CIVIL

POWER OF ATTORNEY – BASICS

  1.   ‘Powers-of-Attorney’ — meaning of
  2.   Difference between contract of agency and power-of-attorney
  3.   A Power-of-Attorney cannot go beyond the principal
  4.   General Clause in the Power-of-Attorney vs Special Power-of-Attorney — authority of agent
  5.   Power-of-Attorney — basic elements of the Deed
  6.   Power-of-Attorney — Some specification
(1)   Power to negotiate and sell promissory notes includes power to endorse
(2)   Power to purchase goods for cash or on credit in  connection  with  business  and  to  make, draw,  sign  or  accept  bills  of  exchange  or promissory notes for such purpose does not include power to borrow money against bills of exchange
(3)   Authority to transact, conduct and manage all affairs and for that purpose to use or sign the principals’ names in all and every documents, includes authority to execute a lease
(4)   Authority to conduct and represent in certain proceedings before court does not include the right of audience
(5)   Authority to carry on proceedings in a court does not include the authority to present a document for registration
(6)   Power  to  execute  a  sale  deed  and  to  admit execution before the Registering Officer does not include power to enter into an agreement of sale

(7)   Power to borrow,

(8)   Power to borrow, when unauthorised

(9)   Power to sell, when implied

  1.   Power-of-Attorney—kinds of :

(1)   General power

(2)   Special power

(3)   Particular power

  1.   General Power-of-Attorney or Special Power-of- Attorney: Determination
  2.   Powers of General Power-of-Attorney Holder
  3.   Husband and wife, when agency to be presumed
  4.   Authority of counsel, attorney and advocates
  5.   Implied powers to manage business
  6.   Authority to sell and implied authorities
  7.   Sale by Power-of-Attorney Holder if conveys title to purchase
  8.   Authority to receive payments and other implied authorities
  9.   Authority to pay debts and implied authorities
  10.   Authority to recover debts and implied authorities
  11.   Authority of constituted attorney — limitations
  12.   Agency of necessity — principles of
  13.   Power-of-Attorney  —  jointly  given  in  favour  of  a single individual
  14.   Power-of-Attorney — one principal appointing joint agents
  15.   Power-of-Attorney held to be void
  16.   Capacity of parties to Power-of-Attorney:

(1)   Capacity of donor

(2)   Capacity of donee

  1.   Competency of General Power-of-Attorney Holder to depose as a witness
  2.   Consideration, if necessary, to create agency
  3.   Power of delegation of authority be an agent
  4.   Appointment of substitute by an agent, permissible when
  5.   Ratification by principal acts of agents done without authority
  6.   Essentials  of valid ratification:
(a)   Act to be ratified should have been done on behalf of the ratifier
(b)   Ratification should be done within a reasonable time without prejudice
(c)   Principal  must  have  been  in  existence  or capable of being ascertained at the time of  ratification
(d)   Ratification must be done with full knowledge of facts
(e)   Ratifier should be competent to authorise the act intended to be ratified
(f)   Act Intended to be ratified should not be void or illegal
(g)   Act to be ratified must relate to an existing thing
(h)   Ratification  must  be  communicated  to  the party affected by it
  1.   Effect of ratification
  2.   Acts done after death of principal — ratification by heirs — validity
  3.   Ratification by Statutory Authority beyond statutory provision
  4.   Cancellation of written Power-of-Attorney orally
  5.   Revocation of Power-of-Attorney
  6.   Revocation  when takes effect
  7.   Effect of termination of Agency
  8.   Retrospective termination of Agency — illegal
  9.   Irrevocable Power-of-Attorney—
  10.   Execution and authentication of Power-of-Attorney
  11.   Registration of Power-of-Attorney