w.e.f. 2014-2016 Session

Paper – 3.1.1 Total Marks – 80
1. Definition, meaning, nature, classification, and value of Jurisprudence,
Meaning of law, Relationship between law and Morality
2. Legal theories – Analytical Theory, American Realism, Natural Law theories,
Pure theory of Law, Sociological theories, Historical School
3. Sources of Law – Legislation, Precedents and Custom
4. Administration of Justice- Meaning and various theories of punishment
5. Legal Right : Meaning, basis and elements of Legal Right, Relation between
rights and duties, Kinds of Legal rights.
6. Ownership : Meaning and characteristics of ownership, Kinds of ownership
7. Possession : Meaning, elements of possession, Kinds of Possession,
Distinctions between ownership and Possession.
8. Personality : Meaning, Natural Person and Artificial Person, Legal Status of
Animals, dead persons and unborn Persons, Theories of Corporate
Books Recommended:
1. Salmond – Jurisprudence
2. G.W. Paton- Jurisprudence
3. Dias – Jurisprudence
4. Friedman – Legal theory
5. B.N. Mani Tripathi – Jurisprudence and legal theory
6. Dr. S. K. Tiwari – Jurisprudence : Legal theory and Elements of Law.
7. S.N. Dhyani- Fundamentals of Jurisprudence
8. Lloyd – Introduction of Jurisprudence
9. V.D. Mahajan – Jurisprudence
Four questions are to be answered out of eight

Paper – 3.1.2 Total Marks – 80
1. Fundamental basis of the Law of Contract
2. Formation of Contract and the Fundamental rules relating to the agreement
with special reference to Indian and English Law, (Sec. 2 to Sec.9 of the Indian
Contract Act, 1872)
3. Essential conditions of a contract with special reference to Indian and English
Law , (Including chapters on minor, consideration free consent and vitating
factors; void, Illegal agreement, voidable contract etc., with detailed studies
on general and specific rules thereof : (Sec. 10 to Sec.30).
4. Contingent Contract (Sec. 31- Sec. 36)
5. Discharge of Contract (Sec.37 to Sec. 75). The chapter includes rules of
performance, quasi contracts, doctrine of frustration, breach of contract and
remedies thereof, etc.
Books Recommended:
1. Mulla – Indian Contact Act, 1872 (Student’s Edition)
2. Desai – Indian Contract Act, 1872
3. Anson – English Law of Contract
4. Cheshire and Fifoot – Law of Contract
5. Basu – Law of Contract
6. Ponnuswami & Puri – Cases & Materials on Contract
7. Dr Avtar Singh – Introduction to the Law of Contract
8. V.G. Ramchandra – Law of Contract
Four questions are to be answered out of eight

Paper – 3.1.3 Total Marks – 80
1. Historical Background; Nature of constitution, features of constitution.
2. Formation, State (Art. 2, 3, 4),
Citizenship (Art. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 of Citizenship Act)
3. State (Art. 12),
Pre-constitutional & Post Constitutional operation (Art. 13)
Right to Equality (Art. 14 to Art. 18)
4. Right to Freedom (Art. 19-22)
5. Right against Exploitation (Art. 23-24), Right to Freedom of Religion (Art. 25-
28), Cultural & Minorities Rights (Art. 29-30)
6. Overriding effect of Directive Principles on FRS (Art. 31, 31A, 31B, 31C),
Constitutional Remedies (Act. 32) Judicial Review, Judicial Activism.
7. Directive Principles of State Policy ; Relation between D.P.S.P & F.Rts,
Difference between DPSP & F.Rts,
8. Enforceability of DPSP through Judiciary, Conversion of DPSP to F.Rts.
(Environment, Education & Forest), Fundament Duties enforceability.
Books Recommended :
1. J. N. Pandey
2. M.P. Singh
3. H.M. Seervai Constitutional Law of India
4. V.N. Shukla
5. M.P. Jain
Four questions are to be answered out of eight.

