree of the Trial Court dated 09.02.2000 passed by the IIIrd Additional Civil Judge, Dharwad in O.S. No. 151 of 1993 and accordingly passed a decree for possession of the suit land against the appellant in relation to the suit land.

2. In order to appreciate the issue involved in the appeal, which lie in a narrow compass, few relevant facts need mention herein below.

3. The appellant is defendant No.1 whereas respondent No.1 is the plaintiff and respondent No.2 is defendant No.2 in a suit out of which this appeal arises. Plaintiff and defendant No.2 are the legal representatives of Veerabasayya, who was the original owner of the suit land.

4. The dispute in this appeal relates to the land bearing R.S. No. 177/3A+3B admeasuring 7 acres 37 guntas, R.S. No.161/2A admeasuring 12 acres 36 guntas. Situated at Shirol Village, R.S. No.24/5, admeasuring 5 acres 02 guntas situated at Kallapur, R.S. No.35/1, admeasuring 1 acre 22 2 guntas and R.S. No.35/2 admeasuring 3 acres 10 guntas situated at Budihal (hereinafter referred to as “suit land”).

5. The respondents’ father – Veerabasayya was the original owner of the suit land. He entered into an agreement (Ex-P-1) on 06.11.1986 to sell the suit land to the appellant for a total consideration of Rs.1,75,000/-. In terms of the agreement, the appellant paid a sum of Rs.1,00,000/- to Veerbasayya towards earnest money and was, accordingly, placed in possession of the suit land by him. The sale deed of the suit land was to be executed within 3 months. In the meantime, Veerbasayya died on 06.08.1988. The respondents being his legal representatives inherited the suit land and became its owners.

6. On 14.09.1993, the respondents herein filed a suit against the appellant(defendant No.1) being O.S. No.151/1993 in the Court of IIIrd Additional Civil Judge, Dharwad for a declaration and possession in relation to the suit land.

7. According to the respondents, they, being the owner of the suit land by virtue of inheritance, are entitled to claim possession of the suit land from the appellant(defendant No.1). It was alleged that the agreement dated 06.11.1986 executed between the parties in relation to the suit land for its sale by the respondents’ late father to the appellant expired long back by efflux of time inasmuch as the appellant too never took any steps to enforce the agreement while it was enforceable in law and continued to remain in possession of the suit land and enjoyed its usufructs to the detriment of the respondents’ interest in the suit land. It is essentially on these averments, the respondents claimed declaration of their title over the suit land and possession from the appellant.

8. The appellant contested the suit by filing the written statement. According to the appellant (defendant No.1), he was in lawful possession of the suit land pursuant to the agreement dated 06.11.1986 and hence the respondents are not entitled to claim a relief of declaration of their title over the suit land or even possession of the suit land from the appellant.

9. Parties adduced evidence. The Trial Court, by judgment/decree 09.02.2000, dismissed the suit insofar as the relief of possession was concerned but decreed the suit by granting a declaratory decree in respondents’ favour of their ownership over the suit land. In other words, the Trial Court held that the respondents are the owners of the suit land but are not entitled to claim possession of the suit land.

10. After the disposal of the respondents’ suit, the appellant, in the year 2000, filed a suit against the 5 respondents being O.S. No. 153/2000 seeking specific performance of the agreement dated 06.11.1986(Ex-P-1) from the respondents in relation to the suit land. The appellant’s suit for specific performance was dismissed in 2009 and the appeal filed by the appellant against the dismissal of his suit was also dismissed by the District & Sessions Judge, Gagad in R.A. No.31 of 2009 on 16.04.2012. Thereafter, it was not pursued by the appellant.

11. The respondents, felt aggrieved of the judgment/decree of the Trial Court dated 09.02.2000, filed first appeal being RFA No. 242/2004 in the High Court of Karnataka. So far as the appellant is concerned, he did not file any cross appeal under Section 96 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (hereinafter referred to as “the Code”) nor filed any cross objection under Order 41 Rule 22 of the Code in respondents’ first appeal to 6 challenge the finding of ownership of the respondents, which was against the appellant.

12. Therefore, the only question, which arose before the High Court, was as to whether the Trial Court was justified in dismissing the suit insofar as it relates to claim for possession of the suit land.

13. By Judgment/decree dated 25.10.2006, the High Court allowed the respondents’ first appeal, modified the judgment/decree of the Trial Court and passed a decree for possession of the suit land against the appellant in relation to the suit land. It was held that the respondents are entitled to claim possession of the suit land from the appellant. In this way, the respondents’ entire suit stood decreed by the High Court.

14. Felt aggrieved of the impugned judgment/decree passed by the High Court, the appellant(defendant No.1) has filed the present appeal by way of special leave in this Court.

15. Heard Mr. Trideep Pais, learned counsel for the appellant and Mr. Ankolekar Gurudatta and Mr. Shantha Kumar Mahale, learned counsel for the respondents.

16. Having heard the learned counsel for the parties and on perusal of the record of the case, we are inclined to uphold the findings of the High Court but, at the same time, modify the impugned judgment and issue directions for ensuring its compliance by the parties to this appeal as indicated below.

17. In our considered opinion, one of the effects of the dismissal of appellant’s suit/appeal, which was filed for specific performance of the agreement, was that the appellant was not entitled to retain possession of the suit land. In other words, the possession of the appellant on the suit land, after the dismissal of his suit for specific performance, became unauthorized and illegal thereby entitling the respondents to claim back the same from the appellant on the strength of their ownership.

18. The appellant was, however, entitled to defend his possession over the suit land by taking recourse to the provisions of Section 53-A of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882 (hereinafter referred to as “T.P. Act”) but once his suit for specific performance stood dismissed, the protection available under Section 53-A of the T.P. Act was no longer available to him.

19. So far as the present appeal is concerned, it does not arise out of the suit filed by the appellant against the respondents but arises out of a suit filed by the respondents against the appellant. We cannot, therefore, examine the legality and correctness of judgment/decree passed in appellant’s suit/appeal but can certainly examine its effect while examining the legality and correctness of the impugned judgment.

20. In our considered opinion, the Trial Court as also the High Court were justified in declaring the respondents as owners of the suit land and were also justified in passing a decree for possession against the appellant.

21. It is for the reasons that firstly, the appellant never disputed the respondents’ ownership over the suit land and indeed rightly. Secondly, since the respondents’ late father had placed the appellant in possession of the suit land pursuant to part performance of the agreement in question (EX-P-1), the appellant could defend his possession against the true owner (respondents) on the strength of such agreement subject to his proving the requirements of Section 53-A of the T.P. Act.

22. Since the appellant’s suit/appeal for specific performance was dismissed, his possession over the suit land became unauthorized. It is for these two reasons, the High Court was justified in passing a 10 decree for possession against the appellant in relation to the suit land. We, therefore, find no justification to set aside the findings of the High Court. It is in conformity with the legal principles applicable to the fact of this case.

23. This leaves us to examine only one question, which, in our opinion, arises in the case but does not appear to have been dealt with in two suits filed by the parties against each other. In the interest of justice, we consider it necessary to deal with the question with a view to give quietus to the litigation which is pending between the parties for the last 3 decades.

24. As mentioned above, it is not in dispute that the appellant had paid a sum of Rs.1,00,000/- to the respondents’ late father by way of earnest money for purchasing the suit land. It is also not in dispute that the respondents’ late father had placed the appellant in possession of the suit land in 1986. It is also not in dispute that since then the appellant continued to remain in possession of the suit land though, in the meantime, suffered impugned decree for dis-possession.

25. In our opinion, in the light of such factual undisputed scenario emerging in the case, the appellant is held entitled to claim refund of earnest money of Rs.1,00,000/- from the respondents. One cannot dispute the legal position that once the bargain to sale/purchase of any land fails, the unsuccessful buyer becomes entitled in law to claim refund of earnest money from the seller under Section 22 of the Indian Specific relief Act. Similarly, the appellant is also, in turn, liable to restore the possession of the suit land pursuant to the impugned judgment/decree suffered by him and which we have upheld.

26. It is for these reasons and with a view to do complete justice between the parties, we invoke our 12 power under Article 142 of the Constitution and, accordingly, direct the respondents to refund a sum of Rs.1,00,000/- to the appellant within 3 months from today. Failure to refund Rs.1,00,000/- to the appellant within 3 months will carry interest at the rate of 6% p.a. on the said sum till payment.

27. We further direct the appellant to restore back the vacant possession of the suit land to the respondents in terms of the impugned judgment/decree within 3 months from the date of this judgment.

28. With these directions, the appeal stands finally disposed of.

 [ABHAY MANOHAR SAPRE

 [NAVIN SINHA]

Ashtadhyayi – Panini Sutra [ Hindu]

पाणिनये नमः।

SANSKRIT GRAMMAR BY PANINI MUNI

अष्टाध्यायी – EIGHT CHAPTERS -IS THE NAME OF THE GRAMMAR

Panini explained both Vaidik and Village Languages

4 × 4 = 16 Sub-chapters

माहेश्वर-सूत्राणि -14 [9 and 4]

अ इ उ ण् । ऋ ऌ क् । ए ओ ङ् । ऐ औ च् । ह य व र ट् । लँ ण् । ञ म ङ ण न म् । झ भ ञ् । घ ढ ध ष् । ज ब ग ड द श् । ख फ छ ठ थ च ट त व् । क प य् । श ष स र् । ह ल् ।

Chapter -1

1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच् ।
1-1-2 अदेङ् गुणः ।
1-1-3 इको गुणवृद्धी ।
1-1-4 न धातुलोप आर्धधातुके ।
1-1-5 ग्क्ङिति च ।
1-1-6 दीधीवेवीटाम् ।
1-1-7 हलोऽनन्तराः संयोगः ।
1-1-8 मुखनासिकावचनोऽनुनासिकः ।
1-1-9 तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् ।
1-1-10 नाज्झलौ ।
1-1-11 ईदूदेद्द्विवचनं प्रगृह्यम् ।
1-1-12 अदसो मात् ।
1-1-13 शे ।
1-1-14 निपात एकाजनाङ् ।
1-1-15 ओत् ।
1-1-16 सम्बुद्धौ शाकल्यस्येतावनार्षे ।
1-1-17 उञः ।
1-1-18 ऊँ ।
1-1-19 ईदूतौ च सप्तम्यर्थे ।
1-1-20 दाधा घ्वदाप् ।
1-1-21 आद्यन्तवदेकस्मिन् ।
1-1-22 तरप्तमपौ घः ।
1-1-23 बहुगणवतुडति संख्या ।
1-1-24 ष्णान्ता {षट्} ।
1-1-25 डति च ।
1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा ।
1-1-27 सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि ।
1-1-28 विभाषा दिक्समासे बहुव्रीहौ ।
1-1-29 न बहुव्रीहौ ।
1-1-30 तृतीयासमासे ।
1-1-31 द्वन्द्वे च ।
1-1-32 विभाषा जसि ।
1-1-33 प्रथमचरमतयाल्पार्धकतिपयनेमाश्च ।
1-1-34 पूर्वपरावरदक्षिणोत्तरापराधराणि -व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम् ।
1-1-35 स्वमज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम् ।
1-1-36 अन्तरं बहिर्योगोपसंव्यानयोः ।
1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम् ।
1-1-38 तद्धितश्चासर्वविभक्तिः ।
1-1-39 कृन्मेजन्तः ।
1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः ।
1-1-41 अव्ययीभावश्च ।
1-1-42 शि सर्वनामस्थानम् ।
1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य ।
1-1-44 न वेति विभाषा ।
1-1-45 इग्यणः सम्प्रसारणम् ।
1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ ।
1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः ।
1-1-48 एच इग्घ्रस्वादेशे ।
1-1-49 षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा ।
1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः ।
1-1-51 उरण् रपरः ।
1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य ।
1-1-53 ङिच्च ।
1-1-54 आदेः परस्य ।
1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य ।
1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ ।
1-1-57 अचः परस्मिन् पूर्वविधौ ।
1-1-58 न पदान्तद्विर्वचनवरेयलोपस्वरसवर्णानुस्वारदीर्घ\- जश्चर्विधिषु ।
1-1-59 द्विर्वचनेऽचि ।
1-1-60 अदर्शनं लोपः ।
1-1-61 प्रत्ययस्य लुक्‌श्लुलुपः ।
1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् ।
1-1-63 न लुमताऽङ्गस्य ।
1-1-64 अचोऽन्त्यादि टि ।
1-1-65 अलोऽन्त्यात् पूर्व उपधा ।
1-1-66 तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य ।
1-1-67 तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य ।
1-1-68 स्वं रूपं शब्दस्याशब्दसंज्ञा ।
1-1-69 अणुदित् सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः ।
1-1-70 तपरस्तत्कालस्य ।
1-1-71 आदिरन्त्येन सहेता ।
1-1-72 येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य ।
1-1-73 वृद्धिर्यस्याचामादिस्तद् वृद्धम् ।
1-1-74 त्यदादीनि च ।
1-1-75 एङ् प्राचां देशे ।
1-2-1 गाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन्ङ् इत् ।
1-2-2 विज इट् ।
1-2-3 विभाषोर्णोः ।
1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित् ।
1-2-5 असंयोगाल्लिट् कित् ।
1-2-6 ईन्धिभवतिभ्यां च ।
1-2-7 मृडमृदगुधकुषक्लिशवदवसः क्त्वा ।
1-2-8 रुदविदमुषग्रहिस्वपिप्रच्छः सँश्च ।
1-2-9 इको झल् ।
1-2-10 हलन्ताच्च ।
1-2-11 लिङ्सिचावात्मनेपदेषु ।
1-2-12 उश्च ।
1-2-13 वा गमः ।
1-2-14 हनः सिच् ।
1-2-15 यमो गन्धने ।
1-2-16 विभाषोपयमने ।
1-2-17 स्था घ्वोरिच्च ।
1-2-18 न क्त्वा सेट् ।
1-2-19 निष्ठा शीङ्स्विदिमिदिक्ष्विदिधृषः ।
1-2-20 मृषस्तितिक्षायाम् ।
1-2-21 उदुपधाद्भावादिकर्मणोरन्यतरस्याम् ।
1-2-22 पूङः क्त्वा च ।
1-2-23 नोपधात्थफान्ताद्वा ।
1-2-24 वञ्चिलुञ्च्यृतश्च ।
1-2-25 तृषिमृषिकृशेः काश्यपस्य ।
1-2-26 रलो व्युपधाद्धलादेः संश्च ।
1-2-27 ऊकालोऽज्झ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः ।
1-2-28 अचश्च ।
1-2-29 उच्चैरुदात्तः ।
1-2-30 नीचैरनुदात्तः ।
1-2-31 समाहारः स्वरितः ।
1-2-32 तस्यादित उदात्तमर्धह्रस्वम् ।
1-2-33 एकश्रुति दूरात् सम्बुद्धौ ।
1-2-34 यज्ञकर्मण्यजपन्यूङ्खसामसु ।
1-2-35 उच्चैस्तरां वा वषट्कारः ।
1-2-36 विभाषा छन्दसि ।
1-2-37 न सुब्रह्मण्यायां स्वरितस्य तूदात्तः ।
1-2-38 देवब्रह्मणोरनुदात्तः ।
1-2-39 स्वरितात् संहितायामनुदात्तानाम् ।
1-2-40 उदात्तस्वरितपरस्य सन्नतरः ।
1-2-41 अपृक्त एकाल् प्रत्ययः ।
1-2-42 तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः ।
1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् ।
1-2-44 एकविभक्ति चापूर्वनिपाते ।
1-2-45 अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम् ।
1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च ।
1-2-47 ह्रस्वो नपुंसके प्रातिपदिकस्य ।
1-2-48 गोस्त्रियोरुपसर्ज्जनस्य ।
1-2-49 लुक् तद्धितलुकि ।
1-2-50 इद्गोण्याः ।
1-2-51 लुपि युक्तवद्व्यक्तिवचने ।
1-2-52 विशेषणानां चाजातेः ।
1-2-53 तदशिष्यं संज्ञाप्रमाणत्वात् ।
1-2-54 लुब्योगाप्रख्यानात् ।
1-2-55 योगप्रमाणे च तदभावेऽदर्शनं स्यात् ।
1-2-56 प्रधानप्रत्ययार्थवचनमर्थस्यान्यप्रमाणत्वात् ।
1-2-57 कालोपसर्जने च तुल्यम् ।
1-2-58 जात्याख्यायामेकस्मिन् बहुवचनमन्यतरस्याम् ।
1-2-59 अस्मदो द्वायोश्च ।
1-2-60 फल्गुनीप्रोष्ठपदानां च नक्षत्रे ।
1-2-61 छन्दसि पुनर्वस्वोरेकवचनम् ।
1-2-62 विशाखयोश्च ।
1-2-63 तिष्यपुनर्वस्वोर्नक्षत्रद्वंद्वे बहुवचनस्य द्विवचनं नित्यम् ।
1-2-64 सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ ।
1-2-65 वृद्धो यूना तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेषः ।
1-2-66 स्त्री पुंवच्च ।
1-2-67 पुमान् स्त्रिया ।
1-2-68 भ्रातृपुत्रौ स्वसृदुहितृभ्याम् ।
1-2-69 नपुंसकमनपुंसकेनैकवच्चास्यान्यतरस्याम् ।
1-2-70 पिता मात्रा ।
1-2-71 श्वशुरः श्वश्र्वा ।
1-2-72 त्यदादीनि सर्वैर्नित्यम् ।
1-2-73 ग्राम्यपशुसंघेषु अतरुणेषु स्त्री ।
1-3-1 भूवादयो धातवः ।
1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् ।
1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् ।
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः ।
1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः ।
1-3-6 षः प्रत्ययस्य ।
1-3-7 चुटू ।
1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते ।
1-3-9 तस्य लोपः ।
1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम् ।
1-3-11 स्वरितेनाधिकारः ।
1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् ।
1-3-13 भावकर्मणोः ।
1-3-14 कर्त्तरि कर्म्मव्यतिहारे ।
1-3-15 न गतिहिंसार्थेभ्यः ।
1-3-16 इतरेतरान्योन्योपपदाच्च ।
1-3-17 नेर्विशः ।
1-3-18 परिव्यवेभ्यः क्रियः ।
1-3-19 विपराभ्यां जेः ।
1-3-20 आङो दोऽनास्यविहरणे ।
1-3-21 क्रीडोऽनुसम्परिभ्यश्च ।
1-3-22 समवप्रविभ्यः स्थः ।
1-3-23 प्रकाशनस्थेयाख्ययोश्च ।
1-3-24 उदोऽनूर्द्ध्वकर्मणि ।
1-3-25 उपान्मन्त्रकरणे ।
1-3-26 अकर्मकाच्च ।
1-3-27 उद्विभ्यां तपः ।
1-3-28 आङो यमहनः ।
1-3-29 समो गम्यृच्छिप्रच्छिस्वरत्यर्तिश्रुविदिभ्यः ।
1-3-30 निसमुपविभ्यो ह्वः ।
1-3-31 स्पर्द्धायामाङः ।
1-3-32 गन्धनावक्षेपणसेवनसाहसिक्य\-
प्रतियत्नप्रकथनोपयोगेषु कृञः ।
1-3-33 अधेः प्रसहने ।
1-3-34 वेः शब्दकर्म्मणः ।
1-3-35 अकर्मकाच्च ।
1-3-36 सम्माननोत्सञ्जनाचार्यकरणज्ञानभ्ऋतिविगणनव्ययेषु
नियः ।
1-3-37 कर्तृस्थे चाशरीरे कर्मणि ।
1-3-38 वृत्तिसर्गतायनेषु क्रमः ।
1-3-39 उपपराभ्याम् ।
1-3-40 आङ उद्गमने ।
1-3-41 वेः पादविहरणे ।
1-3-42 प्रोपाभ्यां समर्थाभ्याम् ।
1-3-43 अनुपसर्गाद्वा ।
1-3-44 अपह्नवे ज्ञः ।
1-3-45 अकर्मकाच्च ।
1-3-46 सम्प्रतिभ्यामनाध्याने ।
1-3-47 भासनोपसम्भाषाज्ञानयत्नविमत्युपमन्त्रणेषु वदः ।
1-3-48 व्यक्तवाचां समुच्चारणे ।
1-3-49 अनोरकर्मकात् ।
1-3-50 विभाषा विप्रलापे ।
1-3-51 अवाद्ग्रः ।
1-3-52 समः प्रतिज्ञाने ।
1-3-53 उदश्चरः सकर्मकात् ।
1-3-54 समस्तृतीयायुक्तात् ।
1-3-55 दाणश्च सा चेच्चतुर्थ्यर्थे ।
1-3-56 उपाद्यमः स्वकरणे ।
1-3-57 ज्ञाश्रुस्मृदृशां सनः ।
1-3-58 नानोर्ज्ञः ।
1-3-59 प्रत्याङ्भ्यां श्रुवः ।
1-3-60 शदेः शितः ।
1-3-61 म्रियतेर्लुङ्‌लिङोश्च ।
1-3-62 पूर्ववत् सनः ।
1-3-63 आम्प्रत्ययवत् कृञोऽनुप्रयोगस्य ।
1-3-64 प्रोपाभ्यां युजेरयज्ञपात्रेषु ।
1-3-65 समः क्ष्णुवः ।
1-3-66 भुजोऽनवने ।
1-3-67 णेरणौ यत् कर्म णौ चेत् स कर्ताऽनाध्याने ।
1-3-68 भीस्म्योर्हेतुभये ।
1-3-69 गृधिवञ्च्योः प्रलम्भने ।
1-3-70 लियः सम्माननशालिनीकरणयोश्च ।
1-3-71 मिथ्योपपदात् कृञोऽभ्यासे ।
1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले ।
1-3-73 अपाद्वदः ।
1-3-74 णिचश्च ।
1-3-75 समुदाङ्भ्यो यमोऽग्रन्थे ।
1-3-76 अनुपसर्गाज्ज्ञः ।
1-3-77 विभाषोपपदेन प्रतीयमाने ।
1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् ।
1-3-79 अनुपराभ्यां कृञः ।
1-3-80 अभिप्रत्यतिभ्यः क्षिपः ।
1-3-81 प्राद्वहः ।
1-3-82 परेर्मृषः ।
1-3-83 व्याङ्परिभ्यो रमः ।
1-3-84 उपाच्च ।
1-3-85 विभाषाऽकर्मकात् ।
1-3-86 बुधयुधनशजनेङ्प्रुद्रुस्रुभ्यो णेः ।
1-3-87 निगरणचलनार्थेभ्यः ।
1-3-88 अणावकर्मकाच्चित्तवत्कर्तृकात् ।
1-3-89 न पादम्याङ्यमाङ्यसपरिमुहरुचिनृतिवदवसः ।
1-3-90 वा क्यषः ।
1-3-91 द्युद्भ्यो लुङि ।
1-3-92 वृद्भ्यः स्यसनोः ।
1-3-93 लुटि च कपः ।
1-4-1 आ कडारादेका संज्ञा ।
1-4-2 विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् ।
1-4-3 यू स्त्र्याख्यौ नदी ।
1-4-4 नेयङुवङ्स्थानावस्त्री ।
1-4-5 वाऽऽमि ।
1-4-6 ङिति ह्रस्वश्च ।
1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि ।
1-4-8 पतिः समास एव ।
1-4-9 षष्ठीयुक्तश्छन्दसि वा ।
1-4-10 ह्रस्वं लघु ।
1-4-11 संयोगे गुरु ।
1-4-12 दीर्घं च ।
1-4-13 यस्मात् प्रत्ययविधिस्तदादि प्रत्ययेऽङ्गम् ।
1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ।
1-4-15 नः क्ये ।
1-4-16 सिति च ।
1-4-17 स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने ।
1-4-18 यचि भम् ।
1-4-19 तसौ मत्वर्थे ।
1-4-20 अयस्मयादीनि च्छन्दसि ।
1-4-21 बहुषु बहुवचनम् ।
1-4-22 द्व्येकयोर्द्विवचनैकवचने ।
1-4-23 कारके ।
1-4-24 ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् ।
1-4-25 भीत्रार्थानां भयहेतुः ।
1-4-26 पराजेरसोढः ।
1-4-27 वारणार्थानां ईप्सितः ।
1-4-28 अन्तर्द्धौ येनादर्शनमिच्छति ।
1-4-29 आख्यातोपयोगे ।
1-4-30 जनिकर्तुः प्रकृतिः ।
1-4-31 भुवः प्रभवः ।
1-4-32 कर्मणा यमभिप्रैति स सम्प्रदानम् ।
1-4-33 रुच्यर्थानां प्रीयमाणः ।
1-4-34 श्लाघह्नुङ्स्थाशपां ज्ञीप्स्यमानः ।
1-4-35 धारेरुत्तमर्णः ।
1-4-36 स्पृहेरीप्सितः ।
1-4-37 क्रुधद्रुहेर्ष्यऽसूयार्थानां यं प्रति कोपः ।
1-4-38 क्रुधद्रुहोरुपसृष्टयोः कर्म ।
1-4-39 राधीक्ष्योर्यस्य विप्रश्नः ।
1-4-40 प्रत्याङ्भ्यां श्रुवः पूर्वस्य कर्ता ।
1-4-41 अनुप्रतिगृणश्च ।
1-4-42 साधकतमं करणम् ।
1-4-43 दिवः कर्म च ।
1-4-44 परिक्रयणे सम्प्रदानमन्यतरस्याम् ।
1-4-45 आधारोऽधिकरणम् ।
1-4-46 अधिशीङ्स्थाऽऽसां कर्म ।
1-4-47 अभिनिविशश्च ।
1-4-48 उपान्वध्याङ्वसः ।
1-4-49 कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म ।
1-4-50 तथायुक्तं चानिप्सीतम् ।
1-4-51 अकथितं च ।
1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ ।
1-4-53 हृक्रोरन्यतरस्याम् ।
1-4-54 स्वतन्त्रः कर्ता ।
1-4-55 तत्प्रयोजको हेतुश्च ।
1-4-56 प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः ।
1-4-57 चादयोऽसत्त्वे ।
1-4-58 प्रादयः ।
1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे ।
1-4-60 गतिश्च ।
1-4-61 ऊर्यादिच्विडाचश्च ।
1-4-62 अनुकरणं चानितिपरम् ।
1-4-63 आदरानादरयोः सदसती ।
1-4-64 भूषणेऽलम् ।
1-4-65 अन्तरपरिग्रहे ।
1-4-66 कणेमनसी श्रद्धाप्रतीघाते ।
1-4-67 पुरोऽव्ययम् ।
1-4-68 अस्तं च ।
1-4-69 अच्छ गत्यर्थवदेषु ।
1-4-70 अदोऽनुपदेशे ।
1-4-71 तिरोऽन्तर्द्धौ ।
1-4-72 विभाषा कृञि ।
1-4-73 उपाजेऽन्वाजे ।
1-4-74 साक्षात्प्रभृतीनि च ।
1-4-75 अनत्याधान उरसिमनसी ।
1-4-76 मध्येपदेनिवचने च ।
1-4-77 नित्यं हस्ते पाणावुपयमने ।
1-4-78 प्राध्वं बन्धने ।
1-4-79 जीविकोपनिषदावौपम्ये ।
1-4-80 ते प्राग्धातोः ।
1-4-81 छन्दसि परेऽपि ।
1-4-82 व्यवहिताश्च ।
1-4-83 कर्मप्रवचनीयाः ।
1-4-84 अनुर्लक्षणे ।
1-4-85 तृतीया.अर्थे ।
1-4-86 हीने ।
1-4-87 उपोऽधिके च ।
1-4-88 अपपरी वर्जने ।
1-4-89 आङ् मर्यादावचने ।
1-4-90 लक्षणेत्थम्भूताख्यानभागवीप्सासु प्रतिपर्यनवः ।
1-4-91 अभिरभागे ।
1-4-92 प्रतिः प्रतिनिधिप्रतिदानयोः ।
1-4-93 अधिपरी अनर्थकौ ।
1-4-94 सुः पूजायाम् ।
1-4-95 अतिरतिक्रमणे च ।
1-4-96 अपिः पदार्थसम्भावनान्ववसर्गगर्हासमुच्चयेषु ।
1-4-97 अधिरीश्वरे ।
1-4-98 विभाषा कृञि ।
1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम् ।
1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम् ।
1-4-101 तिङस्त्रीणि त्रीणि प्रथममध्यमोत्तमाः ।
1-4-102 तान्येकवचनद्विवचनबहुवचनान्येकशः ।
1-4-103 सुपः ।
1-4-104 विभक्तिश्च ।
1-4-105 युष्मद्युपपदे समानाधिकरणे स्थानिन्यपि मध्यमः ।
1-4-106 प्रहासे च मन्योपपदे मन्यतेरुत्तम एकवच्च ।
1-4-107 अस्मद्युत्तमः ।
1-4-108 शेषे प्रथमः ।
1-4-109 परः संनिकर्षः संहिता ।
1-4-110 विरामोऽवसानम् ।
Devider