Paper – 3.1.4 Total Marks – 80
GROUP – A : 20 Marks
Textual Hindu Law
• Sources of Hindu Law,
• Hindu Joint Family System and Copercenary,
• General Principles of succession under the Dayabhaga and the Mitakshara
• Women’s property and stridhan
• Distinction between Dayabhaga and the Mitakshara systems and effect of
modern statutes
GROUP – B : 60 Marks
Statutory Hindu Law
• Hindu Marriage Act, 1955
• Hindu Succession Act, 1956
• Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956
• Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act, 1956
• Special Marriage Act, 1954
Books Recommended :
1. Mulla – Hindu Law
2. S.K. Mitter – Hindu Law
3. Venkatraman – A Treatise on Hindu Law
4. Derret – Modern Hindu Law
5. Hindu Marriage Act, 1955
6. Hindu Succession Act, 1956
7. Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act, 1956
8. Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act, 1956
9. Jhabvala – Hindu Law
10. Paras Diwan – Modern Hindu Law
11. S.S.Singh – Unification of Divorce Laws in India
12. Tahir Mohamood – Hindu Law
13. Desai – Hindu Law
One question out of two are to be answered from Group A and three questions
out of six from Group B

Paper – 3.1.5 Total Marks – 80
1. Concept and Background of Muslim Law
2. Sources & Schools, Muslim Law as applied and interpreted in India
3. Marriage, Dower and maintenance
4. Dissolutions of Marriage
5. Gift, Wills, Waqf and Administration of Estate
6. Pre-emption
7. Inheritance.
Books Recommended :
1. Abdur Rahim, Principle of Islamic Jurisprudence (1994)
2. Syed Ameer Ali, Mahommedan Law, Tagore Law Lectures
3. Baillie, Digest of Moohummudan Law
4. The Durrul Mukhtar, (Tr. By Brij Mohan Dayal)
5. Fyzee, A.A.A. , Outlines of Muhammadan Law
6. Hedaya, Tr. Into English by C.l. Hamilton
7. S. Mahmassani, The Philosophy of Jurisprudence in Islam.
8. Tyabji, F. B., Muhammadan Law, The Personal Law of Muslims.
9. I. A. Khan (ed). Muslim Law.
10. S. Khalid Rashid, Muslim Law.
Four questions are to be answered out of eight.

Paper – 3.1.6 Total Marks – 80
GROUP – A : 60 Marks
Law of Torts :
1. Nature and Principles of Tort : Historical development of Laws of Torts and
applicability in India. Basic foundation of Law of Torts, Meaning, Ingredients,
Relevancy of Mens Rea & Malice, , Felonious & Foreign Tort, Constituents of
Tortuous liability.
2. Immunity from tortuous liability – Husband and wife relationship, married
women and Act of State.
3. Justification – Inevitable accident, Act of God, Statutory Authority, Volenti-non
fit injuria.
4. Vicarious liability – By relation and ratification – Doctrine of Course of
employment, Common employment, Independent Contractor.
5. Remedies & Damages : Judicial & Extra-judicial remedies Direct &
consequential Cause, Remoteness test
6. Special Torts : (a) As to person – Assault, Battery, Mayhem & False
imprisonment, Malicious Prosecution, Defamation, (b) As to Property:
Trespass, Trespass ab-initio.
7. Nuisance and Negligence.
GROUP – B : 20 Marks
Consumer Protection Laws:
The Consumer Protection Act 1986 (Sections-2,9-27.)
The Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 :
1. Preliminary – Sec. 1 and 2.
2. Registration of Motor Vehicles – Sec.39, 43, 50 and 55.
3. Claims Tribunals – Sec.165, 173 and 175.
4. Offences, Penalties and Procedure – Sec.177, 180, 183, 184, 185, 195, 196
and 208.
Books Recommended :
1. Bangia – Law of Torts
2. Avtar Singh – Law of Carriages
3. Avtar Singh – Consumer Protection
4. Ratanlal & Dhirajlal – Law of Torts
5. Salmond – Law of Torts
6. Law of Torts – D.Basu
7. R.H. Bhatt – Consumer & The Land
8. J.N. Barowala – Commentary of the Consumer Protection Act 1986.
Three questions out of six are to be answered from Group A and one question out
of two from Group B


Paper – 3.2.1 Total Marks – 80
1. President : Qualification, election, removal (impeachment);
& Powers comparative study with Governor of State
Governor : qualification election, removal powers.
2. Parliament : constitution, qualification for membership, duration;
& Powers, Privileges & immunities of its members;
Legislatures in state : Constitution, duration; qualification, powers, privileges and
immunities of member of state legislature.
3. Legislative Procedure : Rules of procedure to introduce a bill, passing of Bills,
Definition of Money Bill, Special Procedure to Pass money Bill, Resolution of deadlock.
4. Union Judiciary : Establishment & Constitution of Supreme Court, qualification,
appointment, disqualification, removal of Judges; Power & Jurisdiction of S.C.
State judiciary : Constitution, Powers & jurisdiction of High Courts; Appointment,
qualification, disqualification, removal of judges of a high court, District Court, Judicial
5. Legislative Relation : Art. 245 to 255.
6. Liability of State : (Art. 299, 300), Right to Property (Art. 300A), Freedom of Trade,
Commence & intercourse (Art. 302 to 308).
7. Service under the constitution : Doctrine of pleasure (Art. 310, 311), Union & State
Commissions (Art. 315 – 319), Administrative Tribunal meaning & Scope.
8. Emergency : Proclaimation of emergency, effects (Art. 352-360), Constitutional
amendments (Art. – 368), Doctrine of basic structure.
Books Recommended :
1. J. N. Pandey
2. M.P. Singh
3. H.M. Seervai Constitutional Law of India
4. V.N. Shukla
5. M.P. Jain
Four questions are to be answered out of eight.

Paper – 3.2.2 Total Marks – 80
GROUP – A : 20 Marks
Sale of Goods Act, 1930
GROUP – B : 40 Marks
Indian Partnership Act, 1932
GROUP – C : 20 Marks
Indian Contract Act relating to Specific Contracts, Indemnity,
Guarantee, Pledge, Bailment and Agency.
Books Recommended :
1. Pollock & Mulla – Indian Partnership Act, 1932
2. M.C. Shukla – Mercantile Law
3. Desai – Indian Partnership Act, 1932
4. Kapoor – Mercantile Law
5. Indian Partnership Act, 1932
6. Sale of Goods Act, 1930
One Question each out of two are to be answered from Group A & Group C and two
questions out of four Group B.

Paper – 3.2.3 Total Marks – 80
GROUP – A : 60 Marks
Civil Procedure Code :
1. Section- 2
Jurisdiction of Civil Courts
Principles of Res. Judicata – Constructive res judicata as embodied in Explanation IV or
Section II.
2. Place of Suing – Section 15 to 21A
Power of transfer and General power of transfer and withdrawal of suits (Section 22 to
Service of Summons to Defendants under different circumstances; Section 27 to 29
and order V.
Execution of decrees and orders – Section 31 to 74
Temporary injunction (Order XXXIX).
3. Suits by or against Govt. or Public Officer in the Official capacity (Secs. 79 to 81)
Notice to the Govt. or Public Officer (Section 80)
Interpleader Suits – Section 88 and order XXXV.
Filling of a suit in respect of public Nuisance (Section 91).
4. Appeals – from original decrees
Second appeal when Sec.5 lies – Appeals from orders – Powers of appellate court
When appeal lies to the Supreme Court (Section 96 to 112 and Orders XLI to XLIII).
5. Review of Judgements (Section 114-
Revision of Judgement (Section 115)
6. Right to lodge a Caveat by a person claiming a right to appear before the court –
Section 148A.
7. Inherent power of court to make order for the ends of justice or to prevent abuse of
the process of Court (Sec. 151) –
Amendments of judgements, decrees and orders (Section 152)
8. Appeals by indigent persons – Suits in favour of paupers
GROUP – B : 20 Marks
The Limitation Act 1963
Sections. 1 – 20.
Books Recommended :
1. Mulla – Code of Civil Procedure
2. Mukherjee A. N. – Code of Civil Procedure
3. C.K. Takwani – Civil Procedure
4. S. Chakravarti and B. Nath – Cases and Materials
5. A.N. Saha – Civil Procedure Code
6. B.B. Mitra – The Limitation Act
7. Ganguly – Civil Code Practice & Procedure
8. V.G. Ramchandran – Law of Limitation
Three questions out of six are to be answered from Group A and one question out of two
from Group B.

Paper – 3.2.4 Total Marks – 80
Indian Penal Code 1860 (As Amended upto 2013)
1. Chapter I – Introduction 1 – 5
2. Chapter II – General Explanations 6 – 52A
3. Chapter IV – General Exceptions 76 – 106
4. Chapter V – Abetment 107 – 113
5. Chapter VA – Criminal Conspiracy 120A – 120B
6. Chapter VI – Offences Against the State 121 – 124A
7. Chapter VIII – Offences against the Public Tranquility 141 – 152
8. Chapter XI – False Evidence and Offences against Public Justice 191 – 200
9. Chapter XVI – Offences Affecting Human body 299 – 309, 319 – 326
339 – 342, 349 – 354B
359 – 377
10. Chapter XVII – Offences against Property 378, 383, 390 – 396
11. Chapter XX – Offences relating to Marriage 493 – 498A
12. Chapter XXI – Defamation 499 – 502
13. Chapter XXII – Criminal Intimidation etc. 503, 506, 509, 511
Books Recommended :
1. Kenny – Outline of Criminal Law.
2. Ratan Lal – Indian Penal Code.
3. K.D. Gaur – Indian Penal Code.
4. S.N. Misra – Indian Penal Code.
5. B.M. Gandhi – Indian Penal Code.
Four questions are to be answered out of eight.