Chapter -2

2-1-1 समर्थः पदविधिः ।
2-1-2 सुबामन्त्रिते पराङ्गवत्‌ स्वरे ।
2-1-3 प्राक् कडारात्‌ समासः ।
2-1-4 सह सुपा ।
2-1-5 अव्ययीभावः ।
2-1-6 अव्ययं विभक्तिसमीपसमृद्धि\-
व्यृद्ध्यर्थाभावात्ययासम्प्रति\-
शब्दप्रादुर्भावपश्चाद्यथाऽऽनुपूर्व्ययौगपद्यसादृश्य\-
सम्पत्तिसाकल्यान्तवचनेषु ।
2-1-7 यथाऽसादृये ।
2-1-8 यावदवधारणे ।
2-1-9 सुप्प्रतिना मात्राऽर्थे ।
2-1-10 अक्षशलाकासंख्याः परिणा ।
2-1-11 विभाषा ।
2-1-12 अपपरिबहिरञ्चवः पञ्चम्या ।
2-1-13 आङ् मर्यादाऽभिविध्योः ।
2-1-14 लक्षणेनाभिप्रती आभिमुख्ये ।
2-1-15 अनुर्यत्समया ।
2-1-16 यस्य चायामः ।
2-1-17 तिष्ठद्गुप्रभृतीनि च ।
2-1-18 पारे मध्ये षष्ठ्या वा ।
2-1-19 संख्या वंश्येन ।
2-1-20 नदीभिश्च ।
2-1-21 अन्यपदार्थे च संज्ञायाम्‌ ।
2-1-22 तत्पुरुषः ।
2-1-23 द्विगुश्च ।
2-1-24 द्वितीया श्रितातीतपतितगतात्यस्तप्राप्तापन्नैः ।
2-1-25 स्वयं क्तेन ।
2-1-26 खट्वा क्षेपे ।
2-1-27 सामि ।
2-1-28 कालाः ।
2-1-29 अत्यन्तसंयोगे च ।
2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन ।
2-1-31 पूर्वसदृशसमोनार्थकलहनिपुणमिश्रश्लक्ष्णैः ।
2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ ।
2-1-33 कृत्यैरधिकार्थवचने ।
2-1-34 अन्नेन व्यञ्जनम्‌ ।
2-1-35 भक्ष्येण मिश्रीकरणम्‌ ।
2-1-36 चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः ।
2-1-37 पञ्चमी भयेन ।
2-1-38 अपेतापोढमुक्तपतितापत्रस्तैरल्पशः ।
2-1-39 स्तोकान्तिकदूरार्थकृच्छ्राणि क्तेन ।
2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः ।
2-1-41 सिद्धशुष्कपक्वबन्धैश्च ।
2-1-42 ध्वाङ्क्षेण क्षेपे ।
2-1-43 कृत्यैरृणे ।
2-1-44 संज्ञायाम्‌ ।
2-1-45 क्तेनाहोरात्रावयवाः ।
2-1-46 तत्र ।
2-1-47 क्षेपे ।
2-1-48 पात्रेसमितादयश्च ।
2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन ।
2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌ ।
2-1-51 तद्धितार्थोत्तरपदसमाहारे च ।
2-1-52 संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः ।
2-1-53 कुत्सितानि कुत्सनैः ।
2-1-54 पापाणके कुत्सितैः ।
2-1-55 उपमानानि सामान्यवचनैः ।
2-1-56 उपमितं व्याघ्रादिभिः सामान्याप्रयोगे ।
2-1-57 विशेषणं विशेष्येण बहुलम्‌ ।
2-1-58 पूर्वापरप्रथमचरमजघन्यसमान\-
मध्यमध्यमवीराश्च ।
2-1-59 श्रेण्यादयः कृतादिभिः ।
2-1-60 क्तेन नञ्विशिष्टेनानञ् ।
2-1-61 सन्महत्परमोत्तमोत्कृष्टाः पूज्यमानैः ।
2-1-62 वृन्दारकनागकुञ्जरैः पूज्यमानम्‌ ।
2-1-63 कतरकतमौ जातिपरिप्रश्ने ।
2-1-64 किं क्षेपे ।
2-1-65 पोटायुवतिस्तोककतिपयगृष्टिधेनुवशा\-
वेहत्बष्कयणीप्रवक्तॄ\- श्रोत्रियाध्यापकधूर्तैर्जातिः ।
2-1-66 प्रशंसावचनैश्च ।
2-1-67 युवा खलतिपलितवलिनजरतीभिः ।
2-1-68 कृत्यतुल्याख्या अजात्या ।
2-1-69 वर्णो वर्णेन ।
2-1-70 कुमारः श्रमणाऽऽदिभिः ।
2-1-71 चतुष्पादो गर्भिण्या ।
2-1-72 मयूरव्यंसकादयश्च ।
2-2-1 पूर्वापराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनैकाधिकरणे ।
2-2-2 अर्धं नपुंसकम्‌ ।
2-2-3 द्वितीयतृतीयचतुर्थतुर्याण्यन्यतरस्याम्‌ ।
2-2-4 प्राप्तापन्ने च द्वितीयया ।
2-2-5 कालाः परिमाणिना ।
2-2-6 नञ्‌ ।
2-2-7 ईषदकृता ।
2-2-8 षष्ठी ।
2-2-9 याजकादिभिश्च ।
2-2-10 न निर्धारणे ।
2-2-11 पूरणगुणसुहितार्थसदव्ययतव्यसमानाधिकरणेन ।
2-2-12 क्तेन च पूजायाम्‌ ।
2-2-13 अधिकरणवाचिना च ।
2-2-14 कर्म्मणि च ।
2-2-15 तृजकाभ्यां कर्तरि ।
2-2-16 कर्त्तरि च ।
2-2-17 नित्यं क्रीडाजीविकयोः ।
2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः ।
2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् ।
2-2-20 अमैवाव्ययेन ।
2-2-21 तृतीयाप्रभृतीन्यन्यतरस्याम्‌ ।
2-2-22 क्त्वा च ।
2-2-23 शेषो बहुव्रीहिः ।
2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे ।
2-2-25 संख्ययाऽव्ययासन्नादूराधिकसंख्याः संख्येये ।
2-2-26 दिङ्नामान्यन्तराले ।
2-2-27 तत्र तेनेदमिति सरूपे ।
2-2-28 तेन सहेति तुल्ययोगे ।
2-2-29 चार्थे द्वंद्वः ।
2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ ।
2-2-31 राजदन्तादिषु परम्‌ ।
2-2-32 द्वंद्वे घि ।
2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌ ।
2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ ।
2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ ।
2-2-36 निष्ठा ।
2-2-37 वाऽऽहिताग्न्यादिषु ।
2-2-38 कडाराः कर्मधराये ।
2-3-1 अनभिहिते ।
2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया ।
2-3-3 तृतीया च होश्छन्दसि ।
2-3-4 अन्तराऽन्तरेण युक्ते ।
2-3-5 कालाध्वनोरत्यन्तसंयोगे ।
2-3-6 अपवर्गे तृतीया ।
2-3-7 सप्तमीपञ्चम्यौ कारकमध्ये ।
2-3-8 कर्मप्रवचनीययुक्ते द्वितीया ।
2-3-9 यस्मादधिकं यस्य चेश्वरवचनं तत्र सप्तमी ।
2-3-10 पञ्चमी अपाङ्परिभिः ।
2-3-11 प्रतिनिधिप्रतिदाने च यस्मात्‌ ।
2-3-12 गत्यर्थकर्मणि द्वितीयाचतुर्थ्यौ चेष्टायामनध्वनि ।
2-3-13 चतुर्थी सम्प्रदाने ।
2-3-14 क्रियार्थोपपदस्य च कर्मणि स्थानिनः ।
2-3-15 तुमर्थाच्च भाववचनात्‌ ।
2-3-16 नमःस्वस्तिस्वाहास्वधालंवषड्योगाच्च ।
2-3-17 मन्यकर्मण्यनादरे विभाषाऽप्राणिषु ।
2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया ।
2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने ।
2-3-20 येनाङ्गविकारः ।
2-3-21 इत्थंभूतलक्षणे ।
2-3-22 संज्ञोऽन्यतरस्यां कर्मणि ।
2-3-23 हेतौ ।
2-3-24 अकर्तर्यृणे पञ्चमी ।
2-3-25 विभाषा गुणेऽस्त्रियाम्‌ ।
2-3-26 षष्ठी हेतुप्रयोगे ।
2-3-27 सर्वनाम्नस्तृतीया च ।
2-3-28 अपादाने पञ्चमी ।
2-3-29 अन्यारादितरर्त्तेदिक्‌शब्दाञ्चूत्तरपदाजाहियुक्ते ।
2-3-30 षष्ठ्यतसर्थप्रत्ययेन ।
2-3-31 एनपा द्वितीया ।
2-3-32 पृथग्विनानानाभिस्तृतीयाऽन्यतरस्याम्‌ ।
2-3-33 करणे च स्तोकाल्पकृच्छ्रकतिपयस्यासत्त्ववचनस्य ।
2-3-34 दूरान्तिकार्थैः षष्ठ्यन्यतरस्याम्‌ ।
2-3-35 दूरान्तिकार्थेभ्यो द्वितीया च ।
2-3-36 सप्तम्यधिकरणे च ।
2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ ।
2-3-38 षष्ठी चानादरे ।
2-3-39 स्वामीश्वराधिपतिदायादसाक्षिप्रतिभूप्रसूतैश्च ।
2-3-40 आयुक्तकुशलाभ्यां चासेवायाम्‌ ।
2-3-41 यतश्च निर्धारणम्‌ ।
2-3-42 पञ्चमी विभक्ते ।
2-3-43 साधुनिपुणाभ्याम् अर्चायां सप्तम्यप्रतेः ।
2-3-44 प्रसितोत्सुकाभ्यां तृतीया च ।
2-3-45 नक्षत्रे च लुपि ।
2-3-46 प्रातिपदिकार्थलिङ्गपरिमाणवचनमात्रे प्रथमा ।
2-3-47 सम्बोधने च ।
2-3-48 साऽऽमन्त्रितम्‌ ।
2-3-49 एकवचनं संबुद्धिः ।
2-3-50 षष्ठी शेषे ।
2-3-51 ज्ञोऽविदर्थस्य करणे ।
2-3-52 अधीगर्थदयेशां कर्मणि ।
2-3-53 कृञः प्रतियत्ने ।
2-3-54 रुजार्थानां भाववचनानामज्वरेः ।
2-3-55 आशिषि नाथः ।
2-3-56 जासिनिप्रहणनाटक्राथपिषां हिंसायाम्‌ ।
2-3-57 व्यवहृपणोः समर्थयोः ।
2-3-58 दिवस्तदर्थस्य ।
2-3-59 विभाषोपसर्गे ।
2-3-60 द्वितीया ब्राह्मणे ।
2-3-61 प्रेष्यब्रुवोर्हविषो देवतासम्प्रदाने ।
2-3-62 चतुर्थ्यर्थे बहुलं छन्दसि ।
2-3-63 यजेश्च करणे ।
2-3-64 कृत्वोऽर्थप्रयोगे कालेऽधिकरणे ।
2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति ।
2-3-66 उभयप्राप्तौ कर्मणि ।
2-3-67 क्तस्य च वर्तमाने ।
2-3-68 अधिकरणवाचिनश्च ।
2-3-69 न लोकाव्ययनिष्ठाखलर्थतृनाम्‌ ।
2-3-70 अकेनोर्भविष्यदाधमर्ण्ययोः ।
2-3-71 कृत्यानां कर्तरि वा ।
2-3-72 तुल्यार्थैरतुलोपमाभ्यां तृतीयाऽन्यतरस्याम्‌ ।
2-3-73 चतुर्थी चाशिष्यायुष्यमद्रभद्र\-
कुशलसुखार्थहितैः ।
2-4-1 द्विगुरेकवचनम्‌ ।
2-4-2 द्वंद्वश्च प्राणितूर्यसेनाङ्गानाम्‌ ।
2-4-3 अनुवादे चरणानाम्‌ ।
2-4-4 अध्वर्युक्रतुरनपुंसकम्. ।
2-4-5 अध्ययनतोऽविप्रकृष्टाख्यानाम्‌ ।
2-4-6 जातिरप्राणिनाम्‌ ।
2-4-7 विशिष्टलिङ्गो नदी देशोऽग्रामाः ।
2-4-8 क्षुद्रजन्तवः ।
2-4-9 येषां च विरोधः शाश्वतिकः ।
2-4-10 शूद्राणामनिरवसितानाम्‌ ।
2-4-11 गवाश्वप्रभृतीनि च ।
2-4-12 विभाषा वृक्षमृगतृणधान्यव्यञ्जन\-
पशुशकुन्यश्ववडवपूर्वापराधरोत्तराणाम्‌ ।
2-4-13 विप्रतिषिद्धं चानधिकरणवाचि ।
2-4-14 न दधिपयआदीनि ।
2-4-15 अधिकरणैतावत्त्वे च ।
2-4-16 विभाषा समीपे ।
2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌ ।
2-4-18 अव्ययीभावश्च ।
2-4-19 तत्पुरुषोऽनञ्‌ कर्मधारयः ।
2-4-20 संज्ञायां कन्थोशीनरेषु ।
2-4-21 उपज्ञोपक्रमं तदाद्याचिख्यासायाम्‌ ।
2-4-22 छाया बाहुल्ये ।
2-4-23 सभा राजाऽमनुष्यपूर्वा ।
2-4-24 अशाला च ।
2-4-25 विभाषा सेनासुराछायाशालानिशानाम्‌ ।
2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः ।
2-4-27 पूर्ववदश्ववडवौ ।
2-4-28 हेमन्तशिशिरावहोरात्रे च च्छन्दसि ।
2-4-29 रात्राह्नाहाः पुंसि ।
2-4-30 अपथं नपुंसकम्‌ ।
2-4-31 अर्धर्चाः पुंसि च ।
2-4-32 इदमोऽन्वादेशेऽशनुदात्तस्तृतीयाऽऽदौ ।
2-4-33 एतदस्त्रतसोस्त्रतसौ चानुदात्तौ ।
2-4-34 द्वितीयाटौस्स्वेनः ।
2-4-35 आर्द्धधातुके ।
2-4-36 अदो जग्धिर्ल्यप्ति किति ।
2-4-37 लुङ्सनोर्घस ।
2-4-38 घञपोश्च ।
2-4-39 बहुलं छन्दसि ।
2-4-40 लिट्यन्यतरस्याम्‌ ।
2-4-41 वेञो वयिः ।
2-4-42 हनो वध लिङि ।
2-4-43 लुङि च ।
2-4-44 आत्मनेपदेष्वन्यतरस्याम्‌ ।
2-4-45 इणो गा लुङि ।
2-4-46 णौ गमिरबोधने ।
2-4-47 सनि च ।
2-4-48 इङश्च ।
2-4-49 गाङ्‌ लिटि ।
2-4-50 विभाषा लुङ्लृङोः ।
2-4-51 णौ च सँश्चङोः ।
2-4-52 अस्तेर्भूः ।
2-4-53 ब्रुवो वचिः ।
2-4-54 चक्षिङः ख्याञ्‌ ।
2-4-55 वा लिटि ।
2-4-56 अजेर्व्यघञपोः ।
2-4-57 वा यौ ।
2-4-58 ण्यक्षत्रियार्षञितो यूनि लुगणिञोः ।
2-4-59 पैलादिभ्यश्च ।
2-4-60 इञः प्राचाम्‌ ।
2-4-61 न तौल्वलिभ्यः ।
2-4-62 तद्राजस्य बहुषु तेनैवास्त्रियाम्‌ ।
2-4-63 यस्कादिभ्यो गोत्रे ।
2-4-64 यञञोश्च ।
2-4-65 अत्रिभृगुकुत्सवसिष्ठगोतमाङ्गिरोभ्यश्च ।
2-4-66 बह्वचः इञः प्राच्यभरतेषु ।
2-4-67 न गोपवनादिभ्यः ।
2-4-68 तिककितवादिभ्यो द्वंद्वे ।
2-4-69 उपकादिभ्योऽन्यतरस्यामद्वंद्वे ।
2-4-70 आगस्त्यकौण्डिन्ययोरगस्तिकुण्डिनच्‌ ।
2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः ।
2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः ।
2-4-73 बहुलं छन्दसि ।
2-4-74 यङोऽचि च ।
2-4-75 जुहोत्यादिभ्यः श्लुः ।
2-4-76 बहुलं छन्दसि ।
2-4-77 गातिस्थाघुपाभूभ्यः सिचः परस्मैपदेषु ।
2-4-78 विभाषा घ्राधेट्शाच्छासः ।
2-4-79 तनादिभ्यस्तथासोः ।
2-4-80 मन्त्रे घसह्वरणशवृदहाद्वृच्कृगमिजनिभ्यो लेः ।
2-4-81 आमः ।
2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः ।
2-4-83 नाव्ययीभावादतोऽम्त्वपञ्चम्याः ।
2-4-84 तृतीयासप्तम्योर्बहुलम्‌ ।
2-4-85 लुटः प्रथमस्य डारौरसः ।

Chapter -3

3-1-1 प्रत्ययः ।
3-1-2 परश्च ।
3-1-3 आद्युदात्तश्च ।
3-1-4 अनुदत्तौ सुप्पितौ ।
3-1-5 गुप्तिज्किद्भ्यः सन् ।
3-1-6 मान्बधदान्शान्भ्यो दीर्घश्चाभ्यासस्य ।
3-1-7 धातोः कर्मणः समानकर्तृकादिच्छायां वा ।
3-1-8 सुप आत्मनः क्यच् ।
3-1-9 काम्यच्च ।
3-1-10 उपमानादाचारे ।
3-1-11 कर्तुः क्यङ् सलोपश्च ।
3-1-12 भृशादिभ्यो भुव्यच्वेर्लोपश्च हलः ।
3-1-13 लोहितादिडाज्भ्यः क्यष्।
3-1-14 कष्टाय क्रमणे ।
3-1-15 कर्मणः रोमन्थतपोभ्यां वर्तिचरोः ।
3-1-16 बाष्पोष्माभ्यां उद्वमने ।
3-1-17 शब्दवैरकलहाभ्रकण्वमेघेभ्यः करणे ।
3-1-18 सुखादिभ्यः कर्तृवेदनायाम् ।
3-1-19 नमोवरिवश्चित्रङः क्यच् ।
3-1-20 पुच्छभाण्डचीवराण्णिङ् ।
3-1-21 मुण्डमिश्रश्लक्ष्णलवणव्रतवस्त्रहलकलकृततूस्तेभ्यो
णिच् ।
3-1-22 धातोरेकाचो हलादेः क्रियासमभिहारे यङ् ।
3-1-23 नित्यं कौटिल्ये गतौ ।
3-1-24 लुपसदचरजपजभदहदशगॄभ्यो भावगर्हायाम् ।
3-1-25 सत्यापपाशरूपवीणातूलश्लोकसेनालोमत्वचवर्मवर्ण\-
चूर्णचुरादिभ्यो णिच् ।
3-1-26 हेतुमति च ।
3-1-27 कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक् ।
3-1-28 गुपूधूपविच्छिपणिपनिभ्य आयः ।
3-1-29 ऋतेरीयङ् ।
3-1-30 कमेर्णिङ् ।
3-1-31 आयादय आर्धद्धातुके वा ।
3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः ।
3-1-33 स्यतासी लृलुटोः ।
3-1-34 सिब्बहुलं लेटि ।
3-1-35 कास्प्रत्ययादाममन्त्रे लिटि ।
3-1-36 इजादेश्च गुरुमतोऽनृच्छः ।
3-1-37 दयायासश्च ।
3-1-38 उषविदजागृभ्योऽन्यतरस्याम् ।
3-1-39 भीह्रीभृहुवां श्लुवच्च ।
3-1-40 कृञ् चानुप्रयुज्यते लिटि ।
3-1-41 विदाङ्कुर्वन्त्वित्यन्यतरस्याम् ।
3-1-42 अभ्युत्सादयांप्रजनयांचिकयांरमयामकः
पावयांक्रियाद्विदामक्रन्निति च्छन्दसि ।
3-1-43 च्लि लुङि ।
3-1-44 च्लेः सिच् ।
3-1-45 शल इगुपधादनिटः क्सः ।
3-1-46 श्लिष आलिङ्गने ।
3-1-47 न दृशः ।
3-1-48 णिश्रिद्रुस्रुभ्यः कर्तरि चङ् ।
3-1-49 विभाषा धेट्श्व्योः ।
3-1-50 गुपेश्छन्दसि ।
3-1-51 नोनयतिध्वनयत्येलयत्यर्दयतिभ्यः ।
3-1-52 अस्यतिवक्तिख्यातिभ्योऽङ् ।
3-1-53 लिपिसिचिह्वश्च ।
3-1-54 आत्मनेपदेष्वन्यतरस्याम् ।
3-1-55 पुषादिद्युताद्यॢदितः परस्मैपदेषु ।
3-1-56 सर्त्तिशास्त्यर्तिभ्यश्च ।
3-1-57 इरितो वा ।
3-1-58 जृस्तम्भुम्रुचुम्लुचुग्रुचुग्लुचुग्लुञ्चुश्विभ्यश्च ।
3-1-59 कृमृदृरुहिभ्यश्छन्दसि ।
3-1-60 चिण् ते पदः ।
3-1-61 दीपजनबुधपूरितायिप्यायिभ्योऽन्यतरस्याम् ।
3-1-62 अचः कर्मकर्तरि ।
3-1-63 दुहश्च ।
3-1-64 न रुधः ।
3-1-65 तपोऽनुतापे च ।
3-1-66 चिण् भावकर्मणोः ।
3-1-67 सार्वधातुके यक् ।
3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ ।
3-1-69 दिवादिभ्यः श्यन् ।
3-1-70 वा भ्राशभ्लाशभ्रमुक्रमुक्लमुत्रसित्रुटिलषः ।
3-1-71 यसोऽनुपसर्गात्‌ ।
3-1-72 संयसश्च ।
3-1-73 स्वादिभ्यः श्नुः ।
3-1-74 श्रुवः शृ च ।
3-1-75 अक्षोऽन्यतरस्याम् ।
3-1-76 तनूकरणे तक्षः ।
3-1-77 तुदादिभ्यः शः ।
3-1-78 रुधादिभ्यः श्नम् ।
3-1-79 तनादिकृञ्भ्य उः ।
3-1-80 धिन्विकृण्व्योर च ।
3-1-81 क्र्यादिभ्यः श्ना ।
3-1-82 स्तम्भुस्तुम्भुस्कम्भुस्कुम्भुस्कुञ्भ्यः श्नुश्च ।
3-1-83 हलः श्नः शानज्झौ ।
3-1-84 छन्दसि शायजपि ।
3-1-85 व्यत्ययो बहुलम् ।
3-1-86 लिङ्याशिष्यङ् ।
3-1-87 कर्मवत्‌ कर्मणा तुल्यक्रियः ।
3-1-88 तपस्तपःकर्मकस्यैव ।
3-1-89 न दुहस्नुनमां यक्चिणौ ।
3-1-90 कुषिरजोः प्राचां श्यन् परस्मैपदं च ।
3-1-91 धातोः ।
3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌ ।
3-1-93 कृदतिङ् ।
3-1-94 वाऽसरूपोऽस्त्रियाम् ।
3-1-95 कृत्याः प्राङ् ण्वुलः ।
3-1-96 तव्यत्तव्यानीयरः ।
3-1-97 अचो यत्‌ ।
3-1-98 पोरदुपधात्‌ ।
3-1-99 शकिसहोश्च ।
3-1-100 गदमदचरयमश्चानुपसर्गे ।
3-1-101 अवद्यपण्यवर्या गर्ह्यपणितव्यानिरोधेषु ।
3-1-102 वह्यं करणम्‌ ।
3-1-103 अर्यः स्वामिवैश्ययोः ।
3-1-104 उपसर्या काल्या प्रजने ।
3-1-105 अजर्यं संगतम्‌ ।
3-1-106 वदः सुपि क्यप् च ।
3-1-107 भुवो भावे ।
3-1-108 हनस्त च ।
3-1-109 एतिस्तुशस्वृदृजुषः क्यप्‌ ।
3-1-110 ऋदुपधाच्चाकपिचृतेः ।
3-1-111 ई च खनः ।
3-1-112 भृञोऽसंज्ञायाम् ।
3-1-113 मृजेर्विभाषा ।
3-1-114 राजसूयसूर्यमृषोद्यरुच्यकुप्यकृष्टपच्याव्यथ्याः

3-1-115 भिद्योद्ध्यौ नदे ।
3-1-116 पुष्यसिद्ध्यौ नक्षत्रे ।
3-1-117 विपूयविनीयजित्या मुञ्जकल्कहलिषु ।
3-1-118 प्रत्यपिभ्यां ग्रहेश्छन्दसि ।
3-1-119 पदास्वैरिबाह्यापक्ष्येषु च ।
3-1-120 विभाषा कृवृषोः ।
3-1-121 युग्यं च पत्त्रे ।
3-1-122 अमावस्यदन्यतरस्याम् ।
3-1-123 छन्दसि निष्टर्क्यदेवहूयप्रणीयोन्नीयोच्छिष्य
मर्यस्तर्याध्वर्यखन्यखान्यदेवयज्याऽऽपृच्छ्य
प्रतिषीव्यब्रह्मवाद्यभाव्यस्ताव्योपचाय्यपृडानि ।
3-1-124 ऋहलोर्ण्यत्‌ ।
3-1-125 ओरावश्यके ।
3-1-126 आसुयुवपिरपिलपित्रपिचमश्च ।
3-1-127 आनाय्योऽनित्ये ।
3-1-128 प्रणाय्योऽसंमतौ ।
3-1-129 पाय्यसान्नाय्यनिकाय्यधाय्या मानहविर्निवाससामिधेनीषु ।
3-1-130 क्रतौ कुण्डपाय्यसंचाय्यौ ।
3-1-131 अग्नौ परिचाय्योपचाय्यसमूह्याः ।
3-1-132 चित्याग्निचित्ये च ।
3-1-133 ण्वुल्तृचौ ।
3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः ।
3-1-135 इगुपधज्ञाप्रीकिरः कः ।
3-1-136 आतश्चोपसर्गे ।
3-1-137 पाघ्राध्माधेट्दृशः शः ।
3-1-138 अनुपसर्गाल्लिम्पविन्दधारिपारिवेद्युदेजिचेति\-
सातिसाहिभ्यश्च ।
3-1-139 ददातिदधात्योर्विभाषा ।
3-1-140 ज्वलितिकसन्तेभ्यो णः ।
3-1-141 श्याऽऽद्व्यधास्रुसंस्र्वतीणवसाऽवहृलिह\-
श्लिषश्वसश्च ।
3-1-142 दुन्योरनुपसर्गे ।
3-1-143 विभाषा ग्रहेः ।
3-1-144 गेहे कः ।
3-1-145 शिल्पिनि ष्वुन् ।
3-1-146 गस्थकन् ।
3-1-147 ण्युट् च ।
3-1-148 हश्च व्रीहिकालयोः ।
3-1-149 प्रुसृल्वः समभिहारे वुन् ।
3-1-150 आशिषि च ।
3-2-1 कर्मण्यण् ।
3-2-2 ह्वावामश्च ।
3-2-3 आतोऽनुपसर्गे कः ।
3-2-4 सुपि स्थः ।
3-2-5 तुन्दशोकयोः परिमृजापनुदोः ।
3-2-6 प्रे दाज्ञः ।
3-2-7 समि ख्यः ।
3-2-8 गापोष्टक् ।
3-2-9 हरतेरनुद्यमनेऽच् ।
3-2-10 वयसि च ।
3-2-11 आङि ताच्छील्ये ।
3-2-12 अर्हः ।
3-2-13 स्तम्बकर्णयोः रमिजपोः ।
3-2-14 शमि धातोः संज्ञायाम् ।
3-2-15 अधिकरणे शेतेः ।
3-2-16 चरेष्टः ।
3-2-17 भिक्षासेनाऽऽदायेषु च ।
3-2-18 पुरोऽग्रतोऽग्रेषु सर्तेः ।
3-2-19 पूर्वे कर्तरि ।
3-2-20 कृञो हेतुताच्छील्यानुलोम्येषु ।
3-2-21 दिवाविभानिशाप्रभाभास्करान्तानन्तादिबहुनान्दी\- किम्लिपि
लिबिबलिभक्तिकर्तृचित्रक्षेत्र\-
संख्याजङ्घाबाह्वहर्यत्तत्धनुररुष्षु ।
3-2-22 कर्मणि भृतौ ।
3-2-23 न शब्दश्लोककलहगाथावैरचाटुसूत्रमन्त्रपदेषु ।
3-2-24 स्तम्बशकृतोरिन् ।
3-2-25 हरतेर्दृतिनाथयोः पशौ ।
3-2-26 फलेग्रहिरात्मम्भरिश्च ।
3-2-27 छन्दसि वनसनरक्षिमथाम् ।
3-2-28 एजेः खश् ।
3-2-29 नासिकास्तनयोर्ध्माधेटोः ।
3-2-30 नाडीमुष्ट्योश्च ।
3-2-31 उदि कूले रुजिवहोः ।
3-2-32 वहाभ्रे लिहः ।
3-2-33 परिमाणे पचः ।
3-2-34 मितनखे च ।
3-2-35 विध्वरुषोः तुदः ।
3-2-36 असूर्यललाटयोर्दृशितपोः ।
3-2-37 उग्रम्पश्येरम्मदपाणिन्धमाश्च ।
3-2-38 प्रियवशे वदः खच् ।
3-2-39 द्विषत्परयोस्तापेः ।
3-2-40 वाचि यमो व्रते ।
3-2-41 पूःसर्वयोर्दारिसहोः ।
3-2-42 सर्वकूलाभ्रकरीषेषु कषः ।
3-2-43 मेघर्तिभयेषु कृञः ।
3-2-44 क्षेमप्रियमद्रेऽण् च ।
3-2-45 आशिते भुवः करणभावयोः ।
3-2-46 संज्ञायां भृतॄवृजिधारिसहितपिदमः ।
3-2-47 गमश्च ।
3-2-48 अन्तात्यन्ताध्वदूरपारसर्वानन्तेषु डः ।
3-2-49 आशिषि हनः ।
3-2-50 अपे क्लेशतमसोः ।
3-2-51 कुमारशीर्षयोर्णिनिः ।
3-2-52 लक्षणे जायापत्योष्टक् ।
3-2-53 अमनुष्यकर्तृके च ।
3-2-54 शक्तौ हस्तिकपाटयोः ।
3-2-55 पाणिघताडघौ शिल्पिनि ।
3-2-56 आढ्यसुभगस्थूलपलितनग्नान्धप्रियेषु
च्व्य्र्थेष्वच्वौ कृञः करणे ख्युन् ।
3-2-57 कर्तरि भुवः खिष्णुच्खुकञौ ।
3-2-58 स्पृशोऽनुदके क्विन् ।
3-2-59 ऋत्विग्दधृक्स्रग्दिगुष्णिगञ्चुयुजिक्रुञ्चां च ।
3-2-60 त्यदादिषु दृशोऽनालोचने कञ् च ।
3-2-61
सत्सूद्विषद्रुहदुहयुजविदभिदच्छिद-जिनीराजामुपसर्गेऽपि
क्विप्‌ ।
3-2-62 भजो ण्विः ।
3-2-63 छन्दसि सहः ।
3-2-64 वहश्च ।
3-2-65 कव्यपुरीषपुरीष्येषु ञ्युट् ।
3-2-66 हव्येऽनन्तः पादम् ।
3-2-67 जनसनखनक्रमगमो विट् ।
3-2-68 अदोऽनन्ने ।
3-2-69 क्रव्ये च ।
3-2-70 दुहः कब् घश्च ।
3-2-71 मन्त्रे श्वेतवहौक्थशस्पुरोडाशो ण्विन् ।
3-2-72 अवे यजः ।
3-2-73 विजुपे छन्दसि ।
3-2-74 आतो मनिन्क्वनिप्वनिपश्च ।
3-2-75 अन्येभ्योऽपि दृश्यन्ते ।
3-2-76 क्विप् च ।
3-2-77 स्थः क च ।
3-2-78 सुप्यजातौ णिनिस्ताच्छिल्ये ।
3-2-79 कर्तर्युपमाने ।
3-2-80 व्रते ।
3-2-81 बहुलमाभीक्ष्ण्ये ।
3-2-82 मनः ।
3-2-83 आत्ममाने खश्च ।
3-2-84 भूते ।
3-2-85 करणे यजः ।
3-2-86 कर्मणि हनः ।
3-2-87 ब्रह्मभ्रूणवृत्रेषु क्विप्‌ ।
3-2-88 बहुलं छन्दसि ।
3-2-89 सुकर्मपापमन्त्रपुण्येषु कृञः ।
3-2-90 सोमे सुञः ।
3-2-91 अग्नौ चेः ।
3-2-92 कर्मण्यग्न्याख्यायाम् ।
3-2-93 कर्मणीनिर्विक्रियः ।
3-2-94 दृशेः क्वनिप्‌ ।
3-2-95 राजनि युधिकृञः ।
3-2-96 सहे च ।
3-2-97 सप्तम्यां जनेर्डः ।
3-2-98 पञ्चम्यामजातौ ।
3-2-99 उपसर्गे च संज्ञायाम् ।
3-2-100 अनौ कर्मणि ।
3-2-101 अन्येष्वपि दृश्यते ।
3-2-102 निष्ठा ।
3-2-103 सुयजोर्ङ्वनिप्‌ ।
3-2-104 जीर्यतेरतृन् ।
3-2-105 छन्दसि लिट् ।
3-2-106 लिटः कानज्वा ।
3-2-107 क्वसुश्च ।
3-2-108 भाषायां सदवसश्रुवः ।
3-2-109 उपेयिवाननाश्वाननूचानश्च ।
3-2-110 लुङ् ।
3-2-111 अनद्यतने लङ् ।
3-2-112 अभिज्ञावचने लृट् ।
3-2-113 न यदि ।
3-2-114 विभाषा साकाङ्क्षे ।
3-2-115 परोक्षे लिट् ।
3-2-116 हशश्वतोर्लङ् च ।
3-2-117 प्रश्ने चासन्नकाले ।
3-2-118 लट् स्मे ।
3-2-119 अपरोक्षे च ।
3-2-120 ननौ पृष्टप्रतिवचने ।
3-2-121 नन्वोर्विभाषा ।
3-2-122 पुरि लुङ् चास्मे ।
3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट् ।
3-2-124 लटः शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे ।
3-2-125 सम्बोधने च ।
3-2-126 लक्षणहेत्वोः क्रियायाः ।
3-2-127 तौ सत्‌ ।
3-2-128 पूङ्यजोः शानन् ।
3-2-129 ताच्छील्यवयोवचनशक्तिषु चानश् ।
3-2-130 इङ्धार्योः शत्रकृच्छ्रिणि ।
3-2-131 द्विषोऽमित्रे ।
3-2-132 सुञो यज्ञसंयोगे ।
3-2-133 अर्हः पूजायाम् ।
3-2-134 आक्वेस्तच्छीलतद्धर्मतत्साधुकारिषु ।
3-2-135 तृन् ।
3-2-136 अलंकृञ्निराकृञ्प्रजनोत्पचोत्पतोन्मद\-
रुच्यपत्रपवृतुवृधुसहचर इष्णुच् ।
3-2-137 णेश्छन्दसि ।
3-2-138 भुवश्च ।
3-2-139 ग्लाजिस्थश्च क्स्नुः ।
3-2-140 त्रसिगृधिधृषिक्षिपेः क्नुः ।
3-2-141 शमित्यष्टाभ्यो घिनुण् ।
3-2-142 संपृचानुरुधाङ्यमाङ्यसपरिसृसंसृज\-
परिदेविसंज्वरपरिक्षिपपरिरटपरिवदपरिदहपरिमुह\-
दुषद्विषद्रुहदुहयुजाक्रीडविविचत्यजरज\-
भजातिचरापचरामुषाभ्याहनश्च ।
3-2-143 वौ कषलसकत्थस्रम्भः ।
3-2-144 अपे च लषः ।
3-2-145 प्रे लपसृद्रुमथवदवसः ।
3-2-146 निन्दहिंसक्लिशखादविनाशपरिक्षिपपरिरटपरिवादि##-##
व्याभाषासूयो वुञ् ।
3-2-147 देविक्रुशोश्चोपसर्गे ।
3-2-148 चलनशब्दार्थादकर्मकाद्युच् ।
3-2-149 अनुदात्तेतश्च हलादेः ।
3-2-150 जुचङ्क्रम्यदन्द्रम्यसृगृधिज्वलशुचलषपतपदः

3-2-151 क्रुधमण्डार्थेभ्यश्च ।
3-2-152 न यः ।
3-2-153 सूददीपदीक्षश्च ।
3-2-154 लषपतपदस्थाभूवृषहनकमगमशॄभ्य उकञ् ।
3-2-155 जल्पभिक्षकुट्टलुण्टवृङः षाकन् ।
3-2-156 प्रजोरिनिः ।
3-2-157 जिदृक्षिविश्रीण्वमाव्यथाभ्यमपर्इभूप्रसूभ्यश्च ।
3-2-158 स्पृहिगृहिपतिदयिनिद्रातन्द्राश्रद्धाभ्य आलुच् ।
3-2-159 दाधेट्सिशदसदो रुः ।
3-2-160 सृघस्यदः क्मरच् ।
3-2-161 भञ्जभासमिदो घुरच् ।
3-2-162 विदिभिदिच्छिदेः कुरच् ।
3-2-163 इण्नश्जिसर्त्तिभ्यः क्वरप्‌ ।
3-2-164 गत्वरश्च ।
3-2-165 जागुरूकः ।
3-2-166 यजजपदशां यङः ।
3-2-167 नमिकम्पिस्म्यजसकमहिंसदीपो रः ।
3-2-168 सनाशंसभिक्ष उः ।
3-2-169 विन्दुरिच्छुः ।
3-2-170 क्याच्छन्दसि ।
3-2-171 आदृगमहनजनः किकिनौ लिट् च ।
3-2-172 स्वपितृषोर्नजिङ् ।
3-2-173 शॄवन्द्योरारुः ।
3-2-174 भियः क्रुक्लुकनौ ।
3-2-175 स्थेशभासपिसकसो वरच् ।
3-2-176 यश्च यङः ।
3-2-177 भ्राजभासधुर्विद्युतोर्जिपॄजुग्रावस्तुवः क्विप्‌ ।
3-2-178 अन्येभ्योऽपि दृश्यते ।
3-2-179 भुवः संज्ञाऽन्तरयोः ।
3-2-180 विप्रसम्भ्यो ड्वसंज्ञायाम् ।
3-2-181 धः कर्मणि ष्ट्रन् ।
3-2-182 दाम्नीशसयुयुजस्तुतुदसिसिचमिहपतदशनहः करणे ।
3-2-183 हलसूकरयोः पुवः ।
3-2-184 अर्तिलूधूसूखनसहचर इत्रः ।
3-2-185 पुवः संज्ञायाम् ।
3-2-186 कर्तरि चर्षिदेवतयोः ।
3-2-187 ञीतः क्तः ।
3-2-188 मतिबुद्धिपूजार्थेभ्यश्च ।
3-3-1 उणादयो बहुलम् ।
3-3-2 भूतेऽपि दृश्यन्ते ।
3-3-3 भविष्यति गम्यादयः ।
3-3-4 यावत्पुरानिपातयोर्लट् ।
3-3-5 विभाषा कदाकर्ह्योः ।
3-3-6 किंवृत्ते लिप्सायाम् ।
3-3-7 लिप्स्यमानसिद्धौ च ।
3-3-8 लोडर्थलक्षणे च ।
3-3-9 लिङ् चोर्ध्वमौहूर्तिके ।
3-3-10 तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्‌ ।
3-3-11 भाववचनाश्च ।
3-3-12 अण् कर्मणि च ।
3-3-13 लृट् शेषे च ।
3-3-14 लृटः सद् वा ।
3-3-15 अनद्यतने लुट् ।
3-3-16 पदरुजविशस्पृशो घञ् ।
3-3-17 सृ स्थिरे ।
3-3-18 भावे ।
3-3-19 अकर्तरि च कारके संज्ञायाम् ।
3-3-20 परिमणाख्यायां सर्वेभ्यः ।
3-3-21 इङश्च ।
3-3-22 उपसर्गे रुवः ।
3-3-23 समि युद्रुदुवः ।
3-3-24 श्रिणीभुवोऽनुपसर्गे ।
3-3-25 वौ क्षुश्रुवः ।
3-3-26 अवोदोर्नियः ।
3-3-27 प्रे द्रुस्तुस्रुवः ।
3-3-28 निरभ्योः पूल्वोः ।
3-3-29 उन्न्योर्ग्रः ।
3-3-30 कॄ धान्ये ।
3-3-31 यज्ञे समि स्तुवः ।
3-3-32 प्रे स्त्रोऽयज्ञे ।
3-3-33 प्रथने वावशब्दे ।
3-3-34 छन्दोनाम्नि च ।
3-3-35 उदि ग्रहः ।
3-3-36 समि मुष्टौ ।
3-3-37 परिन्योर्नीणोर्द्यूताभ्रेषयोः ।
3-3-38 परावनुपात्यय इणः ।
3-3-39 व्युपयोः शेतेः पर्याये ।
3-3-40 हस्तादाने चेरस्तेये ।
3-3-41 निवासचितिशरीरोपसमाधानेष्वादेश्च कः ।
3-3-42 संघे चानौत्तराधर्ये ।
3-3-43 कर्मव्यतिहारे णच् स्त्रियाम् ।
3-3-44 अभिविधौ भाव इनुण् ।
3-3-45 आक्रोशेऽवन्योर्ग्रहः ।
3-3-46 प्रे लिप्सायाम् ।
3-3-47 परौ यज्ञे ।
3-3-48 नौ वृ धान्ये ।
3-3-49 उदि श्रयतियौतिपूद्रुवः ।
3-3-50 विभाषाऽऽङि रुप्लुवोः ।
3-3-51 अवे ग्रहो वर्षप्रतिबन्धे ।
3-3-52 प्रे वणिजाम् ।
3-3-53 रश्मौ च ।
3-3-54 वृणोतेराच्छादने ।
3-3-55 परौ भुवोऽवज्ञाने ।
3-3-56 एरच् ।
3-3-57 ऋदोरप्‌ ।
3-3-58 ग्रहवृदृनिश्चिगमश्च ।
3-3-59 उपसर्गेऽदः ।
3-3-60 नौ ण च ।
3-3-61 व्यधजपोरनुपसर्गे ।
3-3-62 स्वनहसोर्वा ।
3-3-63 यमः समुपनिविषु ।
3-3-64 नौ गदनदपठस्वनः ।
3-3-65 क्वणो वीणायां च ।
3-3-66 नित्यं पणः परिमाणे ।
3-3-67 मदोऽनुपसर्गे ।
3-3-68 प्रमदसम्मदौ हर्षे ।
3-3-69 समुदोरजः पशुषु ।
3-3-70 अक्षेषु ग्लहः ।
3-3-71 प्रजने सर्तेः ।
3-3-72 ह्वः सम्प्रसारणं च न्यभ्युपविषु ।
3-3-73 आङि युद्धे ।
3-3-74 निपानमाहावः ।
3-3-75 भावेऽनुपसर्गस्य ।
3-3-76 हनश्च वधः ।
3-3-77 मूर्तौ घनः ।
3-3-78 अन्तर्घनो देशे ।
3-3-79 अगारैकदेशे प्रघणः प्रघाणश्च ।
3-3-80 उद्घनोऽत्याधानम् ।
3-3-81 अपघनोऽङ्गम् ।
3-3-82 करणेऽयोविद्रुषु ।
3-3-83 स्तम्बे क च ।
3-3-84 परौ घः ।
3-3-85 उपघ्न आश्रये ।
3-3-86 संघोद्घौ गणप्रशंसयोः ।
3-3-87 निघो निमितम् ।
3-3-88 ड्वितः क्त्रिः ।
3-3-89 ट्वितोऽथुच् ।
3-3-90 यजयाचयतविच्छप्रच्छरक्षो नङ् ।
3-3-91 स्वपो नन् ।
3-3-92 उपसर्गे घोः किः ।
3-3-93 कर्मण्यधिकरणे च ।
3-3-94 स्त्रियां क्तिन् ।
3-3-95 स्थागापापचां भावे ।
3-3-96 मन्त्रे वृषेषपचमनविदभूवीरा उदात्तः ।
3-3-97 ऊतियूतिज्ऊतिसातिहेतिकीर्तयश्च ।
3-3-98 व्रजयजोर्भावे क्यप्‌ ।
3-3-99 संज्ञायां समजनिषदनिपतमनविदषुञ्शीङ्भृञिणः