Paper – 3.2.5 Total Marks – 80
The Code of Criminal Procedure 1973 :
Chapter I Preliminary 1–5
Chapter II Constitution of Criminal Courts and Offices 6–25A
Chapter III Powers of Course 26–35
Chapter V Arrest of Persons 41,43,44,46–54,56,57
Chapter VI Processes to Compel Appearance 70–86
Chapter VII Processes to Compel the Production of things 93 –101
Chapter VIII Security for keeping the peace and for good 12ehavior 107 – 110, 115, 116,122
Chapter IX Order for Maintenance of Wives, Children and Parents. 125-128
Chapter X Maintenance of Public Order and Tranquility 133-148
Chapter XI Preventive Action of the Police 151
Chapter XII Information to the Police & their Powers to Investigate 154-176
Chapter XIII Jurisdiction of the Criminal Courts in Inquiries and Trials 177-189
Chapter XIV Conditions Requisite for initiation of proceedings 190-199
Chapter XV Complain to Magistrates 200-203
Chapter XVI Commencement of Proceedings before Magistrates 204-210
Chapter XVII The Charge 211-224
Chapter XVIII Trial before a Court of Session 225-237
Chapter XIX Trial of warrant-cases by Magistrates 238-250
Chapter XX Trial of Summons Cases by Magistrates 251-259
Chapter XXI Summary Trials 260-265
Chapter XXIV General Provisions as to Inquiries and Trials 300,304,309-311A, 313,317,320
Chapter XXIX Appeals 372-394
Chapter XXX Reference and Revision 397-401
Chapter XXXI Transfer of Criminal Cases 406-410
Chapter XXXIII Provisions as to Bail and Bonds 436-439
Chapter XXXV Irregular Proceedings 460,461
Chapter XXXVI Limitation for Taking Cognizance of Certain Offences 467-469
Books Recommended :
1. Ratanlal – The Code of Criminal Procedure
2. B.B. Mitra –. The Code of Criminal Procedure
3. Sarkar – The Code of Criminal Procedure
4. Justice Thakkar The Code of Criminal Procedure
5. S.N. Mishra -. The Code of Criminal Procedure
Four questions are to be answered out of eight.

Paper – 3.2.6 Total Marks – 80
The Indian Evidence Act 1872 :
1. Preliminary ( Sections 1-4)
2. Relevancy of Facts ( Sections 5-55)
3. Facts which need not be proved ( Section 56-58)
4. Oral and Documentary Evidence ( Section 59-90A)
5. Exclusion of Oral or Documentary Evidence (Section 91-100)
6. Burden of Proof (Section 101-114A)
7. Estoppel (Section 115-117)
8. Witnesses and Examination of Witnesses (Section 118-166)
9. Improper Admission and Rejection of Evidence (Section 167)

Books Recommended :

1. Ratanlal Dhiraj Lal – The Law of Evidence
2. Avtar Singh – Principles of Law of Evidence
3. Batuklal – the Law of Evidence
4. Best – Law of Evidence
5. V. P. Sarathi – Elements of Law of Evidence
6. H. Mondal – Law of Evidence
Four questions are to be answered out of eight.


Paper – 3.3.1 Total Marks – 80
GROUP – A : 60 Marks
Transfer of Property Act, 1882 :
1. Preliminary (Sections 1 – 4)
2. Transfers of Property by Act of Parties (Sections 5 – 53 A)
3. Sales of Immovable Property (Sections 54 – 55)
4. Mortgages of Immovable Property (Sections 58 – 92)
5. Leases of Immovable property (Sections 105 – 117)
6. Gifts (Sections 122 – 129)
7. Transfers of Actionable Claims (Sections 130 – 134)
GROUP – B : 20 Marks
The Indian Easements Act, 1882 ( Sections – 4-19, 37-51,52-64)
Books Recommended :
1. Transfer of Property Act 1882
2. Mulla’s transfer of Property Act Ed. VII
3. G. P. Tripathi, The Transfer of Property Act
4. R. K. Sinha , The Transfer of Property Act
5. Vepa sarathi, Law of Transfer of Property
6. S.N.Shukla, Transfer of Property Act
Three questions out of six are to be answered from Group A and one question out
of two from Group B.


Paper – 3.3.2 Total Marks – 80
1. Nature, Origin and Basis of International Law.
2. Sources of International Law.
3. Subjects of International Law.
4. Relationship between International Law and Municipal Law.
5. Recognition.
6. State Jurisdiction.
7. Asylum and Extradition.
8. Treaties.
9. United Nations – Purposes, Principles, and Membership.
10. The Principal Organs of the UN.
Books Recommended :
1. J.G. Starke – Introduction to International Law.
2. Gurdip Singh – International Law.
3. S.K. Kapoor – International Law.
4. H.O. Agarwal – International Law.
5. D.J. Harris – Cases and Materials on International Law.
Four questions are to be answered out of eight.


Paper – 3.3.3 Total Marks – 80
1. Nature and Scope including Definition of Administrative Law.
2. Classification of Administrative Actions.
3. Subordinate Legislations – Types, Control and reasons of its growth.
4. Norms of Natural Justice – Rule against bias, Right to be heard and Reasoned
5. Ombudsman – Lokpal and Lokayuktas
6. Public Undertakings – its types and control and reasons of their growth.
7. Judicial Control of Administrative Actions – Writs, Special Leave to Appeal,
Statutory control and equitable remedies; Judicial Review and P.I.L.
8. Administrative Tribunals
Books Recommended :
1. K.C. Davis
2. Bernard Schwartz
3. S.P. Sathe,
4. Takwani, Administrative Law
5. Kesari,
6. Massey.
Four questions are to be answered out of eight.


Paper – 3.3.4 Total Marks – 80
1. U.N. Stockholm Declaration 1972, Rio-Declaration 1992, Johannesburg
Declaration 2002 – Basic principles evolved, Rio + 20.
2. Environment Policy in India – Constitutional mandates, Enlargement of
Article 21 of the Constitution.
3. Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 ; Definitions and other provisions of the
Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981; Definitions and other
provisions of the Act.
Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 ; Definitions and other
provisions of the Act.
4. Administration and functioning of Pollution Control Board:
(a) For human being pertaining to water, Air, Noise & Nuclear radiation.
(b) For non human being pertaining to wild life, land use, irrigation,
forests etc.
5. Laws relating to the role of Courts to protect environmental pollution –
Enlargement of locus standi and concept of Public Interest litigation;
Principles evolved.
6. Legal sanctions and strategies to Control pollution – with reference to E.P.
Act, Water Act, Air Act & Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 National
Environment Tribunal Act, 1995.
7. Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1960.
8. Wild Life (Protection) Act 1972.
9. National Green Tribunal Act, 2010.
Books Recommended :
1. Paras Diwan & Parag Diwan – Environment Management, Law &
2. P. Leelakrishnan – Environment and the Law
3. Biswajit Mukherjee – Law and Environment
4. K. Thakur – Environment Protection Law & Policy in India
5. Armin Rosencranz, Shyam Diwan, Marth L, Noble – Environment Law and
policy in India – Cases, Materials and Statutes.
6. Ball and Bell – Environment Law.
Four questions are to be answered out of eight.


Paper – 3.3.5 Total Marks – 80
1. Introduction and Development of Media:
Understanding the concept of Media; History of Media; Theories of Media; Evolution
of Media; Media Legislation in Indian Context; Print Media and Registration.
2. Media in the Constitutional Framework:
Freedom of Expression in Indian Constitution and Restrictions; Interpretation of
Media freedom and Free expression; Issues of Privacy; Right to Information; Media
Personal Privileges; Print Media and Press Law; Public Interest Litigation.
3.Legal Dimensions of Media-I:
Criminal Law-Defamation, Obscenity and Sedition; Law of Tort-Defamation &
Negligence; Legislature–Privileges of the Legislature; Judiciary–Contempt of Court;
Executive – Official Secrets; Journalists–Protection of Working Journalists; Role of
Press Council.
4. Legal Dimensions of Media-II:
Copyright Act-Broadcasting Rights and its Privileges, Performers Rights; Security of
Nation; Trial by Media; Sting Operation and Media.
5. Self Regulation & Other Issues:
Media and Ethics; Self-Regulation Versus Legal Regulation; Media & Human Rights;
Issues relating to entry of Foreign Print Media
6. Legislative effort and Media:
Evolution of Broadcast Sector; Airwaves and Government Control-only specific
provisions from Prashar Bharti Act 1990, Cinematography Act 1952; Cable T.V.
Networks (Regulation) Act of 1995
7. The New Media of Internet:
Evolution of Internet as New Media; Regulating the Internet and Media (IT Act of
2000 Indian Telegraph Act of 1885); Social Networks and Media.
8: Media – Advertisement & Law
Concept of Advertisement: Advertisement & Ethics; Prohibition of Indecent
Representation; Magic Remedies; Issues of Consumer Protection.
1. Madhavi Goradia, Facet Of Media Law
2. Media , Press and Telecommunication Law, 2007
3. DR. A. Verma, Cyber Crimes & Law
Four questions are to be answered out of eight.

(Clinical Course)
Paper – 3.3.6 Total Marks – 100
Group – A : 40 Marks
1. The Advocates Act. 1961
2. Contempt of Court
Group – B : 20 Marks
Accountancy for Lawyers:
Special lecture be arranged by inviting Professors of Accountancy or Senior
members of the Tax Bar to deliver lectures in Accountancy for lawyers.
Group – C : 40 Marks
Report writing on Professional Ethics – 20 Marks
Viva-Voce – 20 Marks
Books Recommended :
1. Dutta Mazumdar N. – Professional Ethics
2. Justic Mukherjee. P.B.– Professional Ethics
3. S. P. Gupta – Professional Ethics and Bar Bench Relation.
4. Bare Act – The Advocates Act, 1961
Two questions out of four are to be answered from Group A and one question out
of two from Group B.


Paper – 3.4.1 Total Marks – 80
Group – A : 60 Marks
Industrial Disputes Act :
1. Object of the Act.
2. Definition of Industry and Industrial Dispute, Appropriate Govt. Average pay,
Award, Controlled Industry, Employer, layoff, Lockout, strike etc. workmen.
3. Procedure for the settlement of dispute and Authorities under the Act.
References of dispute, voluntary references to arbitration, Awards and
4. Strike and Lock out – Prohibition, illegality penalties.
5. Lay off, Retrenchment of workers, Transfer and closing down of undertaking.
6. Miscellaneous – Change of condition of service, unfair labour practices,
Protected workman, Representation of parties, Recovery of money due from
Group – B : 20 Marks
Trade Unions Act :
1. Scope and the object of the Act.
2. Definitions : Trade Union, Trade dispute, Registrar, workmen etc.
3. Registration of the Trade Union.
4. Rights and privileges of Registered Trade Union, dissolution etc.
5. Recognition.
6. Collective bargaining and trade union.
7. Unfair labour practices, Penalities and miscellaneous
All Statutes to be read with up to date amendments.
Books Recommended :
1. P.L. Malik – Industrial Law
2. S. N. Mishra – An Introduction of Labour and Industrial Law
3. N. D. Kapoor – Handbook of Industrial Law
4. S. Srivastave – Industrial Relations and labour Law
5. S. M. Chaturbedi – Labour and Industrial Laws
6. H.K. Saha Ray – An Industrial and Labour Laws in India
7. Labour Laws Journals.
Three questions out of six are to be answered from Group A and one question out
of two from Group B.


Paper – 3.4.2 Total Marks – 80
1. Concept of Company and history of company Legislations in India.
2. Procedure relating to formation of a Company
3. Finance of Company
4. Management of Company affairs.
5. Majority rule
6. Control of Company affairs
7. Procedure relating to winding up of a Company
8. Miscellaneous provisions
Note: Provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 should be studied with latest
amendments and SEBI guidelines.
Books Recommended :
1. A Ramaiya – Guide to the Companies Act.
2. The Law relating to Government Control of Private Companies.
3. Indian Law Institute – Government Regulations of Financial Management
of private corporate Sector in India.
4. T. R. Srinivasa Iyenger – The Law relating to the private Limited
5. N.D.Kapoor – Elements of Companies.
6. Avtar Singh – Indian Companies Law
7. S.C.Sen – New Frontier on Company Law
8. S.M.Shah – Lectures on Company Law
9. Fariedmann – Company Law and Capitalism ( Hudden Tom Public
Corporation )
10. Palmer – Principles of Modern Company Law (Grower