3-3-100 कृञः श च ।
3-3-101 इच्छा ।
3-3-102 अ प्रत्ययात्‌ ।
3-3-103 गुरोश्च हलः ।
3-3-104 षिद्भिदादिभ्योऽङ् ।
3-3-105 चिन्तिपूजिकथिकुम्बिचर्चश्च ।
3-3-106 आतश्चोपसर्गे ।
3-3-107 ण्यासश्रन्थो युच् ।
3-3-108 रोगाख्यायां ण्वुल् बहुलम् ।
3-3-109 संज्ञायाम् ।
3-3-110 विभाषाऽऽख्यानपरिप्रश्नयोरिञ् च ।
3-3-111 पर्यायार्हर्णोत्पत्तिषु ण्वुच् ।
3-3-112 आक्रोशे नञ्यनिः ।
3-3-113 कृत्यल्युटो बहुलम् ।
3-3-114 नपुंसके भावे क्तः ।
3-3-115 ल्युट् च ।
3-3-116 कर्मणि च येन संस्पर्शात्‌ कर्तुः शरीरसुखम् ।
3-3-117 करणाधिकरणयोश्च ।
3-3-118 पुंसि संज्ञायां घः प्रायेण ।
3-3-119 गोचरसंचरवहव्रजव्यजापणनिगमाश्च ।
3-3-120 अवे तॄस्त्रोर्घञ् ।
3-3-121 हलश्च ।
3-3-122 अध्यायन्यायोद्यावसंहाराधारावयाश्च ।
3-3-123 उदङ्कोऽनुदके ।
3-3-124 जालमानायः ।
3-3-125 खनो घ च ।
3-3-126 ईषद्दुःसुषु कृच्छ्राकृच्छ्रार्थेषु खल् ।
3-3-127 कर्तृकर्मणोश्च भूकृञोः ।
3-3-128 आतो युच् ।
3-3-129 छन्दसि गत्यर्थेभ्यः ।
3-3-130 अन्येभ्योऽपि दृश्यते ।
3-3-131 वर्तमानसामीप्ये वर्तमानवद्वा ।
3-3-132 आशंसायां भूतवच्च ।
3-3-133 क्षिप्रवचने लृट् ।
3-3-134 आशंसावचने लिङ् ।
3-3-135 नानद्यतनवत्‌ क्रियाप्रबन्धसामीप्ययोः ।
3-3-136 भविष्यति मर्यादावचनेऽवरस्मिन् ।
3-3-137 कालविभागे चानहोरात्राणाम् ।
3-3-138 परस्मिन् विभाषा ।
3-3-139 लिङ्‌निमित्ते लृङ् क्रियाऽतिपत्तौ ।
3-3-140 भूते च ।
3-3-141 वोताप्योः ।
3-3-142 गर्हायां लडपिजात्वोः ।
3-3-143 विभाषा कथमि लिङ् च ।
3-3-144 किंवृत्ते लिङ्लृटौ ।
3-3-145 अनवकप्त्यमर्षयोरकिंवृत्ते अपि ।
3-3-146 किंकिलास्त्यर्थेषु लृट् ।
3-3-147 जातुयदोर्लिङ् ।
3-3-148 यच्चयत्रयोः ।
3-3-149 गर्हायां च ।
3-3-150 चित्रीकरणे च ।
3-3-151 शेषे लृडयदौ ।
3-3-152 उताप्योः समर्थयोर्लिङ् ।
3-3-153 कामप्रवेदनेऽकच्चिति ।
3-3-154 सम्भवानेऽलमिति चेत्‌ सिद्धाप्रयोगे ।
3-3-155 विभाषा धातौ सम्भावनवचनेऽयदि ।
3-3-156 हेतुहेतुमतोर्लिङ् ।
3-3-157 इच्छार्थेषु लिङ्लोटौ ।
3-3-158 समानकर्तृकेषु तुमुन् ।
3-3-159 लिङ् च ।
3-3-160 इच्छार्थेभ्यो विभाषा वर्तमाने ।
3-3-161 विधिनिमन्‍त्रणामन्‍त्रणाधीष्‍टसंप्रश्‍नप्रार्थनेषु लिङ्।
3-3-162 लोट् च ।
3-3-163 प्रैषातिसर्गप्राप्तकालेषु कृत्याश्च ।
3-3-164 लिङ् चोर्ध्वमौहूर्तिके ।
3-3-165 स्मे लोट् ।
3-3-166 अधीष्टे च ।
3-3-167 कालसमयवेलासु तुमुन् ।
3-3-168 लिङ् यदि ।
3-3-169 अर्हे कृत्यतृचश्च ।
3-3-170 आवश्यकाधमर्ण्ययोर्णिनिः ।
3-3-171 कृत्याश्च ।
3-3-172 शकि लिङ् च ।
3-3-173 आशिषि लिङ्लोटौ ।
3-3-174 क्तिच्क्तौ च संज्ञायाम् ।
3-3-175 माङि लुङ् ।
3-3-176 स्मोत्तरे लङ् च ।
3-4-1 धातुसम्बन्धे प्रत्ययाः ।
3-4-2 क्रियासमभिहारे लोट्##,## लोटो हिस्वौ##,## वा च तध्वमोः ।
3-4-3 समुच्चयेऽन्यतरस्याम् ।
3-4-4 यथाविध्यनुप्रयोगः पूर्वस्मिन् ।
3-4-5 समुच्चये सामान्यवचनस्य ।
3-4-6 छन्दसि लुङ्लङ्{}लिटः ।
3-4-7 लिङर्थे लेट् ।
3-4-8 उपसंवादाशङ्कयोश्च ।
3-4-9 तुमर्थे सेसेनसेअसेन्क्सेकसेनध्यैअध्यैन्कध्यैकध्यैन्\-
शध्यैशध्यैन्तवैतवेङ्तवेनः ।
3-4-10 प्रयै रोहिष्यै अव्यथिष्यै ।
3-4-11 दृशे विख्ये च ।
3-4-12 शकि णमुल्कमुलौ ।
3-4-13 ईश्वरे तोसुन्कसुनौ ।
3-4-14 कृत्यार्थे तवैकेन्केन्यत्वनः ।
3-4-15 अवचक्षे च ।
3-4-16 भावलक्षणे स्थेण्कृञ्वदिचरिहुतमिजनिभ्यस्तोसुन् ।
3-4-17 सृपितृदोः कसुन् ।
3-4-18 अलङ्खल्वोः प्रतिषेधयोः प्राचां क्त्वा ।
3-4-19 उदीचां माङो व्यतीहारे ।
3-4-20 परावरयोगे च ।
3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले ।
3-4-22 आभीक्ष्ण्ये णमुल् च ।
3-4-23 न यद्यनाकाङ्क्षे ।
3-4-24 विभाषाऽग्रेप्रथमपूर्वेषु ।
3-4-25 कर्मण्याक्रोशे कृञः खमुञ् ।
3-4-26 स्वादुमि णमुल् ।
3-4-27 अन्यथैवंकथमित्थंसु सिद्धाप्रयोगश्चेत्‌ ।
3-4-28 यथातथयोरसूयाप्रतिवचने ।
3-4-29 कर्मणि दृशिविदोः साकल्ये ।
3-4-30 यावति विन्दजीवोः ।
3-4-31 चर्मोदरयोः पूरेः ।
3-4-32 व्अर्षप्रमाण ऊलोपश्चास्यान्यतरास्यम् ।
3-4-33 चेले क्नोपेः ।
3-4-34 निमूलसमूलयोः कषः ।
3-4-35 शुष्कचूर्णरूक्षेषु पिषः ।
3-4-36 समूलाकृतजीवेषु हन्कृञ्ग्रहः ।
3-4-37 करणे हनः ।
3-4-38 स्नेहने पिषः ।
3-4-39 हस्ते वर्त्तिग्रहोः ।
3-4-40 स्वे पुषः ।
3-4-41 अधिकरणे बन्धः ।
3-4-42 संज्ञायाम् ।
3-4-43 कर्त्रोर्जीवपुरुषयोर्नशिवहोः ।
3-4-44 ऊर्ध्वे शुषिपूरोः ।
3-4-45 उपमाने कर्मणि च ।
3-4-46 कषादिषु यथाविध्यनुप्रयोगः ।
3-4-47 उपदंशस्तृतीयायाम् ।
3-4-48 हिंसार्थानां च समानकर्मकाणाम् ।
3-4-49 सप्तम्यां चोपपीडरुधकर्षः ।
3-4-50 समासत्तौ ।
3-4-51 प्रमाणे च ।
3-4-52 अपादाने परीप्सायाम् ।
3-4-53 द्वितीयायां च ।
3-4-54 स्वाङ्गेऽध्रुवे ।
3-4-55 परिक्लिश्यमाने च ।
3-4-56 विशिपतिपदिस्कन्दां व्याप्यमानासेव्यमानयोः ।
3-4-57 अस्यतितृषोः क्रियाऽन्तरे कालेषु ।
3-4-58 नाम्न्यादिशिग्रहोः ।
3-4-59 अव्ययेऽयथाभिप्रेताख्याने कृञः क्त्वाणमुलौ ।
3-4-60 तिर्यच्यपवर्गे ।
3-4-61 स्वाङ्गे तस्प्रत्यये कृभ्वोः ।
3-4-62 नाधाऽर्थप्रत्यये च्व्यर्थे ।
3-4-63 तूष्णीमि भुवः ।
3-4-64 अन्वच्यानुलोम्ये ।
3-4-65
शकधृषज्ञाग्लाघटरभलभक्रमसहार्हास्त्यर्थेषु तुमुन् ।
3-4-66 पर्याप्तिवचनेष्वलमर्थेषु ।
3-4-67 कर्तरि कृत्‌ ।
3-4-68 भव्यगेयप्रवचनीयोपस्थानीयजन्याप्लाव्यापात्या वा ।
3-4-69 लः कर्मणि च भावे चाकर्मकेभ्यः. ।
3-4-70 तयोरेव कृत्यक्तखलर्थाः ।
3-4-71 अदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च ।
3-4-72गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थाऽऽसवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च ।
3-4-73 दाशगोघ्नौ सम्प्रदाने ।
3-4-74 भीमादयोऽपादाने ।
3-4-75 ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः ।
3-4-76 क्तोऽधिकरणे च ध्रौव्यगतिप्रत्यवसानार्थेभ्यः ।
3-4-77 लस्य ।
3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् ।
3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे ।
3-4-80 थासस्से ।
3-4-81 लिटस्तझयोरेशिरेच् ।
3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः ।
3-4-83 विदो लटो वा ।
3-4-84 ब्रुवः पञ्चानामादित आहो ब्रुवः ।
3-4-85 लोटो लङ्वत्‌ ।
3-4-86 एरुः ।
3-4-87 सेर्ह्यपिच्च ।
3-4-88 वा छन्दसि ।
3-4-89 मेर्निः ।
3-4-90 आमेतः ।
3-4-91 सवाभ्यां वामौ ।
3-4-92 आडुत्तमस्य पिच्च ।
3-4-93 एत ऐ ।
3-4-94 लेटोऽडाटौ ।
3-4-95 आत ऐ ।
3-4-96 वैतोऽन्यत्र ।
3-4-97 इतश्च लोपः परस्मैपदेषु ।
3-4-98 स उत्तमस्य ।
3-4-99 नित्यं ङितः ।
3-4-100 इतश्च ।
3-4-101 तस्थस्थमिपां तांतंतामः ।
3-4-102 लिङस्सीयुट् ।
3-4-103 यासुट् परस्मैपदेषूदात्तो ङिच्च ।
3-4-104 किदाशिषि ।
3-4-105 झस्य रन् ।
3-4-106 इटोऽत्‌ ।
3-4-107 सुट् तिथोः ।
3-4-108 झेर्जुस् ।
3-4-109 सिजभ्यस्तविदिभ्यः च ।
3-4-110 आतः ।
3-4-111 लङः शाकटायनस्यैव ।
3-4-112 द्विषश्च ।
3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् ।
3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः ।
3-4-115 लिट् च ।
3-4-116 लिङाशिषि ।
3-4-117 छन्दस्युभयथा ।

Chapter-4

4-1-1 ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्‌ ।
4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌ ।
4-1-3 स्त्रियाम् ।
4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ ।
4-1-5 ऋन्नेभ्यो ङीप्‌ ।
4-1-6 उगितश्च ।
4-1-7 वनो र च ।
4-1-8 पादोऽन्यतरस्याम् ।
4-1-9 टाबृचि ।
4-1-10 न षट्स्वस्रादिभ्यः ।
4-1-11 मनः ।
4-1-12 अनो बहुव्रीहेः ।
4-1-13 डाबुभाभ्यामन्यतरस्याम्‌ ।
4-1-14 अनुपसर्जनात्‌ ।
4-1-15 टिड्ढाणञ्द्वयसज्दघ्नञ्मात्रच्तयप्ठक्ठञ्कञ्क्वरपः ।
4-1-16 यञश्च ।
4-1-17 प्राचां ष्फ तद्धितः ।
4-1-18 सर्वत्र लोहितादिकतान्तेभ्यः ।
4-1-19 कौरव्यमाण्डूकाभ्यां च ।
4-1-20 वयसि प्रथमे ।
4-1-21 द्विगोः ।
4-1-22 अपरिमाणबिस्ताचितकम्बल्येभ्यो न तद्धितलुकि ।
4-1-23 काण्डान्तात्‌ क्षेत्रे ।
4-1-24 पुरुषात्‌ प्रमाणेऽन्यतरस्याम् ।
4-1-25 बहुव्रीहेरूधसो ङीष्।
4-1-26 संख्याऽव्ययादेर्ङीप्‌ ।
4-1-27 दामहायनान्ताच्च ।
4-1-28 अन उपधालोपिनोन्यतरस्याम् ।
4-1-29 नित्यं संज्ञाछन्दसोः ।
4-1-30 केवलमामकभागधेयपापापरसमानार्यकृत-सुमङ्गलभेषजाच्च ।
4-1-31 रात्रेश्चाजसौ ।
4-1-32 अन्तर्वत्पतिवतोर्नुक् ।
4-1-33 पत्युर्नो यज्ञसंयोगे ।
4-1-34 विभाषा सपूर्वस्य ।
4-1-35 नित्यं सपत्न्य्आदिषु ।
4-1-36 पूतक्रतोरै च ।
4-1-37 वृषाकप्यग्निकुसितकुसीदानामुदात्तः ।
4-1-38 मनोरौ वा ।
4-1-39 वर्णादनुदात्तात्तोपधात्तो नः ।
4-1-40 अन्यतो ङीष्।
4-1-41 षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च ।
4-1-42 जानपदकुण्डगोणस्थलभाजनागकालनीलकुशकामुक\-
कबराद्वृत्त्यमत्रावपनाकृत्रिमाश्राणास्थौल्य\-
वर्णानाच्छादनायोविकारमैथुनेच्छाकेशवेशेषु ।
4-1-43 शोणात्‌ प्राचाम् ।
4-1-44 वोतो गुणवचनात्‌ ।
4-1-45 बह्वादिभ्यश्च ।
4-1-46 नित्यं छन्दसि ।
4-1-47 भुवश्च ।
4-1-48 पुंयोगादाख्यायाम् ।
4-1-49 इन्द्रवरुणभवशर्वरुद्रमृडहिमारण्ययवयवन\-
मातुलाचार्याणामानुक् ।
4-1-50 क्रीतात्‌ करणपूर्वात्‌ ।
4-1-51 क्तादल्पाख्यायाम् ।
4-1-52 बहुव्रीहेश्चान्तोदात्तात्‌ ।
4-1-53 अस्वाङ्गपूर्वपदाद्वा ।
4-1-54 स्वाङ्गाच्चोपसर्जनादसंयोगोपधात्‌ ।
4-1-55 नासिकोदरौष्ठजङ्घादन्तकर्णशृङ्गाच्च ।
4-1-56 न क्रोडादिबह्वचः ।
4-1-57 सहनञ्विद्यमानपूर्वाच्च ।
4-1-58 नखमुखात्‌ संज्ञायाम् ।
4-1-59 दीर्घजिह्वी च च्छन्दसि ।
4-1-60 दिक्पूर्वपदान्ङीप्‌ ।
4-1-61 वाहः ।
4-1-62 सख्यशिश्वीति भाषायाम् ।
4-1-63 जातेरस्त्रीविषयादयोपधात्‌ ।
4-1-64 पाककर्णपर्णपुष्पफलमूलबालोत्तरपदाच्च ।
4-1-65 इतो मनुष्यजातेः ।
4-1-66 ऊङुतः ।
4-1-67 बाह्वन्तात्‌ संज्ञायाम् ।
4-1-68 पङ्गोश्च ।
4-1-69 ऊरूत्तरपदादौपम्ये ।
4-1-70 संहितशफलक्षणवामादेश्च ।
4-1-71 कद्रुकमण्डल्वोश्छन्दसि ।
4-1-72 संज्ञायाम् ।
4-1-73 शार्ङ्गरवाद्यञो ङीन् ।
4-1-74 यङश्चाप्‌ ।
4-1-75 आवट्याच्च ।
4-1-76 तद्धिताः ।
4-1-77 यूनस्तिः ।
4-1-78 अणिञोरनार्षयोर्गुरूपोत्तमयोः ष्यङ् गोत्रे ।
4-1-79 गोत्रावयवात्‌ ।
4-1-80 क्रौड्यादिभ्यश्च ।
4-1-81 दैवयज्ञिशौचिवृक्षिसात्यमुग्रि\-
काण्ठेविद्धिभ्योऽन्यतरस्याम् ।
4-1-82 समर्थानां प्रथमाद्वा ।
4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् ।
4-1-84 अश्वपत्यादिभ्यश्च ।
4-1-85 दित्यदित्यादित्यपत्युत्तरपदाण्ण्यः ।
4-1-86 उत्सादिभ्योऽञ् ।
4-1-87 स्त्रीपुंसाभ्यां नञ्स्नञौ भवनात्‌ ।
4-1-88 द्विगोर्लुगनपत्ये ।
4-1-89 गोत्रेऽलुगचि ।
4-1-90 यूनि लुक् ।
4-1-91 फक्फिञोरन्यतरस्याम् ।
4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् ।
4-1-93 एको गोत्रे ।
4-1-94 गोत्राद्यून्यस्त्रियाम् ।
4-1-95 अत इञ् ।
4-1-96 बाह्वादिभ्यश्च ।
4-1-97 सुधातुरकङ् च ।
4-1-98 गोत्रे कुञ्जादिभ्यश्च्फञ् ।
4-1-99 नडादिभ्यः फक् ।
4-1-100 हरितादिभ्योऽञः ।
4-1-101 यञिञोश्च ।
4-1-102 शरद्वच्छुनकदर्भाद्भृगुवत्साग्रायणेषु ।
4-1-103 द्रोणपर्वतजीवन्तादन्यतरयाम् ।
4-1-104 अनृष्यानन्तर्ये बिदादिभ्योऽञ् ।
4-1-105 गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् ।
4-1-106 मधुबभ्र्वोर्ब्राह्मणकौशिकयोः ।
4-1-107 कपिबोधादाङ्गिरसे ।
4-1-108 वतण्डाच्च ।
4-1-109 लुक् स्त्रियाम् ।
4-1-110 अश्वादिभ्यः फञ् ।
4-1-111 भर्गात्‌ त्रैगर्ते ।
4-1-112 शिवादिभ्योऽण् ।
4-1-113 अवृद्धाभ्यो नदीमानुषीभ्यस्तन्नामिकाभ्यः ।
4-1-114 ऋष्यन्धकवृष्णिकुरुभ्यश्च ।
4-1-115 मातुरुत्‌ संख्यासम्भद्रपूर्वायाः ।
4-1-116 कन्यायाः कनीन च ।
4-1-117 विकर्णशुङ्गच्छगलाद्वत्सभरद्वाजात्रिषु ।
4-1-118 पीलाया वा ।
4-1-119 ढक् च मण्डूकात्‌ ।
4-1-120 स्त्रीभ्यो ढक् ।
4-1-121 द्व्यचः ।
4-1-122 इतश्चानिञः ।
4-1-123 शुभ्रादिभ्यश्च ।
4-1-124 विकर्णकुषीतकात्‌ काश्यपे ।
4-1-125 भ्रुवो वुक् च ।
4-1-126 कल्याण्यादीनामिनङ् ।
4-1-127 कुलटाया वा ।
4-1-128 चटकाया ऐरक् ।
4-1-129 गोधाया ढ्रक् ।
4-1-130 आरगुदीचाम् ।
4-1-131 क्षुद्राभ्यो वा ।
4-1-132 पितृष्वसुश्छण् ।
4-1-133 ढकि लोपः ।
4-1-134 मातृष्वसुश्च ।
4-1-135 चतुष्पाद्भ्यो ढञ् ।
4-1-136 गृष्ट्यादिभ्यश्च ।
4-1-137 राजश्वशुराद्यत्‌ ।
4-1-138 क्षत्राद्घः ।
4-1-139 कुलात्‌ खः ।
4-1-140 अपूर्वपदादन्यतरस्यां यड्ढकञौ ।
4-1-141 महाकुलादञ्खञौ ।
4-1-142 दुष्कुलाड्ढक् ।
4-1-143 स्वसुश्छः ।
4-1-144 भ्रातुर्व्यच्च ।
4-1-145 व्यन् सपत्ने ।
4-1-146 रेवत्यादिभ्यष्ठक् ।
4-1-147 गोत्रस्त्रियाः कुत्सने ण च ।
4-1-148 वृद्धाट्ठक् सौवीरेषु बहुलम् ।
4-1-149 फेश्छ च ।
4-1-150 फाण्टाहृतिमिमताभ्यां णफिञौ ।
4-1-151 कुर्वादिभ्यो ण्यः ।
4-1-152 सेनान्तलक्षणकारिभ्यश्च ।
4-1-153 उदीचामिञ् ।
4-1-154 तिकादिभ्यः फिञ् ।
4-1-155 कौसल्यकार्मार्याभ्यां च ।
4-1-156 अणो द्व्यचः ।
4-1-157 उदीचां वृद्धादगोत्रात्‌ ।
4-1-158 वाकिनादीनां कुक् च ।
4-1-159 पुत्रान्तादन्यतरस्याम् ।
4-1-160 प्राचामवृद्धात्‌ फिन् बहुलम्‌ ।
4-1-161 मनोर्जातावञ्यतौ षुक् च ।
4-1-162 अपत्यं पौत्रप्रभृति गोत्रम्‌ ।
4-1-163 जीवति तु वंश्ये युवा ।
4-1-164 भ्रातरि च ज्यायसि ।
4-1-165 वाऽन्यस्मिन् सपिण्डे स्थविरतरे जीवति ।
4-1-166 वृद्धस्य च पूजायाम् ।
4-1-167 यूनश्च कुत्सायाम् ।
4-1-168 जनपदशब्दात्‌ क्षत्रियादञ् ।
4-1-169 साल्वेयगान्धारिभ्यां च ।
4-1-170 द्व्यञ्मगधकलिङ्गसूरमसादण् ।
4-1-171 वृद्धेत्कोसलाजादाञ्ञ्यङ् ।
4-1-172 कुरुणादिभ्यो ण्यः ।
4-1-173 साल्वावयवप्रत्यग्रथकलकूटाश्मकादिञ् ।
4-1-174 ते तद्राजाः ।
4-1-175 कम्बोजाल्लुक् ।
4-1-176 स्त्रियामवन्तिकुन्तिकुरुभ्यश्च ।
4-1-177 अतश्च ।
4-1-178 न प्राच्यभर्गादियौधेयादिभ्यः ।
4-2-1 तेन रक्तं रागात्‌ ।
4-2-2 लाक्षारोचना##(##शकलकर्दमा##)##ट्ठक् ।
4-2-3 नक्षत्रेण युक्तः कालः ।
4-2-4 लुबविशेषे ।
4-2-5 संज्ञायां श्रवणाश्वत्थाभ्याम्‌ ।
4-2-6 द्वंद्वाच्छः ।
4-2-7 दृष्ट्अं साम ।
4-2-8 कलेर्ढक् ।
4-2-9 वामदेवाड्ड्यड्ड्यौ ।
4-2-10 परिवृतो रथः ।
4-2-11 पाण्डुकम्बलादिनिः ।
4-2-12 द्वैपवैयाघ्रादञ् ।
4-2-13 कौमारापूर्ववचने ।
4-2-14 तत्रोद्धृतममत्रेभ्यः ।
4-2-15 स्थण्डिलाच्छयितरि व्रते ।
4-2-16 संस्कृतं भक्षाः ।
4-2-17 शूलोखाद्यत्‌ ।
4-2-18 दध्नष्ठक् ।
4-2-19 उदश्वितोऽन्यतरस्याम् ।
4-2-20 क्षीराड्ढञ् ।
4-2-21 साऽस्मिन् पौर्णमासीति ##(##संज्ञायाम्##)## ।
4-2-22 आग्रहायण्यश्वत्थाट्ठक् ।
4-2-23 विभाषा फाल्गुनीश्रवणाकार्त्तिकीचैत्रीभ्यः ।
4-2-24 साऽस्य देवता ।
4-2-25 कस्येत्‌ ।
4-2-26 शुक्राद्घन् ।
4-2-27 अपोनप्त्रपान्नप्तृभ्यां घः ।
4-2-28 छ च ।
4-2-29 महेन्द्राद्घाणौ च ।
4-2-30 सोमाट्ट्यण् ।
4-2-31 वाय्वृतुपित्रुषसो यत्‌ ।
4-2-32 द्यावापृथिवीशुनासीरमरुत्वदग्नीषोमवास्तोष्पति\-
गृहमेधाच्छ च ।
4-2-33 अग्नेर्ढक् ।
4-2-34 कालेभ्यो भववत्‌ ।
4-2-35 महाराजप्रोष्ठपदाट्ठञ् ।
4-2-36 पितृव्यमातुलमातामहपितामहाः ।
4-2-37 तस्य समूहः ।
4-2-38 भिक्षाऽऽदिभ्योऽण् ।
4-2-39 गोत्रोक्षोष्ट्रोरभ्रराजराजन्यराजपुत्रवत्स\-
मनुष्याजाद्वुञ् ।
4-2-40 केदाराद्यञ् च ।
4-2-41 ठञ् कवचिनश्च ।
4-2-42 ब्राह्मणमाणववाडवाद्यन् ।
4-2-43 ग्रामजनबन्धुसहायेभ्यः तल् ।
4-2-44 अनुदात्तादेरञ् ।
4-2-45 खण्डिकादिभ्यश्च ।
4-2-46 चरणेभ्यो धर्मवत्‌ ।
4-2-47 अचित्तहस्तिधेनोष्ठक् ।
4-2-48 केशाश्वाभ्यां यञ्छावन्यतरस्याम् ।
4-2-49 पाशादिभ्यो यः ।
4-2-50 खलगोरथात्‌ ।
4-2-51 इनित्रकट्यचश्च ।
4-2-52 विषयो देशे ।
4-2-53 राजन्यादिभ्यो वुञ् ।
4-2-54 भौरिक्याद्यैषुकार्यादिभ्यो विधल्भक्तलौ ।
4-2-55 सोऽस्यादिरिति च्छन्दसः प्रगाथेषु ।
4-2-56 संग्रामे प्रयोजनयोद्धृभ्यः ।
4-2-57 तदस्यां प्रहरणमिति क्रीडायाम् णः ।
4-2-58 घञः साऽस्यां क्रियेति ञः ।
4-2-59 तदधीते तद्वेद ।
4-2-60 क्रतूक्थादिसूत्रान्ताट्ठक् ।
4-2-61 क्रमादिभ्यो वुन् ।
4-2-62 अनुब्राह्मणादिनिः ।
4-2-63 वसन्तादिभ्यष्ठक् ।
4-2-64 प्रोक्ताल्लुक् ।
4-2-65 सूत्राच्च कोपधात्‌ ।
4-2-66 छन्दोब्राह्मणानि च तद्विषयाणि ।
4-2-67 तदस्मिन्नस्तीति देशे तन्नाम्नि ।
4-2-68 तेन निर्वृत्तम् ।
4-2-69 तस्य निवासः ।
4-2-70 अदूरभवश्च ।
4-2-71 ओरञ् ।
4-2-72 मतोश्च बह्वजङ्गात्‌ ।
4-2-73 बह्वचः कूपेषु ।
4-2-74 उदक् च विपाशः ।
4-2-75 संकलादिभ्यश्च ।
4-2-76 स्त्रीषु सौवीरसाल्वप्राक्षु ।
4-2-77 सुवास्त्वादिभ्योऽण् ।
4-2-78 रोणी ।
4-2-79 कोपधाच्च ।
4-2-80 वुञ्छण्कठजिलशेनिरढञ्ण्ययफक्फिञिञ्ञ्य\-
कक्ठकोऽरीहणकृशाश्वर्श्यकुमुदकाशतृणप्रेक्षाऽश्मसखि\-
संकाशबलपक्षकर्णसुतंगमप्रगदिन्वराहकुमुदादिभ्यः ।
4-2-81 जनपदे लुप्‌ ।
4-2-82 वरणादिभ्यश्च ।
4-2-83 शर्कराया वा ।
4-2-84 ठक्छौ च ।
4-2-85 नद्यां मतुप्‌ ।
4-2-86 मध्वादिभ्यश्च ।
4-2-87 कुमुदनडवेतसेभ्यो ड्मतुप्‌ ।
4-2-88 नडशादाड्ड्वलच् ।
4-2-89 शिखाया वलच् ।
4-2-90 उत्करादिभ्यश्छः ।
4-2-91 नडादीनां कुक् च ।
4-2-92 शेषे ।
4-2-93 राष्ट्रावारपाराद्घखौ ।
4-2-94 ग्रामाद्यखञौ ।
4-2-95 कत्त्र्यादिभ्यो ढकञ् ।
4-2-96 कुलकुक्षिग्रीवाभ्यः श्वास्यलंकारेषु ।
4-2-97 नद्यादिभ्यो ढक् ।
4-2-98 दक्षिणापश्चात्पुरसस्त्यक् ।
4-2-99 कापिश्याः ष्फक् ।
4-2-100 रंकोरमनुष्येऽण् च ।
4-2-101 द्युप्रागपागुदक्प्रतीचो यत्‌ ।
4-2-102 कन्थायाष्ठक् ।
4-2-103 वर्णौ वुक् ।
4-2-104 अव्ययात्त्यप्‌ ।
4-2-105 ऐषमोह्यःश्वसोऽन्यतरस्याम् ।
4-2-106 तीररूप्योत्तरपदादञ्ञौ ।
4-2-107 दिक्पूर्वपदादसंज्ञायां ञः ।
4-2-108 मद्रेभ्योऽञ् ।
4-2-109 उदीच्यग्रामाच्च बह्वचोऽन्तोदात्तात्‌ ।
4-2-110 प्रस्थोत्तरपदपलद्यादिकोपधादण् ।
4-2-111 कण्वादिभ्यो गोत्रे ।
4-2-112 इञश्च ।
4-2-113 न द्व्यचः प्राच्यभरतेषु ।
4-2-114 वृद्धाच्छः ।
4-2-115 भवतष्ठक्छसौ ।
4-2-116 काश्यादिभ्यष्ठञ्ञिठौ ।
4-2-117 वाहीकग्रामेभ्यश्च ।
4-2-118 विभाषोशीनरेषु ।
4-2-119 ओर्देशे ठञ् ।
4-2-120 वृद्धात्‌ प्राचाम् ।
4-2-121 धन्वयोपधाद्वुञ् ।
4-2-122 प्रस्थपुरवहान्ताच्च ।
4-2-123 रोपधेतोः प्राचाम् ।
4-2-124 जनपदतदवध्योश्च ।
4-2-125 अवृद्धादपि बहुवचनविषयात्‌ ।
4-2-126 क्अच्छाग्निवक्त्रगर्त्तोत्तरपदात्‌ ।
4-2-127 धूमादिभ्यश्च ।
4-2-128 नगरात्‌ कुत्सनप्रावीण्ययोः ।
4-2-129 अरण्यान्मनुष्ये ।
4-2-130 विभाषा कुरुयुगन्धराभ्याम् ।
4-2-131 मद्रवृज्योः कन् ।
4-2-132 कोपधादण् ।
4-2-133 कच्छादिभ्यश्च ।
4-2-134 मनुष्यतत्स्थयोर्वुञ् ।
4-2-135 अपदातौ साल्वात्‌ ।
4-2-136 गोयवाग्वोश्च ।
4-2-137 गर्तोत्तरपदाच्छः ।
4-2-138 गहादिभ्यश्च ।
4-2-139 प्राचां कटादेः ।
4-2-140 राज्ञः क च ।
4-2-141 वृद्धादकेकान्तखोपधात्‌ ।
4-2-142 कन्थापलदनगरग्रामह्रदोत्तरपदात्‌ ।
4-2-143 पर्वताच्च ।
4-2-144 विभाषाऽमनुष्ये ।
4-2-145 कृकणपर्णाद्भारद्वाजे ।
4-3-1 युष्मदस्मदोरन्यतरस्यां खञ् च ।
4-3-2 तस्मिन् नणि च युष्माकास्माकौ ।
4-3-3 तवकममकावेकवचने ।
4-3-4 अर्धाद्यत्‌ ।
4-3-5 परावराधमोत्तमपूर्वाच्च ।
4-3-6 दिक्पूर्वपदाट्ठञ् च ।
4-3-7 ग्रामजनपदैकदेशादञ्ठञौ ।
4-3-8 मध्यान्मः ।
4-3-9 अ साम्प्रतिके ।
4-3-10 द्वीपादनुसमुद्रं यञ् ।
4-3-11 कालाट्ठञ् ।
4-3-12 श्राद्धे शरदः ।
4-3-13 विभाषा रोगातपयोः ।
4-3-14 निशाप्रदोषाभ्यां च ।
4-3-15 श्वसस्तुट् च ।
4-3-16 संधिवेलाऽऽद्यृतुनक्षत्रेभ्योऽण् ।
4-3-17 प्रावृष एण्यः ।
4-3-18 वर्षाभ्यष्ठक् ।
4-3-19 छन्दसि ठञ् ।
4-3-20 वसन्ताच्च ।
4-3-21 हेमन्ताच्च ।
4-3-22 सर्वत्राण् च तलोपश्च ।
4-3-23 सायंचिरम्प्राह्णेप्रगेऽव्ययेभ्यष्ट्युट्युलौ तुट् च ।
4-3-24 विभाषा पूर्वाह्णापराह्णाभ्याम् ।
4-3-25 तत्र जातः ।
4-3-26 प्रावृषष्ठप्‌ ।
4-3-27 संज्ञायां शरदो वुञ् ।
4-3-28 पूर्वाह्णापराह्णार्द्रामूलप्रदोषावस्कराद्वुन् ।
4-3-29 पथः पन्थ च ।
4-3-30 अमावास्याया वा ।
4-3-31 अ च ।
4-3-32 सिन्ध्वपकराभ्यां कन् ।
4-3-33 अणञौ च ।
4-3-34 श्रविष्ठाफल्गुन्यनुराधास्वातितिष्यपुनर्वसुहस्त\-
विशाखाऽषाढाबहुलाल्लुक् ।
4-3-35 स्थानान्तगोशालखरशालाच्च ।
4-3-36 वत्सशालाऽभिजिदश्वयुक्छतभिषजो वा ।
4-3-37 नक्षत्रेभ्यो बहुलम् ।
4-3-38 कृतलब्धक्रीतकुशलाः ।
4-3-39 प्रायभवः ।
4-3-40 उपजानूपकर्णोपनीवेष्ठक् ।
4-3-41 संभूते ।
4-3-42 कोशाड्ढञ् ।
4-3-43 कालात्‌ साधुपुष्प्यत्पच्यमानेषु ।
4-3-44 उप्ते च ।
4-3-45 आश्वयुज्या वुञ् ।
4-3-46 ग्रीष्मवसन्तादन्यतरस्याम् ।
4-3-47 देयमृणे ।
4-3-48 कलाप्यश्वत्थयवबुसाद्वुन् ।
4-3-49 ग्रीष्मावरसमाद्वुञ् ।
4-3-50 संवत्सराग्रहायणीभ्यां ठञ् च ।
4-3-51 व्याहरति मृगः ।
4-3-52 तदस्य सोढम् ।
4-3-53 तत्र भवः ।
4-3-54 दिगादिभ्यो यत्‌ ।
4-3-55 शरीरावयवाच्च ।
4-3-56 दृतिकुक्षिकलशिवस्त्यस्त्यहेर्ढञ् ।
4-3-57 ग्रीवाभ्योऽण् च ।
4-3-58 गम्भीराञ्ञ्यः ।
4-3-59 अव्ययीभावाच्च ।
4-3-60 अन्तःपूर्वपदाट्ठञ् ।
4-3-61 ग्रामात्‌ पर्यनुपूर्वात्‌ ।
4-3-62 जिह्वामूलाङ्गुलेश्छः ।
4-3-63 वर्गान्ताच्च ।
4-3-64 अशब्दे यत्खावन्यतरस्याम् ।
4-3-65 कर्णललाटात्‌ कनलंकारे ।
4-3-66 तस्य व्याख्यान इति च व्याख्यातव्यनाम्नः ।
4-3-67 बह्वचोऽन्तोदात्ताट्ठञ् ।
4-3-68 क्रतुयज्ञेभ्यश्च ।
4-3-69 अध्यायेष्वेवर्षेः ।
4-3-70 पौरोडाशपुरोडाशात् ष्ठन् ।
4-3-71 छन्दसो यदणौ ।
4-3-72 द्व्यजृद्ब्राह्मणर्क्प्रथमाध्वरपुरश्चरण\-
नामाख्याताट्ठक् ।
4-3-73 अणृगयनादिभ्यः ।
4-3-74 तत आगतः ।
4-3-75 ठगायस्थानेभ्यः ।
4-3-76 शुण्डिकादिभ्योऽण् ।
4-3-77 विद्यायोनिसंबन्धेभ्यो वुञ् ।
4-3-78 ऋतष्ठञ् ।
4-3-79 पितुर्यच्च ।
4-3-80 गोत्रादङ्कवत्‌ ।
4-3-81 हेतुमनुष्येभ्योऽन्यतरस्यां रूप्यः ।
4-3-82 मयट् च ।
4-3-83 प्रभवति ।
4-3-84 विदूराञ्ञ्यः ।
4-3-85 तद्गच्छति पथिदूतयोः ।
4-3-86 अभिनिष्क्रामति द्वारम् ।
4-3-87 अधिकृत्य कृते ग्रन्थे ।
4-3-88 शिशुक्रन्दयमसभद्वंद्वेन्द्रजननादिभ्यश्छः ।
4-3-89 सोऽस्य निवासः ।
4-3-90 अभिजनश्च ।
4-3-91 आयुधजीविभ्यश्छः पर्वते ।
4-3-92 शण्डिकादिभ्यो ञ्यः ।
4-3-93 सिन्धुतक्षशिलाऽऽदिभ्योऽणञौ ।
4-3-94 तूदीशलातुरवर्मतीकूचवाराड्ढक्छण्ढञ्यकः ।
4-3-95 भक्तिः ।
4-3-96 अचित्ताददेशकालाट्ठक् ।
4-3-97 महाराजाट्ठञ् ।
4-3-98 वासुदेवार्जुनाभ्यां वुन् ।
4-3-99 गोत्रक्षत्रियाख्येभ्यो बहुलं वुञ् ।
4-3-100 जनपदिनां जनपदवत्‌ सर्वं जनपदेन समानशब्दानां
बहुवचने ।
4-3-101 तेन प्रोक्तम् ।
4-3-102 तित्तिरिवरतन्तुखण्डिकोखाच्छण् ।
4-3-103 काश्यपकौशिकाभ्यामृषिभ्यां णिनिः ।
4-3-104 कलापिवैशम्पायनान्तेवासिभ्यश्च ।
4-3-105 पुराणप्रोक्तेषु ब्राह्मणकल्पेषु ।
4-3-106 शौनकादिभ्यश्छन्दसि ।
4-3-107 कठचरकाल्लुक् ।
4-3-108 कलापिनोऽण् ।
4-3-109 छगलिनो ढिनुक् ।
4-3-110 पाराशर्यशिलालिभ्यां भिक्षुनटसूत्रयोः ।
4-3-111 कर्मन्दकृशाश्वादिनिः ।
4-3-112 तेनैकदिक् ।
4-3-113 तसिश्च ।
4-3-114 उरसो यच्च ।
4-3-115 उपज्ञाते ।
4-3-116 कृते ग्रन्थे ।
4-3-117 संज्ञायाम् ।
4-3-118 कुलालादिभ्यो वुञ् ।
4-3-119 क्षुद्राभ्रमरवटरपादपादञ् ।
4-3-120 तस्येदम् ।
4-3-121 रथाद्यत्‌ ।
4-3-122 पत्त्रपूर्वादञ् ।
4-3-123 पत्त्राध्वर्युपरिषदश्च ।
4-3-124 हलसीराट्ठक् ।
4-3-125 द्वंद्वाद्वुन् वैरमैथुनिकयोः ।
4-3-126 गोत्रचरणाद्वुञ् ।
4-3-127 संघाङ्कलक्षणेष्वञ्यञिञामण् ।
4-3-128 शाकलाद्वा ।
4-3-129 छन्दोगौक्थिकयाज्ञिकबह्वृचनटाञ्ञ्यः ।
4-3-130 न दण्डमाणवान्तेवासिषु ।
4-3-131 रैवतिकादिभ्यश्छः ।
4-3-132 कौपिञ्जलहास्तिपदादण् ।
4-3-133 आथर्वणिकस्येकलोपश्च ।
4-3-134 तस्य विकारः ।
4-3-135 अवयवे च प्राण्योषधिवृक्षेभ्यः ।
4-3-136 बिल्वादिभ्योऽण् ।
4-3-137 कोपधाच्च ।
4-3-138 त्रपुजतुनोः षुक् ।
4-3-139 ओरञ् ।
4-3-140 अनुदात्तादेश्च ।
4-3-141 पलाशादिभ्यो वा ।
4-3-142 शम्याष्ट्लञ् ।
4-3-143 मयड्वैतयोर्भाषायामभक्ष्याच्छादनयोः ।
4-3-144 नित्यं वृद्धशरादिभ्यः ।
4-3-145 गोश्च पुरीषे ।
4-3-146 पिष्टाच्च ।
4-3-147 संज्ञायां कन् ।
4-3-148 व्रीहेः पुरोडाशे ।
4-3-149 असंज्ञायां तिलयवाभ्याम्‌ ।
4-3-150 द्व्यचश्छन्दसि ।
4-3-151 नोत्वद्वर्ध्रबिल्वात्‌ ।
4-3-152 तालादिभ्योऽण् ।
4-3-153 जातरूपेभ्यः परिमाणे ।
4-3-154 प्राणिरजतादिभ्योऽञ् ।
4-3-155 ञितश्च तत्प्रत्ययात्‌ ।
4-3-156 क्रीतवत्‌ परिमाणात्‌ ।
4-3-157 उष्ट्राद्वुञ् ।
4-3-158 उमोर्णयोर्वा ।
4-3-159 एण्या ढञ् ।
4-3-160 गोपयसोर्यत्‌ ।
4-3-161 द्रोश्च ।
4-3-162 माने वयः ।
4-3-163 फले लुक् ।
4-3-164 प्लक्षादिभ्योऽण् ।
4-3-165 जम्ब्वा वा ।
4-3-166 लुप् च ।
4-3-167 हरीतक्यादिभ्यश्च ।
4-3-168 कंसीयपरशव्ययोर्यञञौ लुक् च ।
4-4-1 प्राग्वहतेष्ठक् ।
4-4-2 तेन दीव्यति खनति जयति जितम् ।
4-4-3 संस्कृतम् ।
4-4-4 कुलत्थकोपधादण् ।
4-4-5 तरति ।
4-4-6 गोपुच्छाट्ठञ् ।
4-4-7 नौद्व्यचष्ठन् ।
4-4-8 चरति ।
4-4-9 आकर्षात् ष्ठल् ।
4-4-10 पर्पादिभ्यः ष्ठन् ।
4-4-11 श्वगणाट्ठञ्च ।
4-4-12 वेतनादिभ्यो जीवति ।
4-4-13 वस्नक्रयविक्रयाट्ठन् ।
4-4-14 आयुधाच्छ च ।
4-4-15 हरत्युत्सङ्गादिभ्यः ।
4-4-16 भस्त्राऽऽदिभ्यः ष्ठन् ।
4-4-17 विभाषा विवधवीवधात्‌ ।
4-4-18 अण् कुटिलिकायाः ।
4-4-19 निर्वृत्तेऽक्षद्यूतादिभ्यः ।
4-4-20 क्त्रेर्मम् नित्यं ।
4-4-21 अपमित्ययाचिताभ्यां कक्कनौ ।
4-4-22 संसृष्टे ।
4-4-23 चूर्णादिनिः ।
4-4-24 लवणाल्लुक् ।
4-4-25 मुद्गादण् ।
4-4-26 व्यञ्जनैरुपसिक्ते ।
4-4-27 ओजस्सहोऽम्भसा वर्तते ।
4-4-28 तत् प्रत्यनुपूर्वमीपलोमकूलम् ।
4-4-29 परिमुखं च ।
4-4-30 प्रयच्छति गर्ह्यम् ।
4-4-31 कुसीददशैकादशात्‌ ष्ठन्ष्ठचौ ।
4-4-32 उञ्छति ।
4-4-33 रक्षति ।
4-4-34 शब्ददर्दुरं करोति ।
4-4-35 पक्षिमत्स्यमृगान् हन्ति ।
4-4-36 परिपन्थं च तिष्ठति ।
4-4-37 माथोत्तरपदपदव्यनुपदं धावति ।
4-4-38 आक्रन्दाट्ठञ्च ।
4-4-39 पदोत्तरपदं गृह्णाति ।
4-4-40 प्रतिकण्ठार्थललामं च ।
4-4-41 धर्मं चरति ।
4-4-42 प्रतिपथमेति ठंश्च ।
4-4-43 समवायान् समवैति ।
4-4-44 परिषदो ण्यः ।
4-4-45 सेनाया वा ।
4-4-46 संज्ञायां ललाटकुक्कुट्यौ पश्यति ।
4-4-47 तस्य धर्म्यम् ।
4-4-48 अण् महिष्यादिभ्यः ।
4-4-49 ऋतोऽञ् ।
4-4-50 अवक्रयः ।
4-4-51 तदस्य पण्यम् ।
4-4-52 लवणाट्ठञ् ।
4-4-53 किशरादिभ्यः ष्ठन् ।
4-4-54 शलालुनोऽन्यतरस्याम् ।
4-4-55 शिल्पम्‌ ।
4-4-56 मड्डुकझर्झरादणन्यतरस्याम् ।
4-4-57 प्रहरणम् ।
4-4-58 परश्वधाट्ठञ्च ।
4-4-59 शक्तियष्ट्योरीकक् ।
4-4-60 अस्तिनास्तिदिष्टं मतिः ।
4-4-61 शीलम् ।
4-4-62 छत्रादिभ्यो णः ।
4-4-63 कर्माध्ययने वृत्तम् ।
4-4-64 बह्वच्पूर्वपदाट्ठच् ।
4-4-65 हितं भक्षाः ।
4-4-66 तदस्मै दीयते नियुक्तम् ।
4-4-67 श्राणामांसौदनाट्टिठन् ।
4-4-68 भक्तादणन्यतरस्याम् ।
4-4-69 तत्र नियुक्तः ।
4-4-70 अगारान्ताट्ठन् ।
4-4-71 अध्यायिन्यदेशकालात्‌ ।
4-4-72 कठिनान्तप्रस्तारसंस्थानेषु व्यवहरति ।
4-4-73 निकटे वसति ।
4-4-74 आवसथात् ष्ठल् ।
4-4-75 प्राग्घिताद्यत्‌ ।
4-4-76 तद्वहति रथयुगप्रासङ्गम् ।
4-4-77 धुरो यड्ढकौ ।
4-4-78 खः सर्वधुरात्‌ ।
4-4-79 एकधुराल्लुक् च ।
4-4-80 शकटादण् ।
4-4-81 हलसीराट्ठक् ।
4-4-82 संज्ञायां जन्याः ।
4-4-83 विध्यत्यधनुषा ।
4-4-84 धनगणं लब्धा ।
4-4-85 अन्नाण्णः ।
4-4-86 वशं गतः ।
4-4-87 पदमस्मिन् दृश्यम्‌ ।
4-4-88 मूलमस्याबर्हि ।
4-4-89 संज्ञायां धेनुष्या ।
4-4-90 गृहपतिना संयुक्ते ञ्यः ।
4-4-91 नौवयोधर्मविषमूलमूलसीतातुलाभ्यस्तार्यतुल्यप्राप्य\-
वध्यानाम्यसमसमितसम्मितेषु ।
4-4-92 धर्मपथ्यर्थन्यायादनपेते ।
4-4-93 छन्दसो निर्मिते ।
4-4-94 उरसोऽण् च ।
4-4-95 हृदयस्य प्रियः ।
4-4-96 बन्धने चर्षौ ।
4-4-97 मतजनहलात्‌ करणजल्पकर्षेषु ।
4-4-98 तत्र साधुः ।
4-4-99 प्रतिजनादिभ्यः खञ् ।
4-4-100 भक्ताण्णः ।
4-4-101 परिषदो ण्यः ।
4-4-102 कथाऽऽदिभ्यष्ठक् ।
4-4-103 गुडादिभ्यष्ठञ् ।
4-4-104 पथ्यतिथिवसतिस्वपतेर्ढञ् ।
4-4-105 सभाया यः ।
4-4-106 ढश्छन्दसि ।
4-4-107 समानतीर्थे वासी ।
4-4-108 समानोदरे शयित ओ चोदात्तः ।
4-4-109 सोदराद्यः ।
4-4-110 भवे छन्दसि ।
4-4-111 पाथोनदीभ्यां ड्यण् ।
4-4-112 वेशन्तहिमवद्भ्यामण् ।
4-4-113 स्रोतसो विभाषा ड्यड्ड्यौ ।
4-4-114 सगर्भसयूथसनुताद्यन् ।
4-4-115 तुग्राद्घन् ।
4-4-116 अग्राद्यत्‌ ।
4-4-117 घच्छौ च ।
4-4-118 समुद्राभ्राद्घः ।
4-4-119 बर्हिषि दत्तम् ।
4-4-120 दूतस्य भागकर्मणी ।
4-4-121 रक्षोयातूनां हननी ।
4-4-122 रेवतीजगतीहविष्याभ्यः प्रशस्ये ।
4-4-123 असुरस्य स्वम् ।
4-4-124 मायायामण् ।
4-4-125 तद्वानासामुपधानो मन्त्र इतीष्टकासु लुक् च मतोः ।
4-4-126 अश्विमानण् ।
4-4-127 वयस्यासु मूर्ध्नो मतुप्‌ ।
4-4-128 मत्वर्थे मासतन्वोः ।
4 4-129 मधोर्ञ च ।
4-4-130 ओजसोऽहनि यत्खौ ।
4-4-131 वेशोयशआदेर्भगाद्यल् ।
4-4-132 ख च ।
4-4-133 पूर्वैः कृतमिनियौ च ।
4-4-134 अद्भिः संस्कृतम् ।
4-4-135 सहस्रेण संमितौ घः ।
4-4-136 मतौ च ।
4-4-137 सोममर्हति यः ।
4-4-138 मये च ।
4-4-139 मधोः ।
4-4-140 वसोः समूहे च ।
4-4-141 नक्षत्राद्घः ।
4-4-142 सर्वदेवात्‌ तातिल् ।
4-4-143 शिवशमरिष्टस्य करे ।
4-4-144 भावे च ।

Chapter -5

5-1-1 प्राक् क्रीताच्छः ।
5-1-2 उगवादिभ्योऽत्‌ ।
5-1-3 कम्बलाच्च संज्ञायाम् ।
5-1-4 विभाषा हविरपूपादिभ्यः ।
5-1-5 तस्मै हितम् ।
5-1-6 शरीरावयवाद्यत्‌ ।
5-1-7 खलयवमाषतिलवृषब्रह्मणश्च ।
5-1-8 अजाविभ्यां थ्यन् ।
5-1-9 आत्मन्विश्वजनभोगोत्तरपदात्‌ खः ।
5-1-10 सर्वपुरुषाभ्यां णढञौ ।
5-1-11 माणवचरकाभ्यां खञ् ।
5-1-12 तदर्थं विकृतेः प्रकृतौ ।
5-1-13 छदिरुपधिबलेः ढञ् ।
5-1-14 ऋषभोपानहोर्ञ्यः ।
5-1-15 चर्म्मणोऽञ् ।
5-1-16 तदस्य तदस्मिन् स्यादिति ।
5-1-17 परिखाया ढञ् ।
5-1-18 प्राग्वतेष्ठञ् ।
5-1-19 आर्हादगोपुच्छसंख्यापरिमाणाट्ठक् ।
5-1-20 असमासे निष्कादिभ्यः ।
5-1-21 शताच्च ठन्यतावशते ।
5-1-22 संख्याया अतिशदन्तायाः कन् ।
5-1-23 वतोरिड्वा ।
5-1-24 विंशतित्रिंशद्भ्यां ड्वुन्नसंज्ञायाम्‌ ।
5-1-25 कंसाट्टिठन् ।
5-1-26 शूर्पादञन्यतरस्याम् ।
5-1-27 शतमानविंशतिकसहस्रवसनादण् ।
5-1-28 अध्यर्धपूर्वद्विगोर्लुगसंज्ञायाम् ।
5-1-29 विभाषा कार्षापणसहस्राभ्याम् ।
5-1-30 द्वित्रिपूर्वान्निष्कात्‌ ।
5-1-31 बिस्ताच्च ।
5-1-32 विंशतिकात्‌ खः ।
5-1-33 खार्या ईकन् ।
5-1-34 पणपादमाषशतादत्‌ ।
5-1-35 शाणाद्वा ।
5-1-36 द्वित्रिपूर्वादण् च ।
5-1-37 तेन क्रीतम् ।
5-1-38 तस्य निमित्तं संयोगोत्पातौ ।
5-1-39 गोद्व्यचोरसंख्यापरिमाणाश्वादेर्यत्‌ ।
5-1-40 पुत्राच्छ च ।
5-1-41 सर्वभूमिपृथिवीभ्यामणञौ ।
5-1-42 तस्येश्वरः ।
5-1-43 तत्र विदित इति च ।
5-1-44 लोकसर्वलोकाट्ठञ् ।
5-1-45 तस्य वापः ।
5-1-46 पात्रात् ष्ठन् ।
5-1-47 तदस्मिन् वृद्ध्यायलाभशुल्कोपदा दीयते ।
5-1-48 पूरणार्धाट्ठन् ।
5-1-49 भागाद्यच्च ।
5-1-50 तद्धरति वहत्यावहति भाराद्वंशादिभ्यः ।
5-1-51 वस्नद्रव्याभ्यां ठन्कनौ ।
5-1-52 सम्भवत्यवहरति पचति ।
5-1-53 आढकाचितपात्रात्‌ खोऽन्यतरयाम् ।
5-1-54 द्विगोष्ठंश्च ।
5-1-55 कुलिजाल्लुक्खौ च ।
5-1-56 सोऽस्यांशवस्नभृतयः ।
5-1-57 तदस्य परिमाणम् ।
5-1-58 संख्यायाः संज्ञासंघसूत्राध्ययनेषु ।
5-1-59 पङ्क्तिविंशतित्रिंशत्चत्वारिंशत्पञ्चाशत्षष्टि\-
सप्तत्यशीतिनवतिशतम् ।
5-1-60 पञ्चद्दशतौ वर्गे वा ।
5-1-61 सप्तनोऽञ् छन्दसि ।
5-1-62 त्रिंशच्चत्वारिंशतोर्ब्राह्मणे संज्ञायां डण् ।
5-1-63 तद् अर्हति ।
5-1-64 छेदादिभ्यो नित्यम् ।
5-1-65 शीर्षच्छेदाद्यच्च ।
5-1-66 दण्डादिभ्यः ।
5-1-67 छन्दसि च ।
5-1-68 पात्राद्घंश्च ।
5-1-69 कडङ्गरदक्षिणाच्छ च ।
5-1-70 स्थालीबिलात्‌ ।
5-1-71 यज्ञर्त्विग्भ्यां घखञौ ।
5-1-72 पारायणतुरायणचान्द्रायणं वर्तयति ।
5-1-73 संशयमापन्नः ।
5-1-74 योजनं गच्छति ।
5-1-75 पथः ष्कन् ।
5-1-76 पन्थो ण नित्यम् ।
5-1-77 उत्तरपथेनाहृतं च ।
5-1-78 कालात्‌ ।
5-1-79 तेन निर्वृत्तम् ।
5-1-80 तमधीष्टो भृतो भूतो भावी ।
5-1-81 मासाद्वयसि यत्खञौ ।
5-1-82 द्विगोर्यप्‌ ।
5-1-83 षण्मासाण्ण्यच्च ।
5-1-84 अवयसि ठंश्च ।
5-1-85 समायाः खः ।
5-1-86 द्विगोर्वा ।
5-1-87 रात्र्यहस्संवत्सराच्च ।
5-1-88 वर्षाल्लुक् च ।
5-1-89 चित्तवति नित्यम् ।
5-1-90 षष्टिकाः षष्टिरात्रेण पच्यन्ते ।
5-1-91 वत्सरान्ताच्छश्छन्दसि ।
5-1-92 सम्परिपूर्वात्‌ ख च ।
5-1-93 तेन परिजय्यलभ्यकार्यसुकरम् ।
5-1-94 तदस्य ब्रह्मचर्यम् ।
5-1-95 तस्य च दक्षिणा यज्ञाख्येभ्यः ।
5-1-96 तत्र च दीयते कार्यं भववत्‌ ।
5-1-97 व्युष्टादिभ्योऽण् ।
5-1-98 तेन यथाकथाचहस्ताभ्यां णयतौ ।
5-1-99 सम्पादिनि ।
5-1-100 कर्मवेषाद्यत् ।
5-1-101 तस्मै प्रभवति संतापादिभ्यः ।
5-1-102 योगाद्यच्च ।
5-1-103 कर्मण उकञ् ।
5-1-104 समयस्तदस्य प्राप्तम् ।
5-1-105 ऋतोरण् ।
5-1-106 छन्दसि घस् ।
5-1-107 कालाद्यत्‌ ।
5-1-108 प्रकृष्टे ठञ् ।
5-1-109 प्रयोजनम् ।
5-1-110 विशाखाऽऽषाढादण् मन्थदण्डयोः ।
5-1-111 अनुप्रवचनादिभ्यश्छः ।
5-1-112 समापनात्‌ सपूर्वपदात्‌ ।
5-1-113 ऐकागारिकट् चौरे ।
5-1-114 आकालिकडाद्यन्तवचने ।
5-1-115 तेन तुल्यं क्रिया चेद्वतिः ।
5-1-116 तत्र तस्येव ।
5-1-117 तदर्हम् ।
5-1-118 उपसर्गाच्छन्दसि धात्वर्थे ।
5-1-119 तस्य भावस्त्वतलौ ।
5-1-120 आ च त्वात्‌ ।
5-1-121 न – नञ्पूर्वात्तत्पुरुषादचतुरसंगतलवणवटयुधकतर- सलसेभ्यः ।
5-1-122 पृथ्वादिभ्य इमनिज्वा ।
5-1-123 वर्णदृढादिभ्यः ष्यञ् च ।
5-1-124 गुणवचनब्राह्मणादिभ्यः कर्मणि च ।
5-1-125 स्तेनाद्यन्नलोपश्च ।
5-1-126 सख्युर्यः ।
5-1-127 कपिज्ञात्योर्ढक् ।
5-1-128 पत्यन्तपुरोहितादिभ्यो यक् ।
5-1-129 प्राणभृज्जातिवयोवचनोद्गात्रादिभ्योऽञ् ।
5-1-130 हायनान्तयुवादिभ्योऽण् ।
5-1-131 इगन्ताच्च लघुपूर्वात्‌ ।
5-1-132 योपधाद्गुरूपोत्तमाद्वुञ् ।
5-1-133 द्वंद्वमनोज्ञादिभ्यश्च ।
5-1-134 गोत्रचरणाच्श्लाघाऽत्याकारतदवेतेषु ।
5-1-135 होत्राभ्यश्छः ।
5-1-136 ब्रह्मणस्त्वः ।
5-2-1 धान्यानां भवने क्षेत्रे खञ् ।
5-2-2 व्रीहिशाल्योर्ढक् ।
5-2-3 यवयवकषष्टिकादत्‌ ।
5-2-4 विभाषा तिलमाषोमाभङ्गाऽणुभ्यः ।
5-2-5 सर्वचर्मणः कृतः खखञौ ।
5-2-6 यथामुखसंमुखस्य दर्शनः खः ।
5-2-7 तत्सर्वादेः पथ्यङ्गकर्मपत्रपात्रं व्याप्नोति ।
5-2-8 आप्रपदं प्राप्नोति ।
5-2-9 अनुपदसर्वान्नायानयं बद्धाभक्षयतिनेयेषु ।
5-2-10 परोवरपरम्परपुत्रपौत्रमनुभवति ।
5-2-11 अवारपारात्यन्तानुकामं गामी ।
5-2-12 समांसमां विजायते ।
5-2-13 अद्यश्वीनाऽवष्टब्धे ।
5-2-14 आगवीनः ।
5-2-15 अनुग्वलंगामी ।
5-2-16 अध्वनो यत्खौ ।
5-2-17 अभ्यमित्राच्छ च ।
5-2-18 गोष्ठात्‌ खञ् भूतपूर्वे ।
5-2-19 अश्वस्यैकाहगमः ।
5-2-20 शालीनकौपीने अधृष्टाकार्ययोः ।
5-2-21 व्रातेन जीवति ।
5-2-22 साप्तपदीनं सख्यम् ।
5-2-23 हैयंगवीनं संज्ञायाम् ।
5-2-24 तस्य पाकमूले पील्वदिकर्णादिभ्यः कुणब्जाहचौ ।
5-2-25 पक्षात्तिः ।
5-2-26 तेन वित्तश्चुञ्चुप्चणपौ ।
5-2-27 विनञ्भ्यां नानाञौ नसह ।
5-2-28 वेः शालच्छङ्कटचौ ।
5-2-29 सम्प्रोदश्च कटच् ।
5-2-30 अवात्‌ कुटारच्च ।
5-2-31 नते नासिकायाः संज्ञायां टीटञ्नाटज्भ्राटचः ।
5-2-32 नेर्बिडज्बिरीसचौ ।
5-2-33 इनच्पिटच्चिकचि च ।
5-2-34 उपाधिभ्यां त्यकन्नासन्नारूढयोः ।
5-2-35 कर्मणि घटोऽठच् ।
5-2-36 तदस्य संजातं तारकाऽऽदिभ्य इतच् ।
5-2-37 प्रमाणे द्वयसज्दघ्नञ्मात्रचः ।
5-2-38 पुरुषहस्तिभ्यामण् च ।
5-2-39 यद्तदेतेभ्यः परिमाणे वतुप्‌ ।
5-2-40 किमिदंभ्यां वो घः ।
5-2-41 किमः संख्यापरिमाणे डति च ।
5-2-42 संख्याया अवयवे तयप्‌ ।
5-2-43 द्वित्रिभ्यां तयस्यायज्वा ।
5-2-44 उभादुदात्तो नित्यम् ।
5-2-45 तदस्मिन्नधिकमिति दशान्ताड्डः ।
5-2-46 शदन्तविंशतेश्च ।
5-2-47 संख्याया गुणस्य निमाने मयट् ।
5-2-48 तस्य पूरणे डट् ।
5-2-49 नान्तादसंख्याऽऽदेर्मट् ।
5-2-50 थट् च च्छन्दसि ।
5-2-51 षट्कतिकतिपयचतुरां थुक् ।
5-2-52 बहुपूगगणसंघस्य तिथुक् ।
5-2-53 वतोरिथुक् ।
5-2-54 द्वेस्तीयः ।
5-2-55 त्रेः सम्प्रसारणम् च ।
5-2-56 विंशत्यादिभ्यस्तमडन्यतरस्याम् ।
5-2-57 नित्यं शतादिमासार्धमाससंवत्सराच्च ।
5-2-58 षष्ट्यादेश्चासंख्याऽऽदेः ।
5-2-59 मतौ च्छः सूक्तसाम्नोः ।
5-2-60 अध्यायानुवाकयोर्लुक् ।
5-2-61 विमुक्तादिभ्योऽण् ।
5-2-62 गोषदादिभ्यो वुन् ।
5-2-63 तत्र कुशलः पथः ।
5-2-64 आकर्षादिभ्यः कन् ।
5-2-65 धनहिरण्यात्‌ कामे ।
5-2-66 स्वाङ्गेभ्यः प्रसिते ।
5-2-67 उदराट्ठगाद्यूने ।
5-2-68 सस्येन परिजातः ।
5-2-69 अंशं हारी ।
5-2-70 तन्त्रादचिरापहृते ।
5-2-71 ब्राह्मणकोष्णिके संज्ञायाम् ।
5-2-72 शीतोष्णाभ्यां कारिणि ।
5-2-73 अधिकम् ।
5-2-74 अनुकाभिकाभीकः कमिता ।
5-2-75 पार्श्वेनान्विच्छति ।
5-2-76 अयःशूलदण्डाजिनाभ्यां ठक्ठञौ ।
5-2-77 तावतिथं ग्रहणमिति लुग्वा ।
5-2-78 स एषां ग्रामणीः ।
5-2-79 शृङ्खलमस्य बन्धनं करभे ।
5-2-80 उत्क उन्मनाः ।
5-2-81 कालप्रयोजनाद्रोगे ।
5-2-82 तदस्मिन्नन्नं प्राये संज्ञायाम्‌ ।
5-2-83 कुल्माषादञ् ।
5-2-84 श्रोत्रियंश्छन्दोऽधीते ।
5-2-85 श्राद्धमनेन भुक्तमिनिठनौ ।
5-2-86 पूर्वादिनिः ।
5-2-87 सपूर्वाच्च ।
5-2-88 इष्टादिभ्यश्च ।
5-2-89 छन्दसि परिपन्थिपरिपरिणौ पर्यवस्थातरि ।
5-2-90 अनुपद्यन्वेष्टा ।
5-2-91 साक्षाद्द्रष्टरि संज्ञायाम् ।
5-2-92 क्षेत्रियच् परक्षेत्रे चिकित्स्यः ।
5-2-93
इन्द्रियमिन्द्रलिंगमिन्द्रदृष्टमिन्द्रसृष्टमिन्द्रजुष्टम्\-
इन्द्रदत्तमिति वा ।
5-2-94 तदस्यास्त्यस्मिन्निति मतुप्‌ ।
5-2-95 रसादिभ्यश्च ।
5-2-96 प्राणिस्थादातो लजन्यतरस्याम् ।
5-2-97 सिध्मादिभ्यश्च ।
5-2-98 वत्सांसाभ्यां कामबले ।
5-2-99 फेनादिलच् च ।
5-2-100 लोमादिपामादिपिच्छादिभ्यः शनेलचः ।
5-2-101 प्रज्ञाश्रद्धाऽर्चावृत्तिभ्यो णः ।
5-2-102 तपःसहस्राभ्यां विनीनी ।
5-2-103 अण् च ।
5-2-104 सिकताशर्कराभ्यां च ।
5-2-105 देशे लुबिलचौ च ।
5-2-106 दन्त उन्नत उरच् ।
5-2-107 ऊषसुषिमुष्कमधो रः ।
5-2-108 द्युद्रुभ्यां मः ।
5-2-109 केशाद्वोऽन्यतरस्याम् ।
5-2-110 गाण्ड्यजगात्‌ संज्ञायाम् ।
5-2-111 काण्डाण्डादीरन्नीरचौ ।
5-2-112 रजःकृष्यासुतिपरिषदो वलच् ।
5-2-113 दन्तशिखात्‌ संज्ञायाम् ।
5-2-114 ज्योत्स्नातमिस्राशृङ्गिणोजस्विन्नूर्जस्वलगोमिन्\-
मलिनमलीमसाः ।
5-2-115 अत इनिठनौ ।
5-2-116 व्रीह्यादिभ्यश्च ।
5-2-117 तुन्दादिभ्य इलच् च ।
5-2-118 एकगोपूर्वाट्ठञ् नित्यम् ।
5-2-119 शतसहस्रान्ताच्च निष्कात्‌ ।
5-2-120 रूपादाहतप्रशंसयोरप्‌ ।
5-2-121 अस्मायामेधास्रजो विनिः ।
5-2-122 बहुलं छन्दसि ।
5-2-123 ऊर्णाया युस् ।
5-2-124 वाचो ग्मिनिः ।
5-2-125 आलजाटचौ बहुभाषिणि ।
5-2-126 स्वामिन्नैश्वर्ये ।
5-2-127 अर्शआदिभ्योऽच् ।
5-2-128 द्वंद्वोपतापगर्ह्यात्‌ प्राणिस्थादिनिः ।
5-2-129 वातातिसाराभ्यां कुक् च ।
5-2-130 वयसि पूरणात्‌ ।
5-2-131 सुखादिभ्यश्च ।
5-2-132 धर्मशीलवर्णान्ताच्च ।
5-2-133 हस्ताज्जातौ ।
5-2-134 वर्णाद्ब्रह्मचारिणि ।
5-2-135 पुष्करादिभ्यो देशे ।
5-2-136 बलादिभ्यो मतुबन्यतरस्याम् ।
5-2-137 संज्ञायां मन्माभ्याम्.ह् ।
5-2-138 कंशंभ्यां बभयुस्तितुतयसः ।
5-2-139 तुन्दिवलिवटेर्भः ।
5-2-140 अहंशुभमोर्युस् ।
5-3-1 प्राग्दिशो विभक्तिः ।
5-3-2 किंसर्वनामबहुभ्योऽद्व्यादिभ्यः ।
5-3-3 इदम इश् ।
5-3-4 एतेतौ रथोः ।
5-3-5 एतदोऽश् ।
5-3-6 सर्वस्य सोऽन्यतरस्यां दि ।
5-3-7 पञ्चम्यास्तसिल् ।
5-3-8 तसेश्च ।
5-3-9 पर्यभिभ्यां च ।
5-3-10 सप्तम्यास्त्रल् ।
5-3-11 इदमो हः ।
5-3-12 किमोऽत्‌ ।
5-3-13 वा ह च च्छन्दसि ।
5-3-14 इतराभ्योऽपि दृश्यन्ते ।
5-3-15 सर्वैकान्यकिंयत्तदः काले दा ।
5-3-16 इदमो र्हिल् ।
5-3-17 अधुना ।
5-3-18 दानीं च ।
5-3-19 तदो दा च ।
5-3-20 तयोर्दार्हिलौ च च्छन्दसि ।
5-3-21 अनद्यतने र्हिलन्यतरस्याम् ।
5-3-22 सद्यःपरुत्परार्यैषमःपरेद्यव्यद्यपूर्वेद्युरन्येद्युर्\-
अन्यतरेद्युरितरेद्युरपरेद्युरधरेद्युरुभयेद्युरुत्तरेद्युः ।
5-3-23 प्रकारवचने थाल् ।
5-3-24 इदमस्थमुः ।
5-3-25 किमश्च ।
5-3-26 था हेतौ च च्छन्दसि ।
5-3-27 दिक्‌शब्देभ्यः सप्तमीपञ्चमीप्रथमाभ्यो
दिग्देशकालेष्वस्तातिः ।
5-3-28 दक्षिणोत्तराभ्यामतसुच् ।
5-3-29 विभाषा परावराभ्याम् ।
5-3-30 अञ्चेर्लुक् ।
5-3-31 उपर्युपरिष्टात्‌ ।
5-3-32 पश्चात्‌ ।
5-3-33 पश्च पश्चा च च्छन्दसि ।
5-3-34 उत्तराधरदक्षिणादातिः ।
5-3-35 एनबन्यतरस्यामदूरेऽपञ्चम्याः ।
5-3-36 दक्षिणादाच् ।
5-3-37 आहि च दूरे ।
5-3-38 उत्तराच्च ।
5-3-39 पूर्वाधरावराणामसि पुरधवश्चैषाम्‌ ।
5-3-40 अस्ताति च ।
5-3-41 विभाषाऽवरस्य ।
5-3-42 संख्याया विधाऽर्थे धा ।
5-3-43 अधिकरणविचाले च ।
5-3-44 एकाद्धो ध्यमुञन्यारयाम् ।
5-3-45 द्वित्र्योश्च धमुञ् ।
5-3-46 एधाच्च ।
5-3-47 याप्ये पाशप्‌ ।
5-3-48 पूरणाद्भागे तीयादन् ।
5-3-49 प्रागेकादशभ्योऽच्छन्दसि ।
5-3-50 षष्ठाष्टमाभ्यां ञ च ।
5-3-51 मानपश्वङ्गयोः कन्लुकौ च ।
5-3-52 एकादाकिनिच्चासहाये ।
5-3-53 भूतपूर्वे चरट् ।
5-3-54 षष्ठ्या रूप्य च ।
5-3-55 अतिशायने तमबिष्ठनौ ।
5-3-56 तिङश्च ।
5-3-57 द्विवचनविभज्योपपदे तरबीयसुनौ ।
5-3-58 अजादी गुणवचनादेव ।
5-3-59 तुश्छन्दसि ।
5-3-60 प्रशस्यस्य श्रः ।
5-3-61 ज्य च ।
5-3-62 वृद्धस्य च ।
5-3-63 अन्तिकबाढयोर्नेदसाधौ ।
5-3-64 युवाल्पयोः कनन्यतरस्याम् ।
5-3-65 विन्मतोर्लुक् ।
5-3-66 प्रशंसायां रूपप्‌ ।
5-3-67 ईषदसमाप्तौ कल्पब्देश्यदेशीयरः ।
5-3-68 विभाषा सुपो बहुच् पुरस्तात्तु ।
5-3-69 प्रकारवचने जातीयर्।
5-3-70 प्रागिवात्कः ।
5-3-71 अव्ययसर्वनाम्नामकच् प्राक् टेः ।
5-3-72 कस्य च दः ।
5-3-73 अज्ञाते ।
5-3-74 कुत्सिते ।
5-3-75 संज्ञायां कन् ।
5-3-76 अनुकम्पायाम् ।
5-3-77 नीतौ च तद्युक्तात्‌ ।
5-3-78 बह्वचो मनुष्यनाम्नष्ठज्वा ।
5-3-79 घनिलचौ च ।
5-3-80 प्राचामुपादेरडज्वुचौ च ।
5-3-81 जातिनाम्नः कन् ।
5-3-82 अजिनान्तस्योत्तरपदलोपश्च ।
5-3-83 ठाजादावूर्ध्वं द्वितीयादचः ।
5-3-84 शेवलसुपरिविशालवरुणार्यमादीनां तृतीयात्‌ ।
5-3-85 अल्पे ।
5-3-86 ह्रस्वे ।
5-3-87 संज्ञायां कन् ।
5-3-88 कुटीशमीशुण्डाभ्यो रः ।
5-3-89 कुत्वा डुपच् ।
5-3-90 कासूगोणीभ्यां ष्टरच् ।
5-3-91 वत्सोक्षाश्वर्षभेभ्यश्च तनुत्वे ।
5-3-92 किंयत्तदो निर्द्धारणे द्वयोरेकस्य डतरच् ।
5-3-93 वा बहूनां जातिपरिप्रश्ने डतमच् ।
5-3-94 एकाच्च प्राचाम् ।
5-3-95 अवक्षेपणे कन् ।
5-3-96 इवे प्रतिकृतौ ।
5-3-97 संज्ञायां च ।
5-3-98 लुम्मनुष्ये ।
5-3-99 जीविकाऽर्थे चापण्ये ।
5-3-100 देवपथादिभ्यश्च ।
5-3-101 वस्तेर्ढञ् ।
5-3-102 शिलाया ढः ।
5-3-103 शाखाऽऽदिभ्यो यत्‌ ।
5-3-104 द्रव्यं च भव्ये ।
5-3-105 कुशाग्राच्छः ।
5-3-106 समासाच्च तद्विषयात्‌ ।
5-3-107 शर्कराऽऽदिभ्योऽण् ।
5-3-108 अङ्गुल्यादिभ्यष्ठक् ।
5-3-109 एकशालायाष्ठजन्यतरस्याम् ।
5-3-110 कर्कलोहितादीकक् ।
5-3-111 प्रत्नपूर्वविश्वेमात्थाल् छन्दसि ।
5-3-112 पूगाञ्ञ्योऽग्रामणीपूर्वात्‌ ।
5-3-113 व्रातच्फञोरस्त्रियाम् ।
5-3-114 आयुधजीविसंघाञ्ञ्यड्वाहीकेष्वब्राह्मणराजन्यात्‌ ।
5-3-115 वृकाट्टेण्यण् ।
5-3-116 दामन्यादित्रिगर्तषष्ठाच्छः ।
5-3-117 पर्श्वादियौधेयादिभ्यामणञौ ।
5-3-118
अभिजिद्विदभृच्छालावच्छिखावच्छमीवदूर्णावच्छ्रुमदणो
यञ् ।
5-3-119 ञ्य्आदयस्तद्राजाः ।
5-4-1 पादशतस्य संख्याऽऽदेर्वीप्सायां वुन् लोपश्च ।
5-4-2 दण्डव्यवसर्गयोश्च ।
5-4-3 स्थूलादिभ्यः प्रकारवचने कन् ।
5-4-4 अनत्यन्तगतौ क्तात्‌ ।
5-4-5 न सामिवचने ।
5-4-6 बृहत्या आच्छादने ।
5-4-7 अषडक्षाशितङ्ग्वलंकर्मालम्पुरुषाध्युत्तरपदात्‌
खः ।
5-4-8 विभाषा अञ्चेरदिक्स्त्रियाम् ।
5-4-9 जात्यन्ताच्छ बन्धुनि ।
5-4-10 स्थानान्ताद्विभाषा सस्थानेनेति चेत्‌ ।
5-4-11 किमेत्तिङव्ययघादाम्वद्रव्यप्रकर्षे ।
5-4-12 अमु च च्छन्दसि ।
5-4-13 अनुगादिनष्ठक् ।
5-4-14 णचः स्त्रियामञ् ।
5-4-15 अणिनुणः ।
5-4-16 विसारिणो मत्स्ये ।
5-4-17 संख्यायाः क्रियाऽभ्यावृत्तिगणने कृत्वसुच् ।
5-4-18 द्वित्रिचतुर्भ्यः सुच् ।
5-4-19 एकस्य सकृच्च ।
5-4-20 विभाषा बहोर्धाऽविप्रकृष्टकाले ।
5-4-21 तत्प्रकृतवचने मयट् ।
5-4-22 समूहवच्च बहुषु ।
5-4-23 अनन्तावसथेतिहभेषजाञ्ञ्यः ।
5-4-24 देवतान्तात्तादर्थ्ये यत्‌ ।
5-4-25 पादार्घाभ्यां च ।
5-4-26 अतिथेर्ञ्यः ।
5-4-27 देवात्तल् ।
5-4-28 अवेः कः ।
5-4-29 यावादिभ्यः कन् ।
5-4-30 लोहितान्मणौ ।
5-4-31 वर्णे चानित्ये ।
5-4-32 रक्ते ।
5-4-33 कालाच्च ।
5-4-34 विनयादिभ्यष्ठक् ।
5-4-35 वाचो व्याहृतार्थायाम् ।
5-4-36 तद्युक्तात्‌ कर्मणोऽण् ।
5-4-37 ओषधेरजातौ ।
5-4-38 प्रज्ञादिभ्यश्च ।
5-4-39 मृदस्तिकन् ।
5-4-40 सस्नौ प्रशंसायाम् ।
5-4-41 वृकज्येष्ठाभ्यां तिल्तातिलौ च च्छन्दसि ।
5-4-42 बह्वल्पार्थाच्छस् कारकादन्यतरस्याम् ।
5-4-43 संख्यैकवचनाच्च वीप्सायाम् ।
5-4-44 प्रतियोगे पञ्चम्यास्तसिः ।
5-4-45 अपादाने चाहीयरुहोः ।
5-4-46 अतिग्रहाव्यथनक्षेपेष्वकर्तरि तृतीयायाः ।
5-4-47 हीयमानपापयोगाच्च ।
5-4-48 षष्ठ्या व्याश्रये ।
5-4-49 रोगाच्चापनयने ।
5-4-50 अभूततद्भावे कृभ्वस्तियोगे सम्पद्यकर्तरि च्विः ।
5-4-51 अरुर्मनश्चक्षुश्चेतोरहोरजसां लोपश्च ।
5-4-52 विभाषा साति कार्त्स्न्ये ।
5-4-53 अभिविधौ सम्पदा च ।
5-4-54 तदधीनवचने ।
5-4-55 देये त्रा च ।
5-4-56 देवमनुष्यपुरुषमर्त्येभ्यो द्वितीयासप्तम्योर्बहुलम् ।
5-4-57 अव्यक्तानुकरणाद्द्व्यजवरार्धादनितौ डाच् ।
5-4-58 कृञो द्वितीयतृतीयशम्बबीजात्‌ कृषौ ।
5-4-59 संख्यायाश्च गुणान्तायाः ।
5-4-60 समयाच्च यापनायाम् ।
5-4-61 सपत्त्रनिष्पत्रादतिव्यथने ।
5-4-62 निष्कुलान्निष्कोषणे ।
5-4-63 सुखप्रियादानुलोम्ये ।
5-4-64 दुःखात्‌ प्रातिलोम्ये ।
5-4-65 शूलात्‌ पाके ।
5-4-66 सत्यादशपथे ।
5-4-67 मद्रात्‌ परिवापणे ।
5-4-68 समासान्ताः ।
5-4-69 न पूजनात्‌ ।
5-4-70 किमः क्षेपे ।
5-4-71 नञस्तत्पुरुषात्‌ ।
5-4-72 पथो विभाषा ।
5-4-73 बहुव्रीहौ संख्येये डजबहुगणात्‌ ।
5-4-74 ऋक्पूरप्धूःपथामानक्षे ।
5-4-75 अच्‌ प्रत्यन्ववपूर्वात्‌ सामलोम्नः ।
5-4-76 अक्ष्णोऽदर्शनात्‌ ।
5-4-77 अचतुरविचतुरसुचतुरस्त्रीपुंसधेन्वनडुहर्क्साम\-
वाङ्मनसाक्षिभ्रुवदारगवोर्वष्ठीवपदष्ठीवनक्तंदिव\-
रत्रिंदिवाहर्दिवसरजसनिःश्रेयसपुरुषायुषद्व्यायुष\- त्र्यायुषर्ग्यजुषजातोक्षमहोक्षवृद्धोक्षोपशुनगोष्ठश्वाः ।
5-4-78 ब्रह्महस्तिभ्याम् वर्च्चसः ।
5-4-79 अवसमन्धेभ्यस्तमसः ।
5-4-80 श्वसो वसीयःश्रेयसः ।
5-4-81 अन्ववतप्ताद्रहसः ।
5-4-82 प्रतेरुरसः सप्तमीस्थात्‌ ।
5-4-83 अनुगवमायामे ।
5-4-84 द्विस्तावा त्रिस्तावा वेदिः ।
5-4-85 उपसर्गादध्वनः ।
5-4-86 तत्पुरुषस्याङ्गुलेः संख्याऽव्ययादेः ।
5-4-87 अहस्सर्वैकदेशसंख्यातपुण्याच्च रात्रेः ।
5-4-88 अह्नोऽह्न एतेभ्यः ।
5-4-89 न संख्याऽऽदेः समाहारे ।
5-4-90 उत्तमैकाभ्यां च ।
5-4-91 राजाऽहस्सखिभ्यष्टच्‌ ।
5-4-92 गोरतद्धितलुकि ।
5-4-93 अग्राख्यायामुरसः ।
5-4-94 अनोऽश्मायस्सरसाम् जातिसंज्ञयोः ।
5-4-95 ग्रामकौटाभ्यां च तक्ष्णः ।
5-4-96 अतेः शुनः ।
5-4-97 उपमानादप्राणिषु ।
5-4-98 उत्तरमृगपूर्वाच्च सक्थ्नः ।
5-4-99 नावो द्विगोः ।
5-4-100 अर्धाच्च ।
5-4-101 खार्याः प्राचाम् ।
5-4-102 द्वित्रिभ्यामञ्जलेः ।
5-4-103 अनसन्तान्नपुंसकाच्छन्दसि ।
5-4-104 ब्रह्मणो जानपदाख्यायाम् ।
5-4-105 कुमहद्भ्यामन्यतरस्याम्‌ ।
5-4-106 द्वंद्वाच्चुदषहान्तात् समाहारे ।
5-4-107 अव्ययीभावे शरत्प्रभृतिभ्यः ।
5-4-108 अनश्च ।
5-4-109 नपुंसकादन्यतर्अस्याम् ।
5-4-110 नदीपौर्णमास्याग्रहायणीभ्यः ।
5-4-111 झयः ।
5-4-112 गिरेश्च सेनकस्य ।
5-4-113 बहुव्रीहौ सक्थ्यक्ष्णोः स्वाङ्गात्‌ षच् ।
5-4-114 अङ्गुलेर्दारुणि ।
5-4-115 द्वित्रिभ्यां ष मूर्ध्नः ।
5-4-116 अप् पूरणीप्रमाण्योः ।
5-4-117 अन्तर्बहिर्भ्यां च लोम्नः ।
5-4-118 अञ्नासिकायाः संज्ञायां नसं चास्थूलात्‌ ।
5-4-119 उपसर्गाच्च ।
5-4-120 सुप्रातसुश्वसुदिवशारिकुक्षचतुरश्रैणीपदाजपद\-
प्रोष्ठपदाः ।
5-4-121 नञ्दुःसुभ्यो हलिसक्थ्योरन्यतरस्याम् ।
5-4-122 नित्यमसिच् प्रजामेधयोः ।
5-4-123 बहुप्रजाश्छन्दसि ।
5-4-124 धर्मादनिच् केवलात्‌ ।
5-4-125 जम्भा सुहरिततृणसोमेभ्यः ।
5-4-126 दक्षिणेर्मा लुब्धयोगे ।
5-4-127 इच् कर्मव्यतिहारे ।
5-4-128 द्विदण्ड्यादिभ्यश्च ।
5-4-129 प्रसम्भ्यां जानुनोर्ज्ञुः ।
5-4-130 ऊर्ध्वाद्विभाषा ।
5-4-131 ऊधसोऽनङ् ।
5-4-132 धनुषश्च ।
5-4-133 वा संज्ञायाम् ।
5-4-134 जायाया निङ् ।
5-4-135 गन्धस्येदुत्पूतिसुसुरभिभ्यः ।
5-4-136 अल्पाख्यायाम् ।
5-4-137 उपमानाच्च ।
5-4-138 पादस्य लोपोऽहस्त्यादिभ्यः ।
5-4-139 कुम्भपदीषु च ।
5-4-140 संख्यासुपूर्वस्य ।
5-4-141 वयसि दन्तस्य दतृ ।
5-4-142 छन्दसि च ।
5-4-143 स्त्रियां संज्ञायाम् ।
5-4-144 विभाषा श्यावारोकाभ्याम् ।
5-4-145 अग्रान्तशुद्धशुभ्रवृषवराहेभ्यश्च ।
5-4-146 ककुदस्यावस्थायां लोपः ।
5-4-147 त्रिककुत् पर्वते ।
5-4-148 उद्विभ्यां काकुदस्य ।
5-4-149 पूर्णाद्विभाषा ।
5-4-150 सुहृद्दुर्हृदौ मित्रामित्रयोः ।
5-4-151 उरःप्रभृतिभ्यः कप्‌ ।
5-4-152 इनः स्त्रियाम् ।
5-4-153 नद्यृतश्च ।
5-4-154 शेषाद्विभाषा ।
5-4-155 न संज्ञायाम् ।
5-4-156 ईयसश्च ।
5-4-157 वन्दिते भ्रातुः ।
5-4-158 ऋतश्छन्दसि ।
5-4-159 नाडीतन्त्र्योः स्वाङ्गे ।
5-4-160 निष्प्रवाणिश्च ।

Chapter -6

6-1-1 एकाचो द्वे प्रथमस्य ।
6-1-2 अजादेर्द्वितीयस्य ।
6-1-3 न न्द्राः संयोगादयः ।
6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः ।
6-1-5 उभे अभ्यस्तम् ।
6-1-6 जक्षित्यादयः षट् ।
6-1-7 तुजादीनां दीर्घोऽभ्यासस्य ।
6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य ।
6-1-9 सन्यङोः ।
6-1-10 श्लौ ।
6-1-11 चङि ।
6-1-12 दाश्वान् साह्वान् मीढ्वांश्च ।
6-1-13 ष्यङः सम्प्रसारणं पुत्रपत्योस्तत्पुरुषे ।
6-1-14 बन्धुनि बहुव्रीहौ ।
6-1-15 वचिस्वपियजादीनां किति ।
6-1-16 ग्रहिज्यावयिव्यधिवष्टिविचतिवृश्चतिपृच्छति\-
भृज्जतीनां ङिति च ।
6-1-17 लिट्यभ्यासस्योभयेषाम् ।
6-1-18 स्वापेश्चङि ।
6-1-19 स्वपिस्यमिव्येञां यङि ।
6-1-20 न वशः ।
6-1-21 चायः की ।
6-1-22 स्फायः स्फी निष्ठायाम् ।
6-1-23 स्त्यः प्रपूर्वस्य ।
6-1-24 द्रवमूर्तिस्पर्शयोः श्यः ।
6-1-25 प्रतेश्च ।
6-1-26 विभाषाऽभ्यवपूर्वस्य ।
6-1-27 शृतं पाके ।
6-1-28 प्यायः पी ।
6-1-29 लिड्यङोश्च ।
6-1-30 विभाषा श्वेः ।
6-1-31 णौ च संश्चङोः ।
6-1-32 ह्वः सम्प्रसारणम् ।
6-1-33 अभ्यस्तस्य च ।
6-1-34 बहुलं छन्दसि ।
6-1-35 चायः की ।
6-1-36 अपस्पृधेथामानृचुरानृहुश्चिच्युषेतित्याज\-
श्राताःश्रितमाशीराशीर्त्तः ।
6-1-37 न सम्प्रसारणे सम्प्रसारणम् ।
6-1-38 लिटि वयो यः ।
6-1-39 वश्चास्यान्यतरस्याम् किति ।
6-1-40 वेञः ।
6-1-41 ल्यपि च ।
6-1-42 ज्यश्च ।
6-1-43 व्यश्च ।
6-1-44 विभाषा परेः ।
6-1-45 आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति ।
6-1-46 न व्यो लिटि ।
6-1-47 स्फुरतिस्फुलत्योर्घञि ।
6-1-48 क्रीङ्जीनां णौ ।
6-1-49 सिध्यतेरपारलौकिके ।
6-1-50 मीनातिमिनोतिदीङां ल्यपि च ।
6-1-51 विभाषा लीयतेः ।
6-1-52 खिदेश्छन्दसि ।
6-1-53 अपगुरो णमुलि ।
6-1-54 चिस्फुरोर्णौ ।
6-1-55 प्रजने वीयतेः ।
6-1-56 बिभेतेर्हेतुभये ।
6-1-57 नित्यं स्मयतेः ।
6-1-58 सृजिदृशोर्झल्यमकिति ।
6-1-59 अनुदात्तस्य चर्दुपधस्यान्यतरस्याम् ।
6-1-60 शीर्षंश्छन्दसि ।
6-1-61 ये च तद्धिते ।
6-1-62 अचि शीर्षः ।
6-1-63 पद्दन्नोमास्हृन्निशसन्यूषन्दोषन्यकञ्छकन्नुदन्नासञ्छस्प्रभृतिषु ।
6-1-64 धात्वादेः षः सः ।
6-1-65 णो नः ।
6-1-66 लोपो व्योर्वलि ।
6-1-67 वेरपृक्तस्य ।
6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् ।
6-1-69 एङ्ह्रस्वात्‌ सम्बुद्धेः ।
6-1-70 शेश्छन्दसि बहुलम् ।
6-1-71 ह्रस्वस्य पिति कृति तुक् ।
6-1-72 संहितायाम् ।
6-1-73 छे च ।
6-1-74 आङ्माङोश्च ।
6-1-75 दीर्घात्‌ ।
6-1-76 पदान्ताद्वा ।
6-1-77 इको यणचि ।
6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः ।
6-1-79 वान्तो यि प्रत्यये ।
6-1-80 धातोस्तन्निमित्तस्यैव ।
6-1-81 क्षय्यजय्यौ शक्यार्थे ।
6-1-82 क्रय्यस्तदर्थे ।
6-1-83 भय्यप्रवय्ये च च्छन्दसि ।
6-1-84 एकः पूर्वपरयोः ।
6-1-85 अन्तादिवच्च ।
6-1-86 षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः ।
6-1-87 आद्गुणः ।
6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि ।
6-1-89 एत्येधत्यूठ्सु ।
6-1-90 आटश्च ।
6-1-91 उपसर्गादृति धातौ ।
6-1-92 वा सुप्यापिशलेः ।
6-1-93 औतोऽम्शसोः ।
6-1-94 एङि पररूपम् ।
6-1-95 ओमाङोश्च ।
6-1-96 उस्यपदान्तात्‌ ।
6-1-97 अतो गुणे ।
6-1-98 अव्यक्तानुकरणस्यात इतौ ।
6-1-99 नाम्रेडितस्यान्त्यस्य तु वा ।
6-1-100 नित्यमाम्रेडिते डाचि ।
6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः ।
6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः ।
6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि ।
6-1-104 नादिचि ।
6-1-105 दीर्घाज्जसि च ।
6-1-106 वा छन्दसि ।
6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः ।
6-1-108 सम्प्रसारणाच्च ।
6-1-109 एङः पदान्तादति ।
6-1-110 ङसिङसोश्च ।
6-1-111 ऋत उत्‌ ।
6-1-112 ख्यत्यात्‌ परस्य ।
6-1-113 अतो रोरप्लुतादप्लुते ।
6-1-114 हशि च ।
6-1-115 प्रकृत्याऽन्तःपादमव्यपरे ।
6-1-116 अव्यादवद्यादवक्रमुरव्रतायमवन्त्ववस्युषु च ।
6-1-117 यजुष्युरः ।
6-1-118 आपोजुषाणोवृष्णोवर्षिष्ठेऽम्बेऽम्बालेऽम्बिकेपूर्वे ।
6-1-119 अङ्ग इत्यादौ च ।
6-1-120 अनुदात्ते च कुधपरे ।
6-1-121 अवपथासि च ।
6-1-122 सर्वत्र विभाषा गोः ।
6-1-123 अवङ् स्फोटायनस्य ।
6-1-124 इन्द्रे च ##(##नित्यम्##)## ।
6-1-125 प्लुतप्रगृह्या अचि नित्यम् ।
6-1-126 आङोऽनुनासिकश्छन्दसि ।
6-1-127 इकोऽसवर्णे शाकल्यस्य ह्रस्वश्च ।
6-1-128 ऋत्यकः ।
6-1-129 अप्लुतवदुपस्थिते ।
6-1-130 ई3 चाक्रवर्मणस्य ।
6-1-131 दिव उत्‌ ।
6-1-132 एतत्तदोः सुलोपोऽकोरनञ्समासे हलि ।
6-1-133 स्यश्छन्दसि बहुलम् ।
6-1-134 सोऽचि लोपे चेत्‌ पादपूरणम् ।
6-1-135 सुट् कात्‌ पूर्वः ।
6-1-136 अडभ्यासव्यवायेऽपि ।
6-1-137 सम्पर्युपेभ्यः करोतौ भूषणे ।
6-1-138 समवाये च ।
6-1-139 उपात्‌ प्रतियत्नवैकृतवाक्याध्याहारेषु ।
6-1-140 किरतौ लवने ।
6-1-141 हिंसायां प्रतेश्च ।
6-1-142 अपाच्चतुष्पाच्छकुनिष्वालेखने ।
6-1-143 कुस्तुम्बुरूणि जातिः ।
6-1-144 अपरस्पराः क्रियासातत्ये ।
6-1-145 गोष्पदं सेवितासेवितप्रमाणेषु ।
6-1-146 आस्पदं प्रतिष्ठायाम्‌ ।
6-1-147 आश्चर्यमनित्ये ।
6-1-148 वर्चस्केऽवस्करः ।
6-1-149 अपस्करो रथाङ्गम् ।
6-1-150 विष्किरः शकुनिर्विकरो वा ।
6-1-151 ह्रस्वाच्चन्द्रोत्तरपदे मन्त्रे ।
6-1-152 प्रतिष्कशश्च कशेः ।
6-1-153 प्रस्कण्वहरिश्चन्द्रावृषी ।
6-1-154 मस्करमस्करिणौ वेणुपरिव्राजकयोः ।
6-1-155 कास्तीराजस्तुन्दे नगरे ।
6-1-156 कारस्करो वृक्षः ।
6-1-157 पारस्करप्रभृतीनि च संज्ञायाम् ।
6-1-158 अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम्‌ ।
6-1-159 कर्षात्वतो घञोऽन्त उदात्तः ।
6-1-160 उञ्छादीनां च ।
6-1-161 अनुदात्तस्य च यत्रोदात्तलोपः ।
6-1-162 धातोः ।
6-1-163 चितः ।
6-1-164 तद्धितस्य ।
6-1-165 कितः ।
6-1-166 तिसृभ्यो जसः ।
6-1-167 चतुरः शसि ।
6-1-168 सावेकाचस्तृतीयाऽऽदिविभक्तिः ।
6-1-169 अन्तोदत्तादुत्तरपदादन्यतरस्यामनित्यसमासे ।
6-1-170 अञ्चेश्छन्दस्यसर्वनामस्थानम् ।
6-1-171 ऊडिदम्पदाद्यप्पुम्रैद्युभ्यः ।
6-1-172 अष्टनो दीर्घात्‌ ।
6-1-173 शतुरनुमो नद्यजादी ।
6-1-174 उदात्तयणो हल्पूर्वात्‌ ।
6-1-175 नोङ्धात्वोः ।
6-1-176 ह्रस्वनुड्भ्यां मतुप्‌ ।
6-1-177 नामन्यतरस्याम्‌ ।
6-1-178 ङ्याश्छन्दसि बहुलम् ।
6-1-179 षट्त्रिचतुर्भ्यो हलादिः ।
6-1-180 झल्युपोत्तमम् ।
6-1-181 विभाषा भाषायाम् ।
6-1-182 न गोश्वन्त्साववर्णराडङ्क्रुङ्कृद्भ्यः ।
6-1-183 दिवो झल् ।
6-1-184 नृ चान्यतरस्याम् ।
6-1-185 तित्स्वरितम् ।
6-1-186 तास्यनुदात्तेन्ङिददुपदेशाल्लसार्वधातुकम्\-
अनुदात्तमहन्विङोः ।
6-1-187 आदिः सिचोऽन्यतरस्याम् ।
6-1-188 स्वपादिर्हिंसामच्यनिटि ।
6-1-189 अभ्यस्तानामादिः ।
6-1-190 अनुदात्ते च ।
6-1-191 सर्वस्य सुपि ।
6-1-192 भीह्रीभृहुमदजनधनदरिद्राजागरां प्रत्ययात् पूर्वम्
पिति ।
6-1-193 लिति ।
6-1-194 आदिर्णमुल्यन्यतरस्याम् ।
6-1-195 अचः कर्तृयकि ।
6-1-196 थलि च सेटीडन्तो वा ।
6-1-197 ञ्णित्यादिर्नित्यम् ।
6-1-198 आमन्त्रितस्य च ।
6-1-199 पथिमथोः सर्वनामस्थाने ।
6-1-200 अन्तश्च तवै युगपत्‌ ।
6-1-201 क्षयो निवासे ।
6-1-202 जयः करणम् ।
6-1-203 वृषादीनां च ।
6-1-204 संज्ञायामुपमानम्‌ ।
6-1-205 निष्ठा च द्व्यजनात्‌ ।
6-1-206 शुष्कधृष्टौ ।
6-1-207 आशितः कर्ता ।
6-1-208 रिक्ते विभाषा ।
6-1-209 जुष्टार्पिते च छन्दसि ।
6-1-210 नित्यं मन्त्रे ।
6-1-211 युष्मदस्मदोर्ङसि ।
6-1-212 ङयि च ।
6-1-213 यतोऽनावः ।
6-1-214 ईडवन्दवृशंसदुहां ण्यतः ।
6-1-215 विभाषा वेण्विन्धानयोः ।
6-1-216 त्यागरागहासकुहश्वठक्रथानाम् ।
6-1-217 उपोत्तमं रिति ।
6-1-218 चङ्यन्यतरस्याम् ।
6-1-219 मतोः पूर्वमात्‌ संज्ञायां स्त्रियाम्‌ ।
6-1-220 अन्तोऽवत्याः ।
6-1-221 ईवत्याः ।
6-1-222 चौ ।
6-1-223 समासस्य ।
6-2-1 बहुव्रीहौ प्रकृत्या पूर्वपदम् ।
6-2-2 तत्पुरुषे
तुल्यार्थतृतीयासप्तम्युपमानाव्ययद्वितीयाकृत्याः ।
6-2-3 वर्णः वर्णेष्वनेते ।
6-2-4 गाधलवणयोः प्रमाणे ।
6-2-5 दायाद्यं दायादे ।
6-2-6 प्रतिबन्धि चिरकृच्छ्रयोः ।
6-2-7 पदेऽपदेशे ।
6-2-8 निवाते वातत्राणे ।
6-2-9 शारदेअनार्तवे ।
6-2-10 अध्वर्युकषाययोर्जातौ ।
6-2-11 सदृशप्रतिरूपयोः सादृश्ये ।
6-2-12 द्विगौ प्रमाणे ।
6-2-13 गन्तव्यपण्यं वाणिजे ।
6-2-14 मात्रोपज्ञोपक्रमच्छाये नपुंसके ।
6-2-15 सुखप्रिययोर्हिते ।
6-2-16 प्रीतौ च ।
6-2-17 स्वं स्व्आमिनि ।
6-2-18 पत्यावैश्वर्ये ।
6-2-19 न भूवाक्चिद्दिधिषु ।
6-2-20 वा भुवनम् ।
6-2-21 आशङ्काबाधनेदीयस्सु संभावने ।
6-2-22 पूर्वे भूतपूर्वे ।
6-2-23 सविधसनीडसमर्यादसवेशसदेशेषु सामीप्ये ।
6-2-24 विस्पष्टादीनि गुणवचनेषु ।
6-2-25 श्रज्याऽवमकन्पापवत्सु भावे कर्मधारये ।
6-2-26 कुमारश्च ।
6-2-27 आदिः प्रत्येनसि ।
6-2-28 पूगेष्वन्यतरस्याम् ।
6-2-29 इगन्तकालकपालभगालशरावेषु द्विगौ ।
6-2-30 बह्वन्यतरस्याम् ।
6-2-31 दिष्टिवितस्त्योश्च ।
6-2-32 सप्तमी सिद्धशुष्कपक्वबन्धेष्वकालात्‌ ।
6-2-33 परिप्रत्युपापा वर्ज्यमानाहोरात्रावयवेषु ।
6-2-34 राजन्यबहुवचनद्वंद्वेऽन्धकवृष्णिषु ।
6-2-35 संख्या ।
6-2-36 आचार्योपसर्जनश्चान्तेवासी ।
6-2-37 कार्तकौजपादयश्च ।
6-2-38 महान् व्रीह्यपराह्णगृष्टीष्वासजाबाल\-
भारभारतहैलिहिलरौरवप्रवृद्धेषु ।
6-2-39 क्षुल्लकश्च वैश्वदेवे ।
6-2-40 उष्ट्रः सादिवाम्योः ।
6-2-41 गौः सादसादिसारथिषु ।
6-2-42 कुरुगार्हपतरिक्तगुर्वसूतजरत्यश्लीलदृढरूपा\-
पारेवडवातैतिलकद्रूःपण्यकम्बलो दासीभाराणां च ।
6-2-43 चतुर्थी तदर्थे ।
6-2-44 अर्थे ।
6-2-45 क्ते च ।
6-2-46 कर्मधारयेऽनिष्ठा ।
6-2-47 अहीने द्वितीया ।
6-2-48 तृतीया कर्मणि ।
6-2-49 गतिरनन्तरः ।
6-2-50 तादौ च निति कृत्यतौ ।
6-2-51 तवै चान्तश्च युगपत्‌ ।
6-2-52 अनिगन्तोऽञ्चतौ वप्रत्यये ।
6-2-53 न्यधी च ।
6-2-54 ईषदन्यतरस्याम् ।
6-2-55 हिरण्यपरिमाणं धने ।
6-2-56 प्रथमोऽचिरोपसम्पत्तौ ।
6-2-57 कतरकतमौ कर्मधारये ।
6-2-58 आर्यो ब्राह्मणकुमारयोः ।
6-2-59 राजा च ।
6-2-60 षष्ठी प्रत्येनसि ।
6-2-61 क्ते नित्यार्थे ।
6-2-62 ग्रामः शिल्पिनि ।
6-2-63 राजा च प्रशंसायाम् ।
6-2-64 आदिरुदात्तः ।
6-2-65 सप्तमीहारिणौ धर्म्येऽहरणे ।
6-2-66 युक्ते च ।
6-2-67 विभाषाऽध्यक्षे ।
6-2-68 पापं च शिल्पिनि ।
6-2-69 गोत्रान्तेवासिमाणवब्राह्मणेषु क्षेपे ।
6-2-70 अङ्गानि मैरेये ।
6-2-71 भक्ताख्यास्तदर्थेषु ।
6-2-72 गोबिडालसिंहसैन्धवेषूपमाने ।
6-2-73 अके जीविकाऽर्थे ।
6-2-74 प्राचां क्रीडायाम् ।
6-2-75 अणि नियुक्ते ।
6-2-76 शिल्पिनि चाकृञः ।
6-2-77 संज्ञायां च ।
6-2-78 गोतन्तियवं पाले ।
6-2-79 णिनि ।
6-2-80 उपमानं शब्दार्थप्रकृतावेव ।
6-2-81 युक्तारोह्यादयश्च ।
6-2-82 दीर्घकाशतुषभ्राष्ट्रवटं जे ।
6-2-83 अन्त्यात्‌ पूर्वं बह्वचः ।
6-2-84 ग्रामेऽनिवसन्तः ।
6-2-85 घोषादिषु ।
6-2-86 छात्र्यादयः शालायाम् ।
6-2-87 प्रस्थेऽवृद्धमकर्क्यादीनाम्‌ ।
6-2-88 मालाऽऽदीनां च ।
6-2-89 अमहन्नवं नगरेऽनुदीचाम् ।
6-2-90 अर्मे चावर्णं द्व्यच्त्र्यच् ।
6-2-91 न भूताधिकसंजीवमद्राश्मकज्जलम् ।
6-2-92 अन्तः ।
6-2-93 सर्वं गुणकार्त्स्न्ये ।
6-2-94 संज्ञायां गिरिनिकाययोः ।
6-2-95 कुमार्यां वयसि ।
6-2-96 उदकेऽकेवले ।
6-2-97 द्विगौ क्रतौ ।
6-2-98 सभायां नपुंसके ।
6-2-99 पुरे प्राचाम् ।
6-2-100 अरिष्टगौडपूर्वे च ।
6-2-101 न हास्तिनफलकमार्देयाः ।
6-2-102 कुसूलकूपकुम्भशालं बिले ।
6-2-103 दिक्‌शब्दा ग्रामजनपदाख्यानचानराटेषु ।
6-2-104 आचार्योपसर्जनश्चान्तेवासिनि ।
6-2-105 उत्तरपदवृद्धौ सर्वं च ।
6-2-106 बहुव्रीहौ विश्वं संज्ञयाम् ।
6-2-107 उदराश्वेषुषु ।
6-2-108 क्षेपे ।
6-2-109 नदी बन्धुनि ।
6-2-110 निष्ठोपसर्गपूर्वमन्यतरस्याम्‌ ।
6-2-111 उत्तरपदादिः ।
6-2-112 कर्णो वर्णलक्षणात्‌ ।
6-2-113 संज्ञौपम्ययोश्च ।
6-2-114 कण्ठपृष्ठग्रीवाजंघं च ।
6-2-115 शृङ्गमवस्थायां च ।
6-2-116 नञो जरमरमित्रमृताः ।
6-2-117 सोर्मनसी अलोमोषसी ।
6-2-118 क्रत्वादयश्च ।
6-2-119 आद्युदात्तं द्व्यच् छन्दसि ।
6-2-120 वीरवीर्यौ च ।
6-2-121 कूलतीरतूलमूलशालाऽक्षसममव्ययीभावे ।
6-2-122 कंसमन्थशूर्पपाय्यकाण्डं द्विगौ ।
6-2-123 तत्पुरुषे शालायां नपुंसके ।
6-2-124 कन्था च ।
6-2-125 आदिश्चिहणादीनाम् ।
6-2-126 चेलखेटकटुककाण्डं गर्हायाम् ।
6-2-127 चीरमुपमानम्‌ ।
6-2-128 पललसूपशाकं मिश्रे ।
6-2-129 कूलसूदस्थलकर्षाः संज्ञायाम् ।
6-2-130 अकर्मधारये राज्यम् ।
6-2-131 वर्ग्यादयश्च ।
6-2-132 पुत्रः पुंभ्यः ।
6-2-133 नाचार्यराजर्त्विक्संयुक्तज्ञात्याख्येभ्यः ।
6-2-134 चूर्णादीन्यप्राणिषष्ठ्याः ।
6-2-135 षट् च काण्डादीनि ।
6-2-136 कुण्डं वनम् ।
6-2-137 प्रकृत्या भगालम् ।
6-2-138 शितेर्नित्याबह्वज्बहुव्रीहावभसत्‌ ।
6-2-139 गतिकारकोपपदात्‌ कृत्‌ ।
6-2-140 उभे वनस्पत्यादिषु युगपत्‌ ।
6-2-141 देवताद्वंद्वे च ।
6-2-142 नोत्तरपदेऽनुदात्तादावपृथिवीरुद्रपूषमन्थिषु ।
6-2-143 अन्तः ।
6-2-144 थाथघञ्क्ताजबित्रकाणाम् ।
6-2-145 सूपमानात्‌ क्तः ।
6-2-146 संज्ञायामनाचितादीनाम्‌ ।
6-2-147 प्रवृद्धादीनां च ।
6-2-148 कारकाद्दत्तश्रुतयोरेवाशिषि ।
6-2-149 इत्थम्भूतेन कृतमिति च ।
6-2-150 अनो भावकर्मवचनः ।
6-2-151 मन्क्तिन्व्याख्यानशयनासनस्थानयाजकादिक्रीताः ।
6-2-152 सप्तम्याः पुण्यम् ।
6-2-153 ऊनार्थकलहं तृतीयायाः ।
6-2-154 मिश्रं चानुपसर्गमसंधौ ।
6-2-155 नञो गुणप्रतिषेधे सम्पाद्यर्हहितालमर्थास्तद्धिताः ।
6-2-156 ययतोश्चातदर्थे ।
6-2-157 अच्कावशक्तौ ।
6-2-158 आक्रोशे च ।
6-2-159 संज्ञायाम् ।
6-2-160 कृत्योकेष्णुच्चार्वादयश्च ।
6-2-161 विभाषा तृन्नन्नतीक्ष्णशुचिषु ।
6-2-162 बहुव्रीहाविदमेतत्तद्भ्यः प्रथमपूरणयोः क्रियागणने ।
6-2-163 संख्यायाः स्तनः ।
6-2-164 विभाषा छन्दसि ।
6-2-165 संज्ञायां मित्राजिनयोः ।
6-2-166 व्यवायिनोऽन्तरम् ।
6-2-167 मुखं स्वाङ्गम् ।
6-2-168 नाव्ययदिक्‌शब्दगोमहत्स्थूलमुष्टिपृथुवत्सेभ्यः ।
6-2-169 निष्ठोपमानादन्यतरस्याम् ।
6-2-170 जातिकालसुखादिभ्योऽनाच्छादनात्‌
क्तोऽकृतमितप्रतिपन्नाः ।
6-2-171 वा जाते ।
6-2-172 नञ्सुभ्याम् ।
6-2-173 कपि पूर्वम् ।
6-2-174 ह्रस्वान्तेऽन्त्यात्‌ पूर्वम् ।
6-2-175 बहोर्नञ्वदुत्तरपदभूम्नि ।
6-2-176 न गुणादयोऽवयवाः ।
6-2-177 उपसर्गात्‌ स्वाङ्गं ध्रुवमपर्शु ।
6-2-178 वनं समासे ।
6-2-179 अन्तः ।
6-2-180 अन्तश्च ।
6-2-181 न निविभ्याम् ।
6-2-182 परेरभितोभाविमण्डलम् ।
6-2-183 प्रादस्वाङ्गं संज्ञायाम् ।
6-2-184 निरुदकादीनि च ।
6-2-185 अभेर्मुखम् ।
6-2-186 अपाच्च ।
6-2-187 स्फिगपूतवीणाऽञ्जोऽध्वकुक्षिसीरनामनाम च ।
6-2-188 अधेरुपरिस्थम् ।
6-2-189 अनोरप्रधानकनीयसी ।
6-2-190 पुरुषश्चान्वादिष्टः ।
6-2-191 अतेरकृत्पदे ।
6-2-192 नेरनिधाने ।
6-2-193 प्रतेरंश्वादयस्तत्पुरुषे ।
6-2-194 उपाद् द्व्यजजिनमगौरादयः ।
6-2-195 सोरवक्षेपणे ।
6-2-196 विभाषोत्पुच्छे ।
6-2-197 द्वित्रिभ्यां पाद्दन्मूर्धसु बहुव्रीहौ ।
6-2-198 सक्थं चाक्रान्तात्‌ ।
6-2-199 परादिश्छन्दसि बहुलम् ।
6-3-1 अलुगुत्तरपदे ।
6-3-2 पञ्चम्याः स्तोकादिभ्यः ।
6-3-3 ओजःसहोऽम्भस्तमसः तृतीयायाः ।
6-3-4 मनसः संज्ञायाम् ।
6-3-5 आज्ञायिनि च ।
6-3-6 आत्मनश्च पूरणे ।
6-3-7 वैयाकरणाख्यायां चतुर्थ्याः ।
6-3-8 परस्य च ।
6-3-9 हलदन्तात्‌ सप्तम्याः संज्ञायाम् ।
6-3-10 कारनाम्नि च प्राचां हलादौ ।
6-3-11 मध्याद्गुरौ ।
6-3-12 अमूर्धमस्तकात्‌ स्वाङ्गादकामे ।
6-3-13 बन्धे च विभाषा ।
6-3-14 तत्पुरुषे कृति बहुलम् ।
6-3-15 प्रावृट्शरत्कालदिवां जे ।
6-3-16 विभाषा वर्षक्षरशरवरात्‌ ।
6-3-17 घकालतनेषु कालनाम्नः ।
6-3-18 शयवासवासिषु अकालात्‌ ।
6-3-19 नेन्सिद्धबध्नातिषु ।
6-3-20 स्थे च भाषायाम् ।
6-3-21 षष्ठ्या आक्रोशे ।
6-3-22 पुत्रेऽन्यतरस्याम् ।
6-3-23 ऋतो विद्यायोनिसम्बन्धेभ्यः ।
6-3-24 विभाषा स्वसृपत्योः ।
6-3-25 आनङ् ऋतो द्वंद्वे ।
6-3-26 देवताद्वंद्वे च ।
6-3-27 ईदग्नेः सोमवरुणयोः ।
6-3-28 इद्वृद्धौ ।
6-3-29 दिवो द्यावा ।
6-3-30 दिवसश्च पृथिव्याम् ।
6-3-31 उषासोषसः ।
6-3-32 मातरपितरावुदीचाम् ।
6-3-33 पितरामातरा च च्छन्दसि ।
6-3-34 स्त्रियाः पुंवद्भाषितपुंस्कादनूङ् समानाधिकरणे
स्त्रियामपूरणीप्रियाऽऽदिषु ।
6-3-35 तसिलादिषु आकृत्वसुचः ।
6-3-36 क्यङ्मानिनोश्च ।
6-3-37 न कोपधायाः ।
6-3-38 संज्ञापूरण्योश्च ।
6-3-39 वृद्धिनिमित्तस्य च तद्धितस्यारक्तविकारे ।
6-3-40 स्वाङ्गाच्चेतोऽमानिनि ।
6-3-41 जातेश्च ।
6-3-42 पुंवत्‌ कर्मधारयजातीयदेशीयेषु ।
6-3-43 घरूपकल्पचेलड्ब्रुवगोत्रमतहतेषु ङ्योऽनेकाचो ह्रस्वः ।
6-3-44 नद्याः शेषस्यान्यतरस्याम् ।
6-3-45 उगितश्च ।
6-3-46 आन्महतः समानाधिकरणजातीययोः ।
6-3-47 द्व्यष्टनः संख्यायामबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः ।
6-3-48 त्रेस्त्रयः ।
6-3-49 विभाषा चत्वारिंशत्प्रभृतौ सर्वेषाम् ।
6-3-50 हृदयस्य हृल्लेखयदण्लासेषु ।
6-3-51 वा शोकष्यञ्रोगेषु ।
6-3-52 पादस्य पदाज्यातिगोपहतेषु ।
6-3-53 पद् यत्यतदर्थे ।
6-3-54 हिमकाषिहतिषु च ।
6-3-55 ऋचः शे ।
6-3-56 वा घोषमिश्रशब्देषु ।
6-3-57 उदकस्योदः संज्ञायाम् ।
6-3-58 पेषंवासवाहनधिषु च ।
6-3-59 एकहलादौ पूरयितव्येऽन्यतरस्याम् ।
6-3-60 मन्थौदनसक्तुबिन्दुवज्रभारहारवीवधगाहेषु च ।
6-3-61 इको ह्रस्वोऽङ्यो गालवस्य ।
6-3-62 एक तद्धिते च ।
6-3-63 ङ्यापोः संज्ञाछन्दसोर्बहुलम् ।
6-3-64 त्वे च ।
6-3-65 इष्टकेषीकामालानां चिततूलभारिषु ।
6-3-66 खित्यनव्ययस्य ।
6-3-67 अरुर्द्विषदजन्तस्य मुम् ।
6-3-68 इच एकाचोऽम्प्रत्ययवच्च ।
6-3-69 वाचंयमपुरंदरौ च ।
6-3-70 कारे सत्यागदस्य ।
6-3-71 श्येनतिलस्य पाते ञे ।
6-3-72 रात्रेः कृति विभाषा ।
6-3-73 नलोपो नञः ।
6-3-74 तस्मान्नुडचि ।
6-3-75 नभ्राण्नपान्नवेदानासत्यानमुचिनकुलनखनपुंसकनक्षत्रनक्रनाकेषु प्रकृत्या ।
6-3-76 एकादिश्चैकस्य चादुक् ।
6-3-77 नगोऽप्राणिष्वन्यतरस्याम् ।
6-3-78 सहस्य सः संज्ञायाम् ।
6-3-79 ग्रन्थान्ताधिके च ।
6-3-80 द्वितीये चानुपाख्ये ।
6-3-81 अव्ययीभावे चाकाले ।
6-3-82 वोपसर्जनस्य ।
6-3-83 प्रकृत्याऽऽशिष्यगोवत्सहलेषु ।
6-3-84 समानस्य छन्दस्यमूर्धप्रभृत्युदर्केषु ।
6-3-85 ज्योतिर्जनपदरात्रिनाभिनामगोत्ररूपस्थानवर्ण\- वयोवचनबन्धुषु ।
6-3-86 चरणे ब्रह्मचारिणि ।
6-3-87 तीर्थे ये ।
6-3-88 विभाषोदरे ।
6-3-89 दृग्दृशवतुषु ।
6-3-90 इदङ्किमोरीश्की ।
6-3-91 आ सर्वनाम्नः ।
6-3-92 विष्वग्देवयोश्च टेरद्र्यञ्चतौ वप्रत्यये ।
6-3-93 समः समि ।
6-3-94 तिरसस्तिर्यलोपे ।
6-3-95 सहस्य सध्रिः ।
6-3-96 सध मादस्थयोश्छन्दसि ।
6-3-97 द्व्यन्तरुपसर्गेभ्योऽप ईत्‌ ।
6-3-98 ऊदनोर्देशे ।
6-3-99 अषष्ठ्यतृतीयास्थस्यान्यस्य -दुगाशिराशाऽऽस्थाऽऽस्थितोत्सुकोतिकारकरागच्छेषु ।
6-3-100 अर्थे विभाषा ।
6-3-101 कोः कत्‌ तत्पुरुषेऽचि ।
6-3-102 रथवदयोश्च ।
6-3-103 तृणे च जातौ ।
6-3-104 का पथ्यक्षयोः ।
6-3-105 ईषदर्थे ।
6-3-106 विभाषा पुरुषे ।
6-3-107 कवं चोष्णे ।
6-3-108 पथि च च्छन्दसि ।
6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् ।
6-3-110 संख्याविसायपूर्वस्याह्नस्याहन्नन्यतरस्यां ङौ ।
6-3-111 ढ्रलोपे पूर्वस्य दीर्घोऽणः ।
6-3-112 सहिवहोरोदवर्णस्य ।
6-3-113 साढ्यै साढ्वा साढेति निगमे ।
6-3-114 संहितायाम् ।
6-3-115 कर्णे लक्षणस्याविष्टाष्टपञ्चमणिभिन्न\- छिन्नछिद्रस्रुवस्वस्तिकस्य ।
6-3-116 नहिवृतिवृषिव्यधिरुचिसहितनिषु क्वौ ।
6-3-117 वनगिर्योः संज्ञायां कोटरकिंशुलकादीनाम् ।
6-3-118 वले ।
6-3-119 मतौ बह्वचोऽनजिरादीनाम् ।
6-3-120 शरादीनां च ।
6-3-121 इकः वहे अपीलोः ।
6-3-122 उपसर्गस्य घञ्यमनुष्ये बहुलम् ।
6-3-123 इकः काशे ।
6-3-124 दस्ति ।
6-3-125 अष्टनः संज्ञायाम् ।
6-3-126 छन्दसि च ।
6-3-127 चितेः कपि ।
6-3-128 विश्वस्य वसुराटोः ।
6-3-129 नरे संज्ञायाम् ।
6-3-130 मित्रे चर्षौ ।
6-3-131 मन्त्रे सोमाश्वेन्द्रियविश्वदेव्यस्य मतौ ।
6-3-132 ओषधेश्च विभक्तावप्रथमायाम् ।
6-3-133 ऋचि तुनुघमक्षुतङ्कुत्रोरुष्याणाम् ।
6-3-134 इकः सुञि ।
6-3-135 द्व्यचोऽतस्तिङः ।
6-3-136 निपातस्य च ।
6-3-137 अन्येषामपि दृश्यते ।
6-3-138 चौ ।
6-3-139 सम्प्रसारणस्य ।
6-4-1 अङ्गस्य ।
6-4-2 हलः ।
6-4-3 नामि ।
6-4-4 न तिसृचतसृ ।
6-4-5 छन्दस्युभयथा ।
6-4-6 नृ च ।
6-4-7 नोपधायाः ।
6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ ।
6-4-9 वा षपूर्वस्य निगमे ।
6-4-10 सान्तमहतः संयोगस्य ।
6-4-11 अप्तृन्तृच्स्वसृनप्तृनेष्टृत्वष्टृक्षत्तृहोतृपोतृप्रशास्तॄणाम् ।
6-4-12 इन्हन्पूषार्यम्णां शौ ।
6-4-13 सौ च ।
6-4-14 अत्वसन्तस्य चाधातोः ।
6-4-15 अनुनासिकस्य क्विझलोः क्ङिति ।
6-4-16 अज्झनगमां सनि ।
6-4-17 तनोतेर्विभाषा ।
6-4-18 क्रमश्च क्त्वि ।
6-4-19 च्छ्वोः शूडनुनासिके च ।
6-4-20 ज्वरत्वरश्रिव्यविमवामुपधायाश्च ।
6-4-21 राल्लोपः ।
6-4-22 असिद्धवदत्राभात्‌ ।
6-4-23 श्नान्नलोपः ।
6-4-24 अनिदितां हल उपधायाः क्ङिति ।
6-4-25 दन्शसञ्जस्वञ्जां शपि ।
6-4-26 रञ्जेश्च ।
6-4-27 घञि च भावकरणयोः ।
6-4-28 स्यदो जवे ।
6-4-29 अवोदैधौद्मप्रश्रथहिमश्रथाः ।
6-4-30 नाञ्चेः पूजायाम् ।
6-4-31 क्त्वि स्कन्दिस्यन्दोः ।
6-4-32 जान्तनशां विभाषा ।
6-4-33 भञ्जेश्च चिणि ।
6-4-34 शास इदङ्हलोः ।
6-4-35 शा हौ ।
6-4-36 हन्तेर्जः ।
6-4-37 अनुदात्तोपदेशवनतितनोत्यादीनामनुनासिकलोपो झलि क्ङिति ।
6-4-38 वा ल्यपि ।
6-4-39 न क्तिचि दीर्घश्च ।
6-4-40 गमः क्वौ ।
6-4-41 विड्वनोरनुनासिकस्यात्‌ ।
6-4-42 जनसनखनां सञ्झलोः ।
6-4-43 ये विभाषा ।
6-4-44 तनोतेर्यकि ।
6-4-45 सनः क्तिचि लोपश्चास्यान्यतरस्याम् ।
6-4-46 आर्धधातुके ।
6-4-47 भ्रस्जो रोपधयोः रमन्यतरस्याम्‌ ।
6-4-48 अतो लोपः ।
6-4-49 यस्य हलः ।
6-4-50 क्यस्य विभाषा ।
6-4-51 णेरनिटि ।
6-4-52 निष्ठायां सेटि ।
6-4-53 जनिता मन्त्रे ।
6-4-54 शमिता यज्ञे ।
6-4-55 अयामन्ताल्वाय्येत्न्विष्णुषु ।
6-4-56 ल्यपि लघुपूर्वात्‌ ।
6-4-57 विभाषाऽऽपः ।
6-4-58 युप्लुवोर्दीर्घश्छन्दसि ।
6-4-59 क्षियः ।
6-4-60 निष्ठायां अण्यदर्थे ।
6-4-61 वाऽऽक्रोशदैन्ययोः ।
6-4-62 स्यसिच्सीयुट्तासिषु भावकर्मणोरुपदेशेऽज्झनग्रहदृशां वा चिण्वदिट् च ।
6-4-63 दीङो युडचि क्ङिति ।
6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च ।
6-4-65 ईद्यति ।
6-4-66 घुमास्थागापाजहातिसां हलि ।
6-4-67 एर्लिङि ।
6-4-68 वाऽन्यस्य संयोगादेः ।
6-4-69 न ल्यपि ।
6-4-70 मयतेरिदन्यतरस्याम् ।
6-4-71 लुङ्लङ्लृङ्क्ष्वडुदात्तः ।
6-4-72 आडजादीनाम् ।
6-4-73 छन्दस्यपि दृश्यते ।
6-4-74 न माङ्योगे ।
6-4-75 बहुलं छन्दस्यमाङ्योगेऽपि ।
6-4-76 इरयो रे ।
6-4-77 अचि श्नुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियङुवङौ ।
6-4-78 अभ्यासस्यासवर्णे ।
6-4-79 स्त्रियाः ।
6-4-80 वाऽम्शसोः ।
6-4-81 इणो यण् ।
6-4-82 एरनेकाचोऽसंयोगपूर्वस्य ।
6-4-83 ओः सुपि ।
6-4-84 वर्षाभ्वश्च ।
6-4-85 न भूसुधियोः ।
6-4-86 छन्दस्युभयथा ।
6-4-87 हुश्नुवोः सार्वधातुके ।
6-4-88 भुवो वुग्लुङ्लिटोः ।
6-4-89 ऊदुपधाया गोहः ।
6-4-90 दोषो णौ ।
6-4-91 वा चित्तविरागे ।
6-4-92 मितां ह्रस्वः ।
6-4-93 चिण्णमुलोर्दीर्घोऽन्यतरस्याम् ।
6-4-94 खचि ह्रस्वः ।
6-4-95 ह्लादो निष्ठायाम् ।
6-4-96 छादेर्घेऽद्व्युपसर्गस्य ।
6-4-97 इस्मन्त्रन्क्विषु च ।
6-4-98 गमहनजनखनघसां लोपः क्ङित्यनङि ।
6-4-99 तनिपत्योश्छन्दसि ।
6-4-100 घसिभसोर्हलि च ।
6-4-101 हुझल्भ्यो हेर्धिः ।
6-4-102 श्रुशृणुपॄकृवृभ्यश्छन्दसि ।
6-4-103 अङितश्च ।
6-4-104 चिणो लुक् ।
6-4-105 अतो हेः ।
6-4-106 उतश्च प्रत्ययादसंयोगपूर्वात्‌ ।
6-4-107 लोपश्चास्यान्यतरस्यां म्वोः ।
6-4-108 नित्यं करोतेः ।
6-4-109 ये च ।
6-4-110 अत उत्‌ सार्वधातुके ।
6-4-111 श्नसोरल्लोपः ।
6-4-112 श्नाऽभ्यस्तयोरातः ।
6-4-113 ई हल्यघोः ।
6-4-114 इद्दरिद्रस्य ।
6-4-115 भियोऽन्यतरस्याम् ।
6-4-116 जहातेश्च ।
6-4-117 आ च हौ ।
6-4-118 लोपो यि ।
6-4-119 घ्वसोरेद्धावभ्यासलोपश्च ।
6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि ।
6-4-121 थलि च सेटि ।
6-4-122 तॄफलभजत्रपश्च ।
6-4-123 राधो हिंसायाम् ।
6-4-124 वा जॄभ्रमुत्रसाम् ।
6-4-125 फणां च सप्तानाम् ।
6-4-126 न शसददवादिगुणानाम् ।
6-4-127 अर्वणस्त्रसावनञः ।
6-4-128 मघवा बहुलम् ।
6-4-129 भस्य ।
6-4-130 पादः पत् ।
6-4-131 वसोः सम्प्रसारणम् ।
6-4-132 वाह ऊठ् ।
6-4-133 श्वयुवमघोनामतद्धिते ।
6-4-134 अल्लोपोऽनः ।
6-4-135 षपूर्वहन्धृतराज्ञामणि ।
6-4-136 विभाषा ङिश्योः ।
6-4-137 न संयोगाद्वमान्तात्‌ ।
6-4-138 अचः ।
6-4-139 उद ईत्‌ ।
6-4-140 आतो धातोः ।
6-4-141 मन्त्रेष्वाङ्यादेरात्मनः ।
6-4-142 ति विंशतेर्डिति ।
6-4-143 टेः ।
6-4-144 नस्तद्धिते ।
6-4-145 अह्नष्टखोरेव ।
6-4-146 ओर्गुणः ।
6-4-147 ढे लोपोऽकद्र्वाः ।
6-4-148 यस्येति च ।
6-4-149 सूर्यतिष्यागस्त्यमत्स्यानां य उपधायाः ।
6-4-150 हलस्तद्धितस्य ।
6-4-151 आपत्यस्य च तद्धितेऽनाति ।
6-4-152 क्यच्व्योश्च ।
6-4-153 बिल्वकादिभ्यश्छस्य लुक् ।
6-4-154 तुरिष्ठेमेयस्सु ।
6-4-155 टेः ।
6-4-156 स्थूलदूरयुवह्रस्वक्षिप्रक्षुद्राणां यणादिपरं पूर्वस्य
च गुणः ।
6-4-157 प्रियस्थिरस्फिरोरुबहुलगुरुवृद्धतृप्रदीर्घ\-
वृन्दारकाणां प्रस्थस्फवर्बंहिगर्वर्षित्रब्द्राघिवृन्दाः ।
6-4-158 बहोर्लोपो भू च बहोः ।
6-4-159 इष्ठस्य यिट् च ।
6-4-160 ज्यादादीयसः ।
6-4-161 र ऋतो हलादेर्लघोः ।
6-4-162 विभाषर्जोश्छन्दसि ।
6-4-163 प्रकृत्यैकाच् ।
6-4-164 इनण्यनपत्ये ।
6-4-165 गाथिविदथिकेशिगणिपणिनश्च ।
6-4-166 संयोगादिश्च ।
6-4-167 अन् ।
6-4-168 ये चाभावकर्मणोः ।
6-4-169 आत्माध्वानौ खे ।
6-4-170 न मपूर्वोऽपत्येऽवर्मणः ।
6-4-171 ब्राह्मोअजातौ ।
6-4-172 कार्मस्ताच्छील्ये ।
6-4-173 औक्षमनपत्ये ।
6-4-174 दाण्डिनायनहास्तिनायनाथर्वणिकजैह्माशिनेय\- वाशिनायनिभ्रौणहत्यधैवत्यसारवैक्ष्वाकमैत्रेयहिरण्मयानि ।
6-4-175 ऋत्व्यवास्त्व्यवास्त्वमाध्वीहिरण्ययानि च्छन्दसि ।

Chapter-7 

7-1-1 युवोरनाकौ ।
7-1-2 आयनेयीनीयियः फढखच्छघां प्रत्ययादीनाम्‌ ।
7-1-3 झोऽन्तः ।
7-1-4 अदभ्यस्तात्‌ ।
7-1-5 आत्मनेपदेष्वनतः ।
7-1-6 शीङो रुट् ।
7-1-7 वेत्तेर्विभाषा ।
7-1-8 बहुलं छन्दसि ।
7-1-9 अतो भिस ऐस् ।
7-1-10 बहुलं छन्दसि ।
7-1-11 नेदमदसोरकोः ।
7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः ।
7-1-13 ङेर्यः ।
7-1-14 सर्वनाम्नः स्मै ।
7-1-15 ङसिङ्योः स्मात्स्मिनौ ।
7-1-16 पूर्वादिभ्यो नवभ्यो वा ।
7-1-17 जसः शी ।
7-1-18 औङ आपः ।
7-1-19 नपुंसकाच्च ।
7-1-20 जश्शसोः शिः ।
7-1-21 अष्टाभ्य औश् ।
7-1-22 षड्भ्यो लुक् ।
7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ ।
7-1-24 अतोऽम् ।
7-1-25 अद्ड् डतरादिभ्यः पञ्चभ्यः ।
7-1-26 नेतराच्छन्दसि ।
7-1-27 युष्मदस्मद्भ्यां ङसोऽश् ।
7-1-28 ङे प्रथमयोरम् ।
7-1-29 शसो न ।
7-1-30 भ्यसो भ्यम् ।
7-1-31 पञ्चम्या अत्‌ ।
7-1-32 एकवचनस्य च ।
7-1-33 साम आकम् ।
7-1-34 आत औ णलः ।
7-1-35 तुह्योस्तातङाशिष्यन्यतरस्याम् ।
7-1-36 विदेः शतुर्वसुः ।
7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ ।
7-1-38 क्त्वाऽपि छन्दसि ।
7-1-39 सुपां सुलुक्पूर्वसवर्णाऽऽच्छेयाडाड्यायाजालः ।
7-1-40 अमो मश् ।
7-1-41 लोपस्त आत्मनेपदेषु ।
7-1-42 ध्वमो ध्वात्‌ ।
7-1-43 यजध्वैनमिति च ।
7-1-44 तस्य तात्‌ ।
7-1-45 तप्तनप्तनथनाश्च ।
7-1-46 इदन्तो मसि ।
7-1-47 क्त्वो यक् ।
7-1-48 इष्ट्वीनमिति च ।
7-1-49 स्नात्व्यादयश्च ।
7-1-50 आज्जसेरसुक् ।
7-1-51 अश्वक्षीरवृषलवणानामात्मप्रीतौ क्यचि ।
7-1-52 आमि सर्वनाम्नः सुट् ।
7-1-53 त्रेस्त्रयः ।
7-1-54 ह्रस्वनद्यापो नुट् ।
7-1-55 षट्चतुर्भ्यश्च ।
7-1-56 श्रीग्रामण्योश्छन्दसि ।
7-1-57 गोः पादान्ते ।
7-1-58 इदितो नुम् धातोः ।

7-1-59 शे मुचादीनाम् ।
7-1-60 मस्जिनशोर्झलि ।
7-1-61 रधिजभोरचि ।
7-1-62 नेट्यलिटि रधेः ।
7-1-63 रभेरशब्लिटोः ।
7-1-64 लभेश्च ।
7-1-65 आङो यि ।
7-1-66 उपात्‌ प्रशंसायाम् ।
7-1-67 उपसर्गात्‌ खल्घञोः ।
7-1-68 न सुदुर्भ्यां केवलाभ्याम् ।
7-1-69 विभाषा चिण्णमुलोः ।
7-1-70 उगिदचां सर्वनामस्थानेऽधातोः ।
7-1-71 युजेरसमासे ।
7-1-72 नपुंसकस्य झलचः ।
7-1-73 इकोऽचि विभक्तौ ।
7-1-74 तृतीयाऽऽदिषु भाषितपुंस्कं पुंवद्गालवस्य ।
7-1-75 अस्थिदधिसक्थ्यक्ष्णामनङुदात्तः ।
7-1-76 छन्दस्यपि दृश्यते ।
7-1-77 ई च द्विवचने ।
7-1-78 नाभ्यस्ताच्छतुः ।
7-1-79 वा नपुंसकस्य ।
7-1-80 आच्छीनद्योर्नुम् ।
7-1-81 शप्श्यनोर्नित्यम् ।
7-1-82 सावनडुहः ।
7-1-83 दृक्स्ववस्स्वतवसां छन्दसि ।
7-1-84 दिव औत्‌ ।
7-1-85 पथिमथ्यृभुक्षामात्‌ ।
7-1-86 इतोऽत्‌ सर्वनामस्थाने ।
7-1-87 थो न्थः ।
7-1-88 भस्य टेर्लोपः ।
7-1-89 पुंसोऽसुङ् ।
7-1-90 गोतो णित्‌ ।
7-1-91 णलुत्तमो वा ।
7-1-92 सख्युरसम्बुद्धौ ।
7-1-93 अनङ् सौ ।
7-1-94 ऋदुशनस्पुरुदंसोऽनेहसां च ।
7-1-95 तृज्वत्‌ क्रोष्टुः ।
7-1-96 स्त्रियां च ।
7-1-97 विभाषा तृतीयाऽऽदिष्वचि ।
7-1-98 चतुरनडुहोरामुदात्तः ।
7-1-99 अम् सम्बुद्धौ ।
7-1-100 ॠत इद्धातोः ।
7-1-101 उपधायाश्च ।
7-1-102 उदोष्ठ्यपूर्वस्य ।
7-1-103 बहुलं छन्दसि ।
7-2-1 सिचि वृद्धिः परस्मैपदेषु ।
7-2-2 अतो र्लान्तस्य ।
7-2-3 वदव्रजहलन्तस्याचः ।
7-2-4 नेटि ।
7-2-5 ह्म्यन्तक्षणश्वसजागृणिश्व्येदिताम् ।
7-2-6 ऊर्णोतेर्विभाषा ।
7-2-7 अतो हलादेर्लघोः ।
7-2-8 नेड् वशि कृति ।
7-2-9 तितुत्रतथसिसुसरकसेषु च ।
7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ ।
7-2-11 श्र्युकः किति ।
7-2-12 सनि ग्रहगुहोश्च ।
7-2-13 कृसृभृवृस्तुद्रुस्रुश्रुवो लिटि ।
7-2-14 श्वीदितो निष्ठायाम् ।
7-2-15 यस्य विभाषा ।
7-2-16 आदितश्च ।
7-2-17 विभाषा भावादिकर्मणोः ।
7-2-18 क्षुब्धस्वान्तध्वान्तलग्नम्लिष्टविरिब्धफाण्टबाढानि-मन्थमनस्तमःसक्ताविस्पष्टस्वरानायासभृशेषु ।
7-2-19 धृषिशसी वैयात्ये ।
7-2-20 दृढः स्थूलबलयोः ।
7-2-21 प्रभौ परिवृढः ।
7-2-22 कृच्छ्रगहनयोः कषः ।
7-2-23 घुषिरविशब्दने ।
7-2-24 अर्देः संनिविभ्यः ।
7-2-25 अभेश्चाविदूर्ये ।
7-2-26 णेरध्ययने वृत्तम् ।
7-2-27 वा दान्तशान्तपूर्णदस्तस्पष्टच्छन्नज्ञप्ताः ।
7-2-28 रुष्यमत्वरसंघुषास्वनाम् ।
7-2-29 हृषेर्लोमसु ।
7-2-30 अपचितश्च ।
7-2-31 ह्रु ह्वरेश्छन्दसि ।
7-2-32 अपरिह्वृताश्च ।
7-2-33 सोमे ह्वरितः ।
7-2-34 ग्रसितस्कभितस्तभितोत्तभितचत्तविकस्तविशस्तॄ\- शंस्तृशास्तृतरुतृतरूतृवरुतृवरूतृवरुत्रीरुज्ज्वलितिक्षरिति\-
क्षमितिवमित्यमितीति च ।
7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः ।
7-2-36 स्नुक्रमोरनात्मनेपदनिमित्ते ।
7-2-37 ग्रहोऽलिटि दीर्घः ।
7-2-38 वॄतो वा ।
7-2-39 न लिङि ।
7-2-40 सिचि च परस्मैपदेषु ।
7-2-41 इट् सनि वा ।
7-2-42 लिङ्सिचोरात्मनेपदेषु ।
7-2-43 ऋतश्च संयोगादेः ।
7-2-44 स्वरतिसूतिसूयतिधूञूदितो वा ।
7-2-45 रधादिभ्यश्च ।
7-2-46 निरः कुषः ।
7-2-47 इण्निष्ठायाम् ।
7-2-48 तीषसहलुभरुषरिषः ।
7-2-49 सनीवन्तर्धभ्रस्जदम्भुश्रिस्वृयूर्णुभरज्ञपिसनाम् ।
7-2-50 क्लिशः क्त्वानिष्ठयोः ।
7-2-51 पूङश्च ।
7-2-52 वसतिक्षुधोरिट् ।
7-2-53 अञ्चेः पूजायाम् ।
7-2-54 लुभो विमोचने ।
7-2-55 जॄव्रश्च्योः क्त्वि ।
7-2-56 उदितो वा ।
7-2-57 सेऽसिचि कृतचृतच्छृदतृदनृतः ।
7-2-58 गमेरिट् परस्मैपदेषु ।
7-2-59 न वृद्भ्यश्चतुर्भ्यः ।
7-2-60 तासि च कपः ।
7-2-61 अचस्तास्वत्‌ थल्यनिटो नित्यम् ।
7-2-62 उपदेशेऽत्वतः ।
7-2-63 ऋतो भारद्वाजस्य ।
7-2-64 बभूथाततन्थजगृम्भववर्थेति निगमे ।
7-2-65 विभाषा सृजिदृषोः ।
7-2-66 इडत्त्यर्तिव्ययतीनाम् ।
7-2-67 वस्वेकाजाद्घसाम् ।
7-2-68 विभाषा गमहनविदविशाम् ।
7-2-69 सनिंससनिवांसम् ।
7-2-70 ऋद्धनोः स्ये ।
7-2-71 अञ्जेः सिचि ।
7-2-72 स्तुसुधूञ्भ्यः परस्मैपदेषु ।
7-2-73 यमरमनमातां सक् च ।
7-2-74 स्मिपूङ्रञ्ज्वशां सनि ।
7-2-75 किरश्च पञ्चभ्यः ।
7-2-76 रुदादिभ्यः सार्वधातुके ।
7-2-77 ईशः से ।
7-2-78 ईडजनोर्ध्वे च ।
7-2-79 लिङः सलोपोऽनन्त्यस्य ।
7-2-80 अतो येयः ।
7-2-81 आतो ङितः ।
7-2-82 आने मुक् ।
7-2-83 ईदासः ।
7-2-84 अष्टन आ विभक्तौ ।
7-2-85 रायो हलि ।
7-2-86 युष्मदस्मदोरनादेशे ।
7-2-87 द्वितीयायां च ।
7-2-88 प्रथमायाश्च द्विवचने भाषायाम् ।
7-2-89 योऽचि ।
7-2-90 शेषे लोपः ।
7-2-91 मपर्यन्तस्य ।
7-2-92 युवावौ द्विवचने ।
7-2-93 यूयवयौ जसि ।
7-2-94 त्वाहौ सौ ।
7-2-95 तुभ्यमह्यौ ङयि ।
7-2-96 तवममौ ङसि ।
7-2-97 त्वमावेकवचने ।
7-2-98 प्रत्ययोत्तरपदयोश्च ।
7-2-99 त्रिचतुरोः स्त्रियां तिसृचतसृ ।
7-2-100 अचि र ऋतः ।
7-2-101 जराया जरसन्यतरस्याम् ।
7-2-102 त्यदादीनामः ।
7-2-103 किमः कः ।
7-2-104 कु तिहोः ।
7-2-105 क्वाति ।
7-2-106 तदोः सः सावनन्त्ययोः ।
7-2-107 अदस औ सुलोपश्च ।
7-2-108 इदमो मः ।
7-2-109 दश्च ।
7-2-110 यः सौ ।
7-2-111 इदोऽय् पुंसि ।
7-2-112 अनाप्यकः ।
7-2-113 हलि लोपः ।
7-2-114 मृजेर्वृद्धिः ।
7-2-115 अचो ञ्णिति ।
7-2-116 अत उपधायाः ।
7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः ।
7-2-118 किति च ।
7-3-1 देविकाशिंशपादित्यवाड्दीर्घसत्रश्रेयसामात्‌ ।
7-3-2 केकयमित्त्रयुप्रलयानां यादेरियः ।
7-3-3 न य्वाभ्यां पदान्ताभ्याम् पूर्वौ तु ताभ्यामैच् ।
7-3-4 द्वारादीनां च ।
7-3-5 न्यग्रोधस्य च केवलस्य ।
7-3-6 न कर्मव्यतिहारे ।
7-3-7 स्वागतादीनां च ।
7-3-8 श्वादेरिञि ।
7-3-9 पदान्तस्यान्यतरस्याम् ।
7-3-10 उत्तरपदस्य ।
7-3-11 अवयवादृतोः ।
7-3-12 सुसर्वार्धाज्जनपदस्य ।
7-3-13 दिशोऽमद्राणाम् ।
7-3-14 प्राचां ग्रामनगराणाम् ।
7-3-15 संख्यायाः संवत्सरसंख्यस्य च ।
7-3-16 वर्षस्याभविष्यति ।
7-3-17 परिमाणान्तस्यासंज्ञाशाणयोः ।
7-3-18 जे प्रोष्ठपदानाम् ।
7-3-19 हृद्भगसिन्ध्वन्ते पूर्वपदस्य च ।
7-3-20 अनुशतिकादीनां च ।
7-3-21 देवताद्वंद्वे च ।
7-3-22 नेन्द्रस्य परस्य ।
7-3-23 दीर्घाच्च वरुणस्य ।
7-3-24 प्राचां नगरान्ते ।
7-3-25 जङ्गलधेनुवलजान्तस्य विभाषितमुत्तरम्‌ ।
7-3-26 अर्धात्‌ परिमाणस्य पूर्वस्य तु वा ।
7-3-27 नातः परस्य ।
7-3-28 प्रवाहणस्य ढे ।
7-3-29 तत्प्रत्ययस्य च ।
7-3-30 नञः शुचीश्वरक्षेत्रज्ञकुशलनिपुणानाम् ।
7-3-31 यथातथयथापुरयोः पर्यायेण ।
7-3-32 हनस्तोऽचिण्णलोः ।
7-3-33 आतो युक् चिण्कृतोः ।
7-3-34 नोदात्तोपदेशस्य मान्तस्यानाचमेः ।
7-3-35 जनिवध्योश्च ।
7-3-36 अर्त्तिह्रीव्लीरीक्नूयीक्ष्माय्यातां पुङ्णौ ।
7-3-37 शाच्छासाह्वाव्यावेपां युक् ।
7-3-38 वो विधूनने जुक् ।
7-3-39 लीलोर्नुग्लुकावन्यतरस्यां स्नेहविपातने ।
7-3-40 भियो हेतुभये षुक् ।
7-3-41 स्फायो वः ।
7-3-42 शदेरगतौ तः ।
7-3-43 रुहः पोऽन्यतरस्याम् ।
7-3-44 प्रत्ययस्थात्‌ कात्‌ पूर्वस्यात इदाप्यसुपः ।
7-3-45 न यासयोः ।
7-3-46 उदीचामातः स्थाने यकपूर्वायाः ।
7-3-47 भस्त्रैषाऽजाज्ञाद्वास्वानञ्पूर्वाणामपि ।
7-3-48 अभाषितपुंस्काच्च ।
7-3-49 आदाचार्याणाम् ।
7-3-50 ठस्येकः ।
7-3-51 इसुसुक्तान्तात्‌ कः ।
7-3-52 चजोः कु घिन्ण्यतोः ।
7-3-53 न्यङ्क्वादीनां च ।
7-3-54 हो हन्तेर्ञ्णिन्नेषु ।
7-3-55 अभ्यासाच्च ।
7-3-56 हेरचङि ।
7-3-57 सन्लिटोर्जेः ।
7-3-58 विभाषा चेः ।
7-3-59 न क्वादेः ।
7-3-60 अजिवृज्योश्च ।
7-3-61 भुजन्युब्जौ पाण्युपतापयोः ।
7-3-62 प्रयाजानुयाजौ यज्ञाङ्गे ।
7-3-63 वञ्चेर्गतौ ।
7-3-64 ओक उचः के ।
7-3-65 ण्य आवश्यके ।
7-3-66 यजयाचरुचप्रवचर्चश्च ।
7-3-67 वचोऽशब्दसंज्ञायाम् ।
7-3-68 प्रयोज्यनियोज्यौ शक्यार्थे ।
7-3-69 भोज्यं भक्ष्ये ।
7-3-70 घोर्लोपो लेटि वा ।
7-3-71 ओतः श्यनि ।
7-3-72 क्सस्याचि ।
7-3-73 लुग्वा दुहदिहलिहगुहामात्मनेपदे दन्त्ये ।
7-3-74 शमामष्टानां दीर्घः श्यनि ।
7-3-75 ष्ठिवुक्लम्याचमां शिति ।
7-3-76 क्रमः परस्मैपदेषु ।
7-3-77 इषुगमियमां छः ।
7-3-78 पाघ्राध्मास्थाम्नादाण्दृश्यर्त्तिसर्त्तिशदसदां
पिबजिघ्रधमतिष्ठमनयच्छपश्यर्च्छधौशीयसीदाः ।
7-3-79 ज्ञाजनोर्जा ।
7-3-80 प्वादीनां ह्रस्वः ।
7-3-81 मीनातेर्निगमे ।
7-3-82 मिदेर्गुणः ।
7-3-83 जुसि च ।
7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः ।
7-3-85 जाग्रोऽविचिण्णल्ङित्सु ।
7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च ।
7-3-87 नाभ्यस्तस्याचि पिति सार्वधातुके ।
7-3-88 भूसुवोस्तिङि ।
7-3-89 उतो वृद्धिर्लुकि हलि ।
7-3-90 ऊर्णोतेर्विभाषा ।
7-3-91 गुणोऽपृक्ते ।
7-3-92 तृणह इम् ।
7-3-93 ब्रुव ईट् ।
7-3-94 यङो वा ।
7-3-95 तुरुस्तुशम्यमः सार्वधातुके ।
7-3-96 अस्तिसिचोऽपृक्ते ।
7-3-97 बहुलं छन्दसि ।
7-3-98 रुदश्च पञ्चभ्यः ।
7-3-99 अड्गार्ग्यगालवयोः ।
7-3-100 अदः सर्वेषाम् ।
7-3-101 अतो दीर्घो यञि ।
7-3-102 सुपि च ।
7-3-103 बहुवचने झल्येत्‌ ।
7-3-104 ओसि च ।
7-3-105 आङि चापः ।
7-3-106 सम्बुद्धौ च ।
7-3-107 अम्बाऽर्थनद्योर्ह्रस्वः ।
7-3-108 ह्रस्वस्य गुणः ।
7-3-109 जसि च ।
7-3-110 ऋतो ङिसर्वनामस्थानयोः ।
7-3-111 घेर्ङिति ।
7-3-112 आण्नद्याः ।
7-3-113 याडापः ।
7-3-114 सर्वनाम्नः स्याड्ढ्रस्वश्च ।
7-3-115 विभाषा द्वितीयातृतीयाभ्याम् ।
7-3-116 ङेराम्नद्याम्नीभ्यः ।
7-3-117 इदुद्भ्याम् ।
7-3-118 औत्‌ ।
7-3-119 अच्च घेः ।
7-3-120 आङो नाऽस्त्रियाम् ।
7-4-1 णौ चङ्युपधाया ह्रस्वः ।
7-4-2 नाग्लोपिशास्वृदिताम् ।
7-4-3 भ्राजभासभाषदीपजीवमीलपीडामन्यतरस्याम्‌ ।
7-4-4 लोपः पिबतेरीच्चाभ्यासस्य ।
7-4-5 तिष्ठतेरित्‌ ।
7-4-6 जिघ्रतेर्वा ।
7-4-7 उरृत्‌ ।
7-4-8 नित्यं छन्दसि ।
7-4-9 दयतेर्दिगि लिटि ।
7-4-10 ऋतश्च संयोगादेर्गुणः ।
7-4-11 ऋच्छत्यॄताम् ।
7-4-12 शृदॄप्रां ह्रस्वो वा ।
7-4-13 केऽणः ।
7-4-14 न कपि ।
7-4-15 आपोऽन्यतरस्याम् ।
7-4-16 ऋदृशोऽङि गुणः ।
7-4-17 अस्यतेस्थुक् ।
7-4-18 श्वयतेरः ।
7-4-19 पतः पुम् ।
7-4-20 वच उम् ।
7-4-21 शीङः सार्वधातुके गुणः ।
7-4-22 अयङ् यि क्ङिति ।
7-4-23 उपसर्गाद्ध्रस्व ऊहतेः ।
7-4-24 एतेर्लिङि ।
7-4-25 अकृत्सार्वधातुकयोर्दीर्घः ।
7-4-26 च्वौ च ।
7-4-27 रीङ् ऋतः ।
7-4-28 रिङ् शयग्लिङ्क्षु ।
7-4-29 गुणोऽर्तिसंयोगाद्योः ।
7-4-30 यङि च ।
7-4-31 ई घ्राध्मोः ।
7-4-32 अस्य च्वौ ।
7-4-33 क्यचि च ।
7-4-34 अशनायोदन्यधनाया बुभुक्षापिपासागर्द्धेषु ।
7-4-35 न च्छन्दस्यपुत्रस्य ।
7-4-36 दुरस्युर्द्रविणस्युर्वृषण्यतिरिषण्यति ।
7-4-37 अश्वाघस्यात्‌ ।
7-4-38 देवसुम्नयोर्यजुषि काठके ।
7-4-39 कव्यध्वरपृतनस्यर्चि लोपः ।
7-4-40 द्यतिस्यतिमास्थामित्ति किति ।
7-4-41 शाछोरन्यतरस्याम् ।
7-4-42 दधातेर्हिः ।
7-4-43 जहातेश्च क्त्वि ।
7-4-44 विभाषा छन्दसि ।
7-4-45 सुधितवसुधितनेमधितधिष्वधिषीय च ।
7-4-46 दो दद् घोः ।
7-4-47 अच उपसर्गात्तः ।
7-4-48 अपो भि ।
7-4-49 सः स्यार्द्धधातुके ।
7-4-50 तासस्त्योर्लोपः ।
7-4-51 रि च ।
7-4-52 ह एति ।
7-4-53 यीवर्णयोर्दीधीवेव्योः ।
7-4-54 सनि मीमाघुरभलभशकपतपदामच इस् ।
7-4-55 आप्ज्ञप्यृधामीत्‌ ।
7-4-56 दम्भ इच्च ।
7-4-57 मुचोऽकर्मकस्य गुणो वा ।
7-4-58 अत्र लोपोऽभ्यासस्य ।
7-4-59 ह्रस्वः ।
7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः ।
7-4-61 शर्पूर्वाः खयः ।
7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः ।
7-4-63 न कवतेर्यङि ।
7-4-64 कृषेश्छन्दसि ।
7-4-65 दाधर्तिदर्धर्तिदर्धर्षिबोभूतुतेतिक्तेऽलर्ष्यापनीफणत्\- संसनिष्यदत्करिक्रत्कनिक्रदद्भरिभ्रद्दविध्वतोदविद्युतत्\-
तरित्रतःसरीसृपतंवरीवृजन्मर्मृज्यागनीगन्तीति च ।
7-4-66 उरत्‌ ।
7-4-67 द्युतिस्वाप्योः सम्प्रसारणम् ।
7-4-68 व्यथो लिटि ।
7-4-69 दीर्घ इणः किति ।
7-4-70 अत आदेः ।
7-4-71 तस्मान्नुड् द्विहलः ।
7-4-72 अश्नोतेश्च ।
7-4-73 भवतेरः ।
7-4-74 ससूवेति निगमे ।
7-4-75 निजां त्रयाणां गुणः श्लौ ।
7-4-76 भृञामित्‌ ।
7-4-77 अर्तिपिपर्त्योश्च ।
7-4-78 बहुलं छन्दसि ।
7-4-79 सन्यतः ।
7-4-80 ओः पुयण्ज्यपरे ।
7-4-81 स्रवतिशृणोतिद्रवतिप्रवतिप्लवतिच्यवतीनां वा ।
7-4-82 गुणो यङ्लुकोः ।
7-4-83 दीर्घोऽकितः ।
7-4-84 नीग्वञ्चुस्रंसुध्वंसुभ्रंसुकसपतपदस्कन्दाम् ।
7-4-85 नुगतोऽनुनासिकान्तस्य ।
7-4-86 जपजभदहदशभञ्जपशां च ।
7-4-87 चरफलोश्च ।
7-4-88 उत्‌ परस्यातः ।
7-4-89 ति च ।
7-4-90 रीगृदुपधस्य च ।
7-4-91 रुग्रिकौ च लुकि ।
7-4-92 ऋतश्च ।
7-4-93 सन्वल्लघुनि चङ्परेऽनग्लोपे ।
7-4-94 दीर्घो लघोः ।
7-4-95 अत्‌ स्मृदृत्वरप्रथम्रदस्तॄस्पशाम् ।
7-4-96 विभाषा वेष्टिचेष्ट्योः ।
7-4-97 ई च गणः ।

Chapter-8

8-1-1 सर्वस्य द्वे ।
8-1-2 तस्य परमाम्रेडितम्‌ ।
8-1-3 अनुदात्तं च ।
8-1-4 नित्यवीप्सयोः ।
8-1-5 परेर्वर्जने ।
8-1-6 प्रसमुपोदः पादपूरणे ।
8-1-7 उपर्यध्यधसः सामीप्ये ।
8-1-8 वाक्यादेरामन्त्रितस्यासूयासम्मतिकोपकुत्सनभर्त्सनेषु ।
8-1-9 एकं बहुव्रीहिवत्‌ ।
8-1-10 आबाधे च ।
8-1-11 कर्मधारयवत्‌ उत्तरेषु ।
8-1-12 प्रकारे गुणवचनस्य ।
8-1-13 अकृच्छ्रे प्रियसुखयोरन्यतरस्याम् ।
8-1-14 यथास्वे यथायथम् ।
8-1-15 द्वन्द्वं रहस्यमर्यादावचनव्युत्क्रमण\- यज्ञपात्रप्रयोगाभिव्यक्तिषु ।
8-1-16 पदस्य ।
8-1-17 पदात्‌ ।
8-1-18 अनुदात्तं सर्वमपादादौ ।
8-1-19 आमन्त्रितस्य च ।
8-1-20 युष्मदस्मदोः षष्ठीचतुर्थीद्वितीयास्थयोर्वान्नावौ ।
8-1-21 बहुवचने वस्नसौ ।
8-1-22 तेमयावेकवचनस्य ।
8-1-23 त्वामौ द्वितीयायाः ।
8-1-24 न चवाहाहैवयुक्ते ।
8-1-25 पश्यार्थैश्चानालोचने ।
8-1-26 सपूर्वायाः प्रथमाया विभाषा ।
8-1-27 तिङो गोत्रादीनि कुत्सनाभीक्ष्ण्ययोः ।
8-1-28 तिङ्ङतिङः ।
8-1-29 न लुट् ।
8-1-30 निपातैर्यद्यदिहन्तकुविन्नेच्चेच्चण्कच्चिद्यत्रयुक्तम् ।
8-1-31 नह प्रत्यारम्भे ।
8-1-32 सत्यं प्रश्ने ।
8-1-33 अङ्गाप्रातिलोम्ये ।
8-1-34 हि च ।
8-1-35 छन्दस्यनेकमपि साकाङ्क्षम्‌ ।
8-1-36 यावद्यथाभ्याम् ।
8-1-37 पूजायां नानन्तरम् ।
8-1-38 उपसर्गव्यपेतं च ।
8-1-39 तुपश्यपश्यताहैः पूजायाम् ।
8-1-40 अहो च ।
8-1-41 शेषे विभाषा ।
8-1-42 पुरा च परीप्सायाम् ।
8-1-43 नन्वित्यनुज्ञैषणायाम् ।
8-1-44 किं क्रियाप्रश्नेऽनुपसर्गमप्रतिषिद्धम्‌ ।
8-1-45 लोपे विभाषा ।
8-1-46 एहिमन्ये प्रहासे लृट् ।
8-1-47 जात्वपूर्वम् ।
8-1-48 किम्वृत्तं च चिदुत्तरम् ।
8-1-49 आहो उताहो चानन्तरम् ।
8-1-50 शेषे विभाषा ।
8-1-51 गत्यर्थलोटा लृण्न चेत्‌ कारकं सर्वान्यत्‌ ।
8-1-52 लोट् च ।
8-1-53 विभाषितं सोपसर्गमनुत्तमम्‌ ।
8-1-54 हन्त च ।
8-1-55 आम एकान्तरमामन्त्रितमनन्तिके ।
8-1-56 यद्धितुपरं छन्दसि ।
8-1-57 चनचिदिवगोत्रादितद्धिताम्रेडितेष्वगतेः ।
8-1-58 चादिषु च ।
8-1-59 चवायोगे प्रथमा ।
8-1-60 हेति क्षियायाम् ।
8-1-61 अहेति विनियोगे च ।
8-1-62 चाहलोप एवेत्यवधारणम् ।
8-1-63 चादिलोपे विभाषा ।
8-1-64 वैवावेति च च्छन्दसि ।
8-1-65 एकान्याभ्यां समर्थाभ्याम् ।
8-1-66 यद्वृत्तान्नित्यं ।
8-1-67 पूजनात्‌ पूजितमनुदात्तम् ##(##काष्ठादिभ्यः##)## ।
8-1-68 सगतिरपि तिङ् ।
8-1-69 कुत्सने च सुप्यगोत्रादौ ।
8-1-70 गतिर्गतौ ।
8-1-71 तिङि चोदात्तवति ।
8-1-72 आमन्त्रितं पूर्वम् अविद्यमानवत्‌ ।
8-1-73 नामन्त्रिते समानाधिकरणे सामान्यवचनम् ।
8-1-74 विभाषितं विशेषवचने बहुवचनम् ।
8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् ।
8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति ।
8-2-3 न मु ने ।
8-2-4 उदात्तस्वरितयोर्यणः स्वरितोऽनुदात्तस्य ।
8-2-5 एकादेश उदात्तेनोदात्तः ।
8-2-6 स्वरितो वाऽनुदात्ते पदादौ ।
8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य ।
8-2-8 न ङिसम्बुद्ध्योः ।
8-2-9 मादुपधायाश्च मतोर्वोऽयवादिभ्यः ।
8-2-10 झयः ।
8-2-11 संज्ञायाम् ।
8-2-12 आसन्दीवदष्ठीवच्चक्रीवत्कक्षीवद्रुमण्वच्चर्मण्वती ।
8-2-13 उदन्वानुदधौ च ।
8-2-14 राजन्वान् सौराज्ये ।
8-2-15 छन्दसीरः ।
8-2-16 अनो नुट् ।
8-2-17 नाद्घस्य ।
8-2-18 कृपो रो लः ।
8-2-19 उपसर्गस्यायतौ ।
8-2-20 ग्रो यङि ।
8-2-21 अचि विभाषा ।
8-2-22 परेश्च घाङ्कयोः ।
8-2-23 संयोगान्तस्य लोपः ।
8-2-24 रात्‌ सस्य ।
8-2-25 धि च ।
8-2-26 झलो झलि ।
8-2-27 ह्रस्वादङ्गात्‌ ।
8-2-28 इट ईटि ।
8-2-29 स्कोः संयोगाद्योरन्ते च ।
8-2-30 चोः कुः ।
8-2-31 हो ढः ।
8-2-32 दादेर्धातोर्घः ।
8-2-33 वा द्रुहमुहष्णुहष्णिहाम् ।
8-2-34 नहो धः ।
8-2-35 आहस्थः ।
8-2-36 व्रश्चभ्रस्जसृजमृजयजराजभ्राजच्छशां षः ।
8-2-37 एकाचो बशो भष् झषन्तस्य स्ध्वोः ।
8-2-38 दधस्तथोश्च ।
8-2-39 झलां जशोऽन्ते ।
8-2-40 झषस्तथोर्धोऽधः ।
8-2-41 षढोः कः सि ।
8-2-42 रदाभ्यां निष्ठातो नः पूर्वस्य च दः ।
8-2-43 संयोगादेरातो धातोर्यण्वतः ।
8-2-44 ल्वादिभ्यः ।
8-2-45 ओदितश्च ।
8-2-46 क्षियो दीर्घात्‌ ।
8-2-47 श्योऽस्पर्शे ।
8-2-48 अञ्चोऽनपादाने ।
8-2-49 दिवोऽविजिगीषायाम् ।
8-2-50 निर्वाणोऽवाते ।
8-2-51 शुषः कः ।
8-2-52 पचो वः ।
8-2-53 क्षायो मः ।
8-2-54 प्रस्त्योऽन्यतरस्याम् ।
8-2-55 अनुपसर्गात्‌ फुल्लक्षीबकृशोल्लाघाः ।
8-2-56 नुदविदोन्दत्राघ्राह्रीभ्योऽन्यतरस्याम् ।
8-2-57 न ध्याख्यापॄमूर्छिमदाम् ।
8-2-58 वित्तो भोगप्रत्यययोः ।
8-2-59 भित्तं शकलम् ।
8-2-60 ऋणमाधमर्ण्ये ।
8-2-61 नसत्तनिषत्तानुत्तप्रतूर्तसूर्तगूर्तानि छन्दसि ।
8-2-62 क्विन्प्रत्ययस्य कुः ।
8-2-63 नशेर्वा ।
8-2-64 मो नो धातोः ।
8-2-65 म्वोश्च ।
8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः ।
8-2-67 अवयाःश्वेतवाःपुरोडाश्च ।
8-2-68 अहन् ।
8-2-69 रोऽसुपि ।
8-2-70 अम्नरूधरवरित्युभयथा छन्दसि ।
8-2-71 भुवश्च महाव्याहृतेः ।
8-2-72 वसुस्रंसुध्वंस्वनडुहां दः ।
8-2-73 तिप्यनस्तेः ।
8-2-74 सिपि धातो रुर्वा ।
8-2-75 दश्च ।
8-2-76 र्वोरुपधाया दीर्घ इकः ।
8-2-77 हलि च ।
8-2-78 उपधायां च ।
8-2-79 न भकुर्छुराम् ।
8-2-80 अदसोऽसेर्दादु दो मः ।
8-2-81 एत ईद्बहुवचने ।
8-2-82 वाक्यस्य टेः प्लुत उदात्तः ।
8-2-83 प्रत्यभिवादेअशूद्रे ।
8-2-84 दूराद्धूते च ।
8-2-85 हैहेप्रयोगे हैहयोः ।
8-2-86 गुरोरनृतोऽनन्त्यस्याप्येकैकस्य प्राचाम् ।
8-2-87 ओमभ्यादाने ।
8-2-88 ये यज्ञकर्मणि ।
8-2-89 प्रणवष्टेः ।
8-2-90 याज्याऽन्तः ।
8-2-91 ब्रूहिप्रेस्यश्रौषड्वौषडावहानामादेः ।
8-2-92 अग्नीत्प्रेषणे परस्य च ।
8-2-93 विभाषा पृष्टप्रतिवचने हेः ।
8-2-94 निगृह्यानुयोगे च ।
8-2-95 आम्रेडितं भर्त्सने ।
8-2-96 अङ्गयुक्तं तिङ् आकाङ्क्षम् ।
8-2-97 विचार्यमाणानाम् ।
8-2-98 पूर्वं तु भाषायाम् ।
8-2-99 प्रतिश्रवणे च ।
8-2-100 अनुदात्तं प्रश्नान्ताभिपूजितयोः ।
8-2-101 चिदिति चोपमाऽर्थे प्रयुज्यमाने ।
8-2-102 उपरिस्विदासीदिति च ।
8-2-103 स्वरितमाम्रेडितेऽसूयासम्मतिकोपकुत्सनेषु ।
8-2-104 क्षियाऽऽशीःप्रैषेषु तिङ् आकाङ्क्षम् ।
8-2-105 अनन्त्यस्यापि प्रश्नाख्यानयोः ।
8-2-106 प्लुतावैच इदुतौ ।
8-2-107 एचोऽप्रगृह्यस्यादूराद्धूते
पूर्वस्यार्धस्यादुत्तरस्येदुतौ ।
8-2-108 तयोर्य्वावचि संहितायाम् ।
8-3-1 मतुवसो रु सम्बुद्धौ छन्दसि ।
8-3-2 अत्रानुनासिकः पूर्वस्य तु वा ।
8-3-3 आतोऽटि नित्यम् ।
8-3-4 अनुनासिकात्‌ परोऽनुस्वारः ।
8-3-5 समः सुटि ।
8-3-6 पुमः खय्यम्परे ।
8-3-7 नश्छव्यप्रशान् ।
8-3-8 उभयथर्क्षु ।
8-3-9 दीर्घादटि समानपदे ।
8-3-10 नॄन् पे ।
8-3-11 स्वतवान् पायौ ।
8-3-12 कानाम्रेडिते ।
8-3-13 ढो ढे लोपः ।
8-3-14 रो रि ।
8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः ।
8-3-16 रोः सुपि ।
8-3-17 भोभगोअघोअपूर्वस्य योऽशि ।
8-3-18 व्योर्लघुप्रयत्नतरः शाकटायनस्य ।
8-3-19 लोपः शाकल्यस्य ।
8-3-20 ओतो गार्ग्यस्य ।
8-3-21 उञि च पदे ।
8-3-22 हलि सर्वेषाम् ।
8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः ।
8-3-24 नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि ।
8-3-25 मो राजि समः क्वौ ।
8-3-26 हे मपरे वा ।
8-3-27 नपरे नः ।
8-3-28 ङ्णोः कुक्टुक् शरि ।
8-3-29 डः सि धुट् ।
8-3-30 नश्च ।
8-3-31 शि तुक् ।
8-3-32 ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण्नित्यम् ।
8-3-33 मय उञो वो वा ।
8-3-34 विसर्जनीयस्य सः ।
8-3-35 शर्परे विसर्जनीयः ।
8-3-36 वा शरि ।
8-3-37 कुप्वोः ≍क≍पौ च ।
8-3-38 सोऽपदादौ ।
8-3-39 इणः षः ।
8-3-40 नमस्पुरसोर्गत्योः ।
8-3-41 इदुदुपधस्य चाप्रत्ययस्य ।
8-3-42 तिरसोऽन्यतरस्याम् ।
8-3-43 द्विस्त्रिश्चतुरिति कृत्वोऽर्थे ।
8-3-44 इसुसोः सामर्थ्ये ।
8-3-45 नित्यं समासेऽनुत्तरपदस्थस्य ।
8-3-46 अतः कृकमिकंसकुम्भपात्रकुशाकर्णीष्वनव्ययस्य ।
8-3-47 अधःशिरसी पदे ।
8-3-48 कस्कादिषु च ।
8-3-49 छन्दसि वाऽप्राम्रेडितयोः ।
8-3-50 कःकरत्करतिकृधिकृतेष्वनदितेः ।
8-3-51 पञ्चम्याः परावध्यर्थे ।
8-3-52 पातौ च बहुलम् ।
8-3-53 षष्ठ्याः पतिपुत्रपृष्ठपारपदपयस्पोषेषु ।
8-3-54 इडाया वा ।
8-3-55 अपदान्तस्य मूर्धन्यः ।
8-3-56 सहेः साडः सः ।
8-3-57 इण्कोः ।
8-3-58 नुम्विसर्जनीयशर्व्यवायेऽपि ।
8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययोः ।
8-3-60 शासिवसिघसीनां च ।
8-3-61 स्तौतिण्योरेव षण्यभ्यासात्‌ ।
8-3-62 सः स्विदिस्वदिसहीनां च ।
8-3-63 प्राक्सितादड्व्यवायेऽपि ।
8-3-64 स्थाऽऽदिष्वभ्यासेन चाभ्यासय ।
8-3-65 उपसर्गात्‌ सुनोतिसुवतिस्यतिस्तौतिस्तोभतिस्थासेनय\-
सेधसिचसञ्जस्वञ्जाम् ।
8-3-66 सदिरप्रतेः ।
8-3-67 स्तम्भेः ।
8-3-68 अवाच्चालम्बनाविदूर्ययोः ।
8-3-69 वेश्च स्वनो भोजने ।
8-3-70 परिनिविभ्यः सेवसितसयसिवुसहसुट्स्तुस्वञ्जाम् ।
8-3-71 सिवादीनां वाऽड्व्यवायेऽपि ।
8-3-72 अनुविपर्यभिनिभ्यः स्यन्दतेरप्राणिषु ।
8-3-73 वेः स्कन्देरनिष्ठायाम् ।
8-3-74 परेश्च ।
8-3-75 परिस्कन्दः प्राच्यभरतेषु ।
8-3-76 स्फुरतिस्फुलत्योर्निर्निविभ्यः ।
8-3-77 वेः स्कभ्नातेर्नित्यम् ।
8-3-78 इणः षीध्वंलुङ्‌लिटां धोऽङ्गात्‌ ।
8-3-79 विभाषेटः ।
8-3-80 समासेऽङ्गुलेः सङ्गः ।
8-3-81 भीरोः स्थानम् ।
8-3-82 अग्नेः स्तुत्स्तोमसोमाः ।
8-3-83 ज्योतिरायुषः स्तोमः ।
8-3-84 मातृपितृभ्यां स्वसा ।
8-3-85 मातुःपितुर्भ्यामन्यतरस्याम्‌ ।
8-3-86 अभिनिसः स्तनः शब्दसंज्ञायाम् ।
8-3-87 उपसर्गप्रादुर्भ्यामस्तिर्यच्परः ।
8-3-88 सुविनिर्दुर्भ्यः सुपिसूतिसमाः ।
8-3-89 निनदीभ्यां स्नातेः कौशले ।
8-3-90 सूत्रं प्रतिष्णातम्‌ ।
8-3-91 कपिष्ठलो गोत्रे ।
8-3-92 प्रष्ठोऽग्रगामिनि ।
8-3-93 वृक्षासनयोर्विष्टरः ।
8-3-94 छन्दोनाम्नि च ।
8-3-95 गवियुधिभ्यां स्थिरः ।
8-3-96 विकुशमिपरिभ्यः स्थलम् ।
8-3-97 अम्बाम्बगोभूमिसव्यापद्वित्रिकुशेकुशङ्क्वङ्गुमञ्जि\-
पुञ्जिपरमेबर्हिर्दिव्यग्निभ्यः स्थः ।
8-3-98 सुषामादिषु च ।
8-3-99 ऐति संज्ञायामगात्‌ ।
8-3-100 नक्षत्राद्वा ।
8-3-101 ह्रस्वात्‌ तादौ तद्धिते ।
8-3-102 निसस्तपतावनासेवने ।
8-3-103 युष्मत्तत्ततक्षुःष्वन्तःपादम् ।
8-3-104 यजुष्येकेषाम् ।
8-3-105 स्तुतस्तोमयोश्छन्दसि ।
8-3-106 पूर्वपदात्‌ ।
8-3-107 सुञः ।
8-3-108 सनोतेरनः ।
8-3-109 सहेः पृतनर्ताभ्यां च ।
8-3-110 न रपरसृपिसृजिस्पृशिस्पृहिसवनादीनाम् ।
8-3-111 सात्पदाद्योः ।
8-3-112 सिचो यङि ।
8-3-113 सेधतेर्गतौ ।
8-3-114 प्रतिस्तब्धनिस्तब्धौ च ।
8-3-115 सोढः ।
8-3-116 स्तम्भुसिवुसहां चङि ।
8-3-117 सुनोतेः स्यसनोः ।
8-3-118 सदिष्वञ्जोः परस्य लिटि ।
8-3-119 निव्यभिभ्योऽड्व्यावये वा छन्दसि ।
8-4-1 रषाभ्यां नो णः समानपदे ।
8-4-2 अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेऽपि ।
8-4-3 पूर्वपदात्‌ संज्ञायामगः ।
8-4-4 वनं पुरगामिश्रकासिध्रकाशारिकाकोटराऽग्रेभ्यः ।
8-4-5 प्रनिरन्तःशरेक्षुप्लक्षाम्रकार्ष्यखदिर\-
पियूक्षाभ्योऽसंज्ञायामपि ।
8-4-6 विभाषौषधिवनस्पतिभ्यः ।
8-4-7 अह्नोऽदन्तात्‌ ।
8-4-8 वाहनमाहितात्‌ ।
8-4-9 पानं देशे ।
8-4-10 वा भावकरणयोः ।
8-4-11 प्रातिपदिकान्तनुम्विभक्तिषु च ।
8-4-12 एकाजुत्तरपदे णः ।
8-4-13 कुमति च ।
8-4-14 उपसर्गादसमासेऽपि णोपदेशस्य ।
8-4-15 हिनुमीना ।
8-4-16 आनि लोट् ।
8-4-17 नेर्गदनदपतपदघुमास्यतिहन्तियातिवातिद्रातिप्साति\- वपतिवहतिशाम्यतिचिनोतिदेग्धिषु च ।
8-4-18 शेषे विभाषाऽकखादावषान्त उपदेशे ।
8-4-19 अनितेः ।
8-4-20 अन्तः ।
8-4-21 उभौ साभ्यासस्य ।
8-4-22 हन्तेरत्पूर्वस्य ।
8-4-23 वमोर्वा ।
8-4-24 अन्तरदेशे ।
8-4-25 अयनं च ।
8-4-26 छन्दस्यृदवग्रहात्‌ ।
8-4-27 नश्च धातुस्थोरुषुभ्यः ।
8-4-28 उपसर्गाद् बहुलम् ।
8-4-29 कृत्यचः ।
8-4-30 णेर्विभाषा ।
8-4-31 हलश्च इजुपधात्‌ ।
8-4-32 इजादेः सनुमः ।
8-4-33 वा निंसनिक्षनिन्दाम् ।
8-4-34 न भाभूपूकमिगमिप्यायीवेपाम् ।
8-4-35 षात्‌ पदान्तात्‌ ।
8-4-36 नशेः षान्तस्य ।
8-4-37 पदान्तस्य ।
8-4-38 पदव्यवायेऽपि ।
8-4-39 क्षुभ्नाऽऽदिषु च ।
8-4-40 स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः ।
8-4-41 ष्टुना ष्टुः ।
8-4-42 न पदान्ताट्टोरनाम् ।
8-4-43 तोः षि ।
8-4-44 शात्‌ ।
8-4-45 यरोऽनुनासिकेऽनुनासिको वा ।
8-4-46 अचो रहाभ्यां द्वे ।
8-4-47 अनचि च ।
8-4-48 नादिन्याक्रोशे पुत्रस्य ।
8-4-49 शरोऽचि ।
8-4-50 त्रिप्रभृतिषु शाकटायनस्य ।
8-4-51 सर्वत्र शाकल्यस्य ।
8-4-52 दीर्घादाचार्याणाम् ।
8-4-53 झलां जश् झशि ।
8-4-54 अभ्यासे चर्च्च ।
8-4-55 खरि च ।
8-4-56 वाऽवसाने ।
8-4-57 अणोऽप्रगृह्यस्यानुनासिकः ।
8-4-58 अनुस्वारस्य ययि परसवर्णः ।
8-4-59 वा पदान्तस्य ।
8-4-60 तोर्लि ।
8-4-61 उदः स्थास्तम्भोः पूर्वस्य ।
8-4-62 झयो होऽन्यतरस्याम् ।
8-4-63 शश्छोऽटि ।
8-4-64 हलो यमां यमि लोपः ।
8-4-65 झरो झरि सवर्णे ।
8-4-66 उदात्तादनुदात्तस्य स्वरितः ।
8-4-67 नोदात्तस्वरितोदयमगार्ग्यकाश्यपगालवानाम्‌ ।
8-4-68 अ अ इति ।


 

Kathopanisad [Hindu]

॥ कठोपनिषत् ॥


॥ अथ कठोपनिषद् ॥

ॐ सह नाववतु । सह नौ भुनक्तु । सहवीर्यं करवावहै ।
तेजस्वि नावधीतमस्तु । मा विद्विषावहै ॥

ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥

Part I
Canto I
ॐ उशन् ह वै वाजश्रवसः सर्ववेदसं ददौ ।
तस्य ह नचिकेता नाम पुत्र आस ॥ १॥

तँ ह कुमारँ सन्तं दक्षिणासु
नीयमानासु श्रद्धाविवेश सोऽमन्यत ॥ २॥

पीतोदका जग्धतृणा दुग्धदोहा निरिन्द्रियाः ।
अनन्दा नाम ते लोकास्तान् स गच्छति ता ददत् ॥ ३॥

स होवाच पितरं तत कस्मै मां दास्यसीति ।
द्वितीयं तृतीयं तँ होवाच मृत्यवे त्वा ददामीति ॥ ४॥

बहूनामेमि प्रथमो बहूनामेमि मध्यमः ।
किँ स्विद्यमस्य कर्तव्यं यन्मयाऽद्य करिष्यति ॥ ५॥

अनुपश्य यथा पूर्वे प्रतिपश्य तथाऽपरे ।
सस्यमिव मर्त्यः पच्यते सस्यमिवाजायते पुनः ॥ ६॥

वैश्वानरः प्रविशत्यतिथिर्ब्राह्मणो गृहान् ।
तस्यैताँ शान्तिं कुर्वन्ति हर वैवस्वतोदकम् ॥ ७॥

आशाप्रतीक्षे संगतँ सूनृतां
चेष्टापूर्ते पुत्रपशूँश्च सर्वान् ।
एतद्वृङ्क्ते पुरुषस्याल्पमेधसो
यस्यानश्नन्वसति ब्राह्मणो गृहे ॥ ८॥

तिस्रो रात्रीर्यदवात्सीर्गृहे मे-
ऽनश्नन् ब्रह्मन्नतिथिर्नमस्यः ।
नमस्तेऽस्तु ब्रह्मन् स्वस्ति मेऽस्तु
तस्मात्प्रति त्रीन्वरान्वृणीष्व ॥ ९॥

शान्तसंकल्पः सुमना यथा स्याद्
वीतमन्युर्गौतमो माऽभि मृत्यो ।
त्वत्प्रसृष्टं माऽभिवदेत्प्रतीत
एतत् त्रयाणां प्रथमं वरं वृणे ॥ १०॥

यथा पुरस्ताद् भविता प्रतीत
औद्दालकिरारुणिर्मत्प्रसृष्टः ।
सुखँ रात्रीः शयिता वीतमन्युः
त्वां ददृशिवान्मृत्युमुखात् प्रमुक्तम् ॥ ११॥

स्वर्गे लोके न भयं किंचनास्ति
न तत्र त्वं न जरया बिभेति ।
उभे तीर्त्वाऽशनायापिपासे
शोकातिगो मोदते स्वर्गलोके ॥ १२॥

स त्वमग्निँ स्वर्ग्यमध्येषि मृत्यो
प्रब्रूहि त्वँ श्रद्दधानाय मह्यम् ।
स्वर्गलोका अमृतत्वं भजन्त
एतद् द्वितीयेन वृणे वरेण ॥ १३॥

प्र ते ब्रवीमि तदु मे निबोध
स्वर्ग्यमग्निं नचिकेतः प्रजानन् ।
अनन्तलोकाप्तिमथो प्रतिष्ठां
विद्धि त्वमेतं निहितं गुहायाम् ॥ १४॥

लोकादिमग्निं तमुवाच तस्मै
या इष्टका यावतीर्वा यथा वा ।
स चापि तत्प्रत्यवदद्यथोक्तं
अथास्य मृत्युः पुनरेवाह तुष्टः ॥ १५॥

तमब्रवीत् प्रीयमाणो महात्मा
वरं तवेहाद्य ददामि भूयः ।
तवैव नाम्ना भविताऽयमग्निः
सृङ्कां चेमामनेकरूपां गृहाण ॥ १६॥

त्रिणाचिकेतस्त्रिभिरेत्य सन्धिं
त्रिकर्मकृत्तरति जन्ममृत्यू ।
ब्रह्मजज्ञं देवमीड्यं विदित्वा
निचाय्येमाँ शान्तिमत्यन्तमेति ॥ १७॥

त्रिणाचिकेतस्त्रयमेतद्विदित्वा
य एवं विद्वाँश्चिनुते नाचिकेतम् ।
स मृत्युपाशान् पुरतः प्रणोद्य
शोकातिगो मोदते स्वर्गलोके ॥ १८॥

एष तेऽग्निर्नचिकेतः स्वर्ग्यो
यमवृणीथा द्वितीयेन वरेण ।
एतमग्निं तवैव प्रवक्ष्यन्ति जनासः
तृतीयं वरं नचिकेतो वृणीष्व ॥ १९॥

येयं प्रेते विचिकित्सा मनुष्ये-
ऽस्तीत्येके नायमस्तीति चैके ।
एतद्विद्यामनुशिष्टस्त्वयाऽहं
वराणामेष वरस्तृतीयः ॥ २०॥

देवैरत्रापि विचिकित्सितं पुरा
न हि सुविज्ञेयमणुरेष धर्मः ।
अन्यं वरं नचिकेतो वृणीष्व
मा मोपरोत्सीरति मा सृजैनम् ॥ २१॥

देवैरत्रापि विचिकित्सितं किल
त्वं च मृत्यो यन्न सुज्ञेयमात्थ ।
वक्ता चास्य त्वादृगन्यो न लभ्यो
नान्यो वरस्तुल्य एतस्य कश्चित् ॥ २२॥

शतायुषः पुत्रपौत्रान्वृणीष्वा
बहून्पशून् हस्तिहिरण्यमश्वान् ।
भूमेर्महदायतनं वृणीष्व
स्वयं च जीव शरदो यावदिच्छसि ॥ २३॥

एतत्तुल्यं यदि मन्यसे वरं
वृणीष्व वित्तं चिरजीविकां च ।
महाभूमौ नचिकेतस्त्वमेधि
कामानां त्वा कामभाजं करोमि ॥ २४॥

ये ये कामा दुर्लभा मर्त्यलोके
सर्वान् कामाँश्छन्दतः प्रार्थयस्व ।
इमा रामाः सरथाः सतूर्या
न हीदृशा लम्भनीया मनुष्यैः ।
आभिर्मत्प्रत्ताभिः परिचारयस्व
नचिकेतो मरणं माऽनुप्राक्षीः ॥ २५॥

श्वोभावा मर्त्यस्य यदन्तकैतत्
सर्वेंद्रियाणां जरयंति तेजः ।
अपि सर्वं जीवितमल्पमेव
तवैव वाहास्तव नृत्यगीते ॥ २६॥

न वित्तेन तर्पणीयो मनुष्यो
लप्स्यामहे वित्तमद्राक्ष्म चेत्त्वा ।
जीविष्यामो यावदीशिष्यसि त्वं
वरस्तु मे वरणीयः स एव ॥ २७॥

अजीर्यताममृतानामुपेत्य
जीर्यन्मर्त्यः क्वधःस्थः प्रजानन् ।
अभिध्यायन् वर्णरतिप्रमोदान्
अतिदीर्घे जीविते को रमेत ॥ २८॥

यस्मिन्निदं विचिकित्सन्ति मृत्यो
यत्साम्पराये महति ब्रूहि नस्तत् ।
योऽयं वरो गूढमनुप्रविष्टो
नान्यं तस्मान्नचिकेता वृणीते ॥ २९॥

॥ इति काठकोपनिषदि प्रथमाध्याये प्रथमा वल्ली ॥

 

Part I
Canto II
अन्यच्छ्रेयोऽन्यदुतैव प्रेय-
स्ते उभे नानार्थे पुरुषँ सिनीतः ।
तयोः श्रेय आददानस्य साधु
भवति हीयतेऽर्थाद्य उ प्रेयो वृणीते ॥ १॥

श्रेयश्च प्रेयश्च मनुष्यमेतः
तौ सम्परीत्य विविनक्ति धीरः ।
श्रेयो हि धीरोऽभि प्रेयसो वृणीते
प्रेयो मन्दो योगक्षेमाद्वृणीते ॥ २॥

स त्वं प्रियान्प्रियरूपांश्च कामान्
अभिध्यायन्नचिकेतोऽत्यस्राक्षीः ।
नैतां सृङ्कां वित्तमयीमवाप्तो
यस्यां मज्जन्ति बहवो मनुष्याः ॥ ३॥

दूरमेते विपरीते विषूची
अविद्या या च विद्येति ज्ञाता ।
विद्याभीप्सिनं नचिकेतसं मन्ये
न त्वा कामा बहवोऽलोलुपन्त ॥ ४॥

अविद्यायामन्तरे वर्तमानाः
स्वयं धीराः पण्डितंमन्यमानाः ।
दन्द्रम्यमाणाः परियन्ति मूढा
अन्धेनैव नीयमाना यथान्धाः ॥ ५॥

न साम्परायः प्रतिभाति बालं
प्रमाद्यन्तं वित्तमोहेन मूढम् ।
अयं लोको नास्ति पर इति मानी
पुनः पुनर्वशमापद्यते मे ॥ ६॥

श्रवणायापि बहुभिर्यो न लभ्यः
शृण्वन्तोऽपि बहवो यं न विद्युः ।
आश्चर्यो वक्ता कुशलोऽस्य लब्धा
आश्चर्यो ज्ञाता कुशलानुशिष्टः ॥ ७॥

न नरेणावरेण प्रोक्त एष
सुविज्ञेयो बहुधा चिन्त्यमानः ।
अनन्यप्रोक्ते गतिरत्र नास्ति
अणीयान् ह्यतर्क्यमणुप्रमाणात् ॥ ८॥

नैषा तर्केण मतिरापनेया
प्रोक्तान्येनैव सुज्ञानाय प्रेष्ठ ।
यां त्वमापः सत्यधृतिर्बतासि
त्वादृङ्नो भूयान्नचिकेतः प्रष्टा ॥ ९॥

जानाम्यहं शेवधिरित्यनित्यं
न ह्यध्रुवैः प्राप्यते हि ध्रुवं तत् ।
ततो मया नाचिकेतश्चितोऽग्निः
अनित्यैर्द्रव्यैः प्राप्तवानस्मि नित्यम् ॥ १०॥

कामस्याप्तिं जगतः प्रतिष्ठां
क्रतोरानन्त्यमभयस्य पारम् ।
स्तोममहदुरुगायं प्रतिष्ठां दृष्ट्वा
धृत्या धीरो नचिकेतोऽत्यस्राक्षीः ॥ ११॥

तं दुर्दर्शं गूढमनुप्रविष्टं
गुहाहितं गह्वरेष्ठं पुराणम् ।
अध्यात्मयोगाधिगमेन देवं
मत्वा धीरो हर्षशोकौ जहाति ॥ १२॥

एतच्छ्रुत्वा सम्परिगृह्य मर्त्यः
प्रवृह्य धर्म्यमणुमेतमाप्य ।
स मोदते मोदनीयँ हि लब्ध्वा
विवृतँ सद्म नचिकेतसं मन्ये ॥ १३॥

अन्यत्र धर्मादन्यत्राधर्मा-
दन्यत्रास्मात्कृताकृतात् ।
अन्यत्र भूताच्च भव्याच्च
यत्तत्पश्यसि तद्वद ॥ १४॥

सर्वे वेदा यत्पदमामनन्ति
तपाꣳसि सर्वाणि च यद्वदन्ति ।
यदिच्छन्तो ब्रह्मचर्यं चरन्ति
तत्ते पदꣳ संग्रहेण ब्रवीम्योमित्येतत् ॥ १५॥

एतद्ध्येवाक्षरं ब्रह्म एतद्ध्येवाक्षरं परम् ।
एतद्ध्येवाक्षरं ज्ञात्वा यो यदिच्छति तस्य तत् ॥ १६॥

एतदालम्बनँ श्रेष्ठमेतदालम्बनं परम् ।
एतदालम्बनं ज्ञात्वा ब्रह्मलोके महीयते ॥ १७॥

न जायते म्रियते वा विपश्चिन्
नायं कुतश्चिन्न बभूव कश्चित् ।
अजो नित्यः शाश्वतोऽयं पुराणो
न हन्यते हन्यमाने शरीरे ॥ १८॥

हन्ता चेन्मन्यते हन्तुँ हतश्चेन्मन्यते हतम् ।
उभौ तौ न विजानीतो नायँ हन्ति न हन्यते ॥ १९॥

अणोरणीयान्महतो महीया-
नात्माऽस्य जन्तोर्निहितो गुहायाम् ।
तमक्रतुः पश्यति वीतशोको
धातुप्रसादान्महिमानमात्मनः ॥ २०॥

आसीनो दूरं व्रजति शयानो याति सर्वतः ।
कस्तं मदामदं देवं मदन्यो ज्ञातुमर्हति ॥ २१॥

अशरीरँ शरीरेष्वनवस्थेष्ववस्थितम् ।
महान्तं विभुमात्मानं मत्वा धीरो न शोचति ॥ २२॥

नायमात्मा प्रवचनेन लभ्यो
न मेधया न बहुना श्रुतेन ।
यमेवैष वृणुते तेन लभ्यः
तस्यैष आत्मा विवृणुते तनूꣳ स्वाम् ॥ २३॥

नाविरतो दुश्चरितान्नाशान्तो नासमाहितः ।
नाशान्तमानसो वाऽपि प्रज्ञानेनैनमाप्नुयात् ॥ २४॥

यस्य ब्रह्म च क्षत्रं च उभे भवत ओदनः ।
मृत्युर्यस्योपसेचनं क इत्था वेद यत्र सः ॥ २५॥

इति काठकोपनिषदि प्रथमाध्याये द्वितीया वल्ली ॥

 

Part I
Canto III
ऋतं पिबन्तौ सुकृतस्य लोके
गुहां प्रविष्टौ परमे परार्धे ।
छायातपौ ब्रह्मविदो वदन्ति
पञ्चाग्नयो ये च त्रिणाचिकेताः ॥ १॥

यः सेतुरीजानानामक्षरं ब्रह्म यत् परम् ।
अभयं तितीर्षतां पारं नाचिकेतँ शकेमहि ॥ २॥

आत्मानँ रथितं विद्धि शरीरँ रथमेव तु ।
बुद्धिं तु सारथिं विद्धि मनः प्रग्रहमेव च ॥ ३॥

इन्द्रियाणि हयानाहुर्विषयाँ स्तेषु गोचरान् ।
आत्मेन्द्रियमनोयुक्तं भोक्तेत्याहुर्मनीषिणः ॥ ४॥

यस्त्वविज्ञानवान्भवत्ययुक्तेन मनसा सदा ।
तस्येन्द्रियाण्यवश्यानि दुष्टाश्वा इव सारथेः ॥ ५॥

यस्तु विज्ञानवान्भवति युक्तेन मनसा सदा ।
तस्येन्द्रियाणि वश्यानि सदश्वा इव सारथेः ॥ ६॥

यस्त्वविज्ञानवान्भवत्यमनस्कः सदाऽशुचिः ।
न स तत्पदमाप्नोति संसारं चाधिगच्छति ॥ ७॥

यस्तु विज्ञानवान्भवति समनस्कः सदा शुचिः ।
स तु तत्पदमाप्नोति यस्माद्भूयो न जायते ॥ ८॥

विज्ञानसारथिर्यस्तु मनः प्रग्रहवान्नरः ।
सोऽध्वनः पारमाप्नोति तद्विष्णोः परमं पदम् ॥ ९॥

इन्द्रियेभ्यः परा ह्यर्था अर्थेभ्यश्च परं मनः ।
मनसस्तु परा बुद्धिर्बुद्धेरात्मा महान्परः ॥ १०॥

महतः परमव्यक्तमव्यक्तात्पुरुषः परः ।
पुरुषान्न परं किंचित्सा काष्ठा सा परा गतिः ॥ ११॥

एष सर्वेषु भूतेषु गूढोऽऽत्मा न प्रकाशते ।
दृश्यते त्वग्र्यया बुद्ध्या सूक्ष्मया सूक्ष्मदर्शिभिः ॥ १२॥

यच्छेद्वाङ्मनसी प्राज्ञस्तद्यच्छेज्ज्ञान आत्मनि ।
ज्ञानमात्मनि महति नियच्छेत्तद्यच्छेच्छान्त आत्मनि ॥ १३॥

उत्तिष्ठत जाग्रत
प्राप्य वरान्निबोधत ।
क्षुरस्य धारा निशिता दुरत्यया
दुर्गं पथस्तत्कवयो वदन्ति ॥ १४॥

अशब्दमस्पर्शमरूपमव्ययं
तथाऽरसं नित्यमगन्धवच्च यत् ।
अनाद्यनन्तं महतः परं ध्रुवं
निचाय्य तन्मृत्युमुखात् प्रमुच्यते ॥ १५॥

नाचिकेतमुपाख्यानं मृत्युप्रोक्तँ सनातनम् ।
उक्त्वा श्रुत्वा च मेधावी ब्रह्मलोके महीयते ॥ १६॥

य इमं परमं गुह्यं श्रावयेद् ब्रह्मसंसदि ।
प्रयतः श्राद्धकाले वा तदानन्त्याय कल्पते ।
तदानन्त्याय कल्पत इति ॥ १७॥

इति काठकोपनिषदि प्रथमाध्याये तृतीया वल्ली ॥

 

Part II
Canto I
पराञ्चि खानि व्यतृणत् स्वयम्भू-
स्तस्मात्पराङ्पश्यति नान्तरात्मन् ।
कश्चिद्धीरः प्रत्यगात्मानमैक्ष-
दावृत्तचक्षुरमृतत्वमिच्छन् ॥ १॥

पराचः कामाननुयन्ति बाला-
स्ते मृत्योर्यन्ति विततस्य पाशम् ।
अथ धीरा अमृतत्वं विदित्वा
ध्रुवमध्रुवेष्विह न प्रार्थयन्ते ॥ २॥

येन रूपं रसं गन्धं शब्दान् स्पर्शाꣳश्च मैथुनान् ।
एतेनैव विजानाति किमत्र परिशिष्यते । एतद्वै तत् ॥ ३॥

स्वप्नान्तं जागरितान्तं चोभौ येनानुपश्यति ।
महान्तं विभुमात्मानं मत्वा धीरो न शोचति ॥ ४॥

य इमं मध्वदं वेद आत्मानं जीवमन्तिकात् ।
ईशानं भूतभव्यस्य न ततो विजुगुप्सते । एतद्वै तत् ॥ ५॥

यः पूर्वं तपसो जातमद्भ्यः पूर्वमजायत ।
गुहां प्रविश्य तिष्ठन्तं यो भूतेभिर्व्यपश्यत । एतद्वै तत् ॥ ६॥

या प्राणेन संभवत्यदितिर्देवतामयी ।
गुहां प्रविश्य तिष्ठन्तीं या भूतेभिर्व्यजायत । एतद्वै तत् ॥ ७॥

अरण्योर्निहितो जातवेदा गर्भ इव सुभृतो गर्भिणीभिः ।
दिवे दिवे ईड्यो जागृवद्भिर्हविष्मद्भिर्मनुष्येभिरग्निः । एतद्वै तत् ॥ ८॥

यतश्चोदेति सूर्योऽस्तं यत्र च गच्छति ।
तं देवाः सर्वेऽर्पितास्तदु नात्येति कश्चन । एतद्वै तत् ॥ ९॥

यदेवेह तदमुत्र यदमुत्र तदन्विह ।
मृत्योः स मृत्युमाप्नोति य इह नानेव पश्यति ॥ १०॥

मनसैवेदमाप्तव्यं नेह नानाऽस्ति किंचन ।
मृत्योः स मृत्युं गच्छति य इह नानेव पश्यति ॥ ११॥

अङ्गुष्ठमात्रः पुरुषो मध्य आत्मनि तिष्ठति ।
ईशानं भूतभव्यस्य न ततो विजुगुप्सते । एतद्वै तत् ॥ १२॥

अङ्गुष्ठमात्रः पुरुषो ज्योतिरिवाधूमकः ।
ईशानो भूतभव्यस्य स एवाद्य स उ श्वः । एतद्वै तत् ॥ १३॥

यथोदकं दुर्गे वृष्टं पर्वतेषु विधावति ।
एवं धर्मान् पृथक् पश्यंस्तानेवानुविधावति ॥ १४॥

यथोदकं शुद्धे शुद्धमासिक्तं तादृगेव भवति ।
एवं मुनेर्विजानत आत्मा भवति गौतम ॥ १५॥

इति काठकोपनिषदि द्वितीयाध्याये प्रथमा वल्ली ॥

 

Part II
Canto II
पुरमेकादशद्वारमजस्यावक्रचेतसः ।
अनुष्ठाय न शोचति विमुक्तश्च विमुच्यते । एतद्वै तत् ॥ १॥

हँसः शुचिषद्वसुरान्तरिक्षसद्-
होता वेदिषदतिथिर्दुरोणसत् ।
नृषद्वरसदृतसद्व्योमसद्
अब्जा गोजा ऋतजा अद्रिजा ऋतं बृहत् ॥ २॥

ऊर्ध्वं प्राणमुन्नयत्यपानं प्रत्यगस्यति ।
मध्ये वामनमासीनं विश्वे देवा उपासते ॥ ३॥

अस्य विस्रंसमानस्य शरीरस्थस्य देहिनः ।
देहाद्विमुच्यमानस्य किमत्र परिशिष्यते । एतद्वै तत् ॥ ४॥

न प्राणेन नापानेन मर्त्यो जीवति कश्चन ।
इतरेण तु जीवन्ति यस्मिन्नेतावुपाश्रितौ ॥ ५॥

हन्त त इदं प्रवक्ष्यामि गुह्यं ब्रह्म सनातनम् ।
यथा च मरणं प्राप्य आत्मा भवति गौतम ॥ ६॥

योनिमन्ये प्रपद्यन्ते शरीरत्वाय देहिनः ।
स्थाणुमन्येऽनुसंयन्ति यथाकर्म यथाश्रुतम् ॥ ७॥

य एष सुप्तेषु जागर्ति कामं कामं पुरुषो निर्मिमाणः ।
तदेव शुक्रं तद्ब्रह्म तदेवामृतमुच्यते ।
तस्मिँल्लोकाः श्रिताः सर्वे तदु नात्येति कश्चन । एतद्वै तत् ॥ ८॥

अग्निर्यथैको भुवनं प्रविष्टो
रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपो बभूव ।
एकस्तथा सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा
रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपो बहिश्च ॥ ९॥

वायुर्यथैको भुवनं प्रविष्टो
रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपो बभूव ।
एकस्तथा सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा
रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपो बहिश्च ॥ १०॥

सूर्यो यथा सर्वलोकस्य चक्षुः
न लिप्यते चाक्षुषैर्बाह्यदोषैः ।
एकस्तथा सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा
न लिप्यते लोकदुःखेन बाह्यः ॥ ११॥

एको वशी सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा
एकं रूपं बहुधा यः करोति ।
तमात्मस्थं येऽनुपश्यन्ति धीराः
तेषां सुखं शाश्वतं नेतरेषाम् ॥ १२॥

नित्योऽनित्यानां चेतनश्चेतनानाम्
एको बहूनां यो विदधाति कामान् ।
तमात्मस्थं येऽनुपश्यन्ति धीराः
तेषां शान्तिः शाश्वती नेतरेषाम् ॥ १३॥

तदेतदिति मन्यन्तेऽनिर्देश्यं परमं सुखम् ।
कथं नु तद्विजानीयां किमु भाति विभाति वा ॥ १४॥

न तत्र सूर्यो भाति न चन्द्रतारकं
नेमा विद्युतो भान्ति कुतोऽयमग्निः ।
तमेव भान्तमनुभाति सर्वं
तस्य भासा सर्वमिदं विभाति ॥ १५॥

इति काठकोपनिषदि द्वितीयाध्याये द्वितीया वल्ली ॥

 

Part II
Canto III
ऊर्ध्वमूलोऽवाक्शाख एषोऽश्वत्थः सनातनः ।
तदेव शुक्रं तद्ब्रह्म तदेवामृतमुच्यते ।
तस्मिँल्लोकाः श्रिताः सर्वे तदु नात्येति कश्चन । एतद्वै तत् ॥ १॥

यदिदं किं च जगत् सर्वं प्राण एजति निःसृतम् ।
महद्भयं वज्रमुद्यतं य एतद्विदुरमृतास्ते भवन्ति ॥ २॥

भयादस्याग्निस्तपति भयात्तपति सूर्यः ।
भयादिन्द्रश्च वायुश्च मृत्युर्धावति पञ्चमः ॥ ३॥

इह चेदशकद्बोद्धुं प्राक्षरीरस्य विस्रसः ।
ततः सर्गेषु लोकेषु शरीरत्वाय कल्पते ॥ ४॥

यथाऽऽदर्शे तथाऽऽत्मनि यथा स्वप्ने तथा पितृलोके ।
यथाऽप्सु परीव ददृशे तथा गन्धर्वलोके
छायातपयोरिव ब्रह्मलोके ॥ ५॥

इन्द्रियाणां पृथग्भावमुदयास्तमयौ च यत् ।
पृथगुत्पद्यमानानां मत्वा धीरो न शोचति ॥ ६॥

इन्द्रियेभ्यः परं मनो मनसः सत्त्वमुत्तमम् ।
सत्त्वादधि महानात्मा महतोऽव्यक्तमुत्तमम् ॥ ७॥

अव्यक्तात्तु परः पुरुषो व्यापकोऽलिङ्ग एव च ।
यं ज्ञात्वा मुच्यते जन्तुरमृतत्वं च गच्छति ॥ ८॥

न संदृशे तिष्ठति रूपमस्य
न चक्षुषा पश्यति कश्चनैनम् ।
हृदा मनीषा मनसाऽभिक्लृप्तो
य एतद्विदुरमृतास्ते भवन्ति ॥ ९॥

यदा पञ्चावतिष्ठन्ते ज्ञानानि मनसा सह ।
बुद्धिश्च न विचेष्टते तामाहुः परमां गतिम् ॥ १०॥

तां योगमिति मन्यन्ते स्थिरामिन्द्रियधारणाम् ।
अप्रमत्तस्तदा भवति योगो हि प्रभवाप्ययौ ॥ ११॥

नैव वाचा न मनसा प्राप्तुं शक्यो न चक्षुषा ।
अस्तीति ब्रुवतोऽन्यत्र कथं तदुपलभ्यते ॥ १२॥

अस्तीत्येवोपलब्धव्यस्तत्त्वभावेन चोभयोः ।
अस्तीत्येवोपलब्धस्य तत्त्वभावः प्रसीदति ॥ १३॥

यदा सर्वे प्रमुच्यन्ते कामा येऽस्य हृदि श्रिताः ।
अथ मर्त्योऽमृतो भवत्यत्र ब्रह्म समश्नुते ॥ १४॥

यदा सर्वे प्रभिद्यन्ते हृदयस्येह ग्रन्थयः ।
अथ मर्त्योऽमृतो भवत्येतावद्ध्यनुशासनम् ॥ १५॥

शतं चैका च हृदयस्य नाड्य-
स्तासां मूर्धानमभिनिःसृतैका ।
तयोर्ध्वमायन्नमृतत्वमेति
विष्वङ्ङन्या उत्क्रमणे भवन्ति ॥ १६॥

अङ्गुष्ठमात्रः पुरुषोऽन्तरात्मा
सदा जनानां हृदये संनिविष्टः ।
तं स्वाच्छरीरात्प्रवृहेन्मुञ्जादिवेषीकां धैर्येण ।
तं विद्याच्छुक्रममृतं तं विद्याच्छुक्रममृतमिति ॥ १७॥

मृत्युप्रोक्तां नचिकेतोऽथ लब्ध्वा
विद्यामेतां योगविधिं च कृत्स्नम् ।
ब्रह्मप्राप्तो विरजोऽभूद्विमृत्यु-
रन्योऽप्येवं यो विदध्यात्ममेव ॥ १८॥

सह नाववतु । सह नौ भुनक्तु । सह वीर्यं करवावहै ।
तेजस्विनावधीतमस्तु मा विद्विषावहै ॥ १९॥

ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥

इति काठकोपनिषदि द्वितीयाध्याये तृतीया वल्ली ॥

ॐ सह नाववतु । सह नौ भुनक्तु । सहवीर्यं करवावहै ।
तेजस्वि नावधीतमस्तु । मा विद्विषावहै ॥

ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥

ॐ तत् सत् ॥

Isopanisad [Hindu]

GANGA

॥ ईशोपनिषत् ॥


Santi patha

ॐ पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदं पूर्णात् पूर्णमुदच्यते ।
पूर्णस्य पूर्णमादाय पूर्णमेवावशिष्यते ॥

ॐ शांतिः शांतिः शांतिः ॥


॥ अथ ईशोपनिषत् ॥  

ॐ ईशा वास्यमिद सर्वं यत्किञ्च जगत्यां जगत् ।
तेन त्यक्तेन भुञ्जीथा मा गृधः कस्यस्विद्धनम् ॥ १॥

कुर्वन्नेवेह कर्माणि जिजीविषेच्छतꣳ समाः ।
एवं त्वयि नान्यथेतोऽस्ति न कर्म लिप्यते नरे ॥ २॥

असुर्या नाम ते लोका अन्धेन तमसाऽऽवृताः ।
तास्ते प्रेत्याभिगच्छन्ति ये के चात्महनो जनाः ॥ ३॥

अनेजदेकं मनसो जवीयो नैनद्देवा आप्नुवन्पूर्वमर्षत् ।
तद्धावतोऽन्यानत्येति तिष्ठत्तस्मिन्नपो मातरिश्वा दधाति ॥ ४॥

तदेजति तन्नैजति तद्दूरे तद्वन्तिके ।
तदन्तरस्य सर्वस्य तदु सर्वस्यास्य बाह्यतः ॥ ५॥

यस्तु सर्वाणि भूतान्यात्मन्येवानुपश्यति ।
सर्वभूतेषु चात्मानं ततो न विजुगुप्सते ॥ ६॥

यस्मिन्सर्वाणि भूतान्यात्मैवाभूद्विजानतः ।
तत्र को मोहः कः शोक एकत्वमनुपश्यतः ॥ ७॥

स पर्यगाच्छुक्रमकायमव्रण-
मस्नाविर शुद्धमपापविद्धम् ।
कविर्मनीषी परिभूः स्वयम्भू-
र्याथातथ्यतोऽर्थान् व्यदधाच्छाश्वतीभ्यः समाभ्यः ॥ ८॥

अन्धं तमः प्रविशन्ति येऽविद्यामुपासते ।
ततो भूय इव ते तमो य उ विद्याया रताः ॥ ९॥

अन्यदेवाहुर्विद्ययाऽन्यदाहुरविद्यया ।
इति शुश्रुम धीराणां ये नस्तद्विचचक्षिरे ॥ १०॥

विद्यां चाविद्यां च यस्तद्वेदोभय  सह ।
अविद्यया मृत्युं तीर्त्वा विद्ययाऽमृतमश्नुते ॥ ११॥

अन्धं तमः प्रविशन्ति येऽसम्भूतिमुपासते ।
ततो भूय इव ते तमो य उ सम्भूत्या रताः ॥ १२॥

अन्यदेवाहुः सम्भवादन्यदाहुरसम्भवात् ।
इति शुश्रुम धीराणां ये नस्तद्विचचक्षिरे ॥ १३॥

सम्भूतिं च विनाशं च यस्तद्वेदोभय सह ।
विनाशेन मृत्युं तीर्त्वा सम्भूत्याऽमृतमश्नुते ॥ १४॥

हिरण्मयेन पात्रेण सत्यस्यापिहितं मुखम् ।
तत्त्वं पूषन्नपावृणु सत्यधर्माय दृष्टये ॥ १५॥

पूषन्नेकर्षे यम सूर्य प्राजापत्य
व्यूह रश्मीन् समूह तेजः ।
यत्ते रूपं कल्याणतमं तत्ते पश्यामि
योऽसावसौ पुरुषः सोऽहमस्मि ॥ १६॥

वायुरनिलममृतमथेदं भस्मांत शरीरम् ।
ॐ क्रतो स्मर कृत स्मर क्रतो स्मर कृत स्मर ॥ १७॥

अग्ने नय सुपथा राये अस्मान्
विश्वानि देव वयुनानि विद्वान् ।
युयोध्यस्मज्जुहुराणमेनो
भूयिष्ठां ते नमौक्तिं विधेम ॥ १८॥

॥ इति ईशोपनिषत् ॥

ॐ पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदं पूर्णात्पूर्णमुदच्यते ।
पूर्णस्य पूर्णमादाय पूर्णमेवावशिष्यते ॥

ॐ शांतिः शांतिः शांतिः ॥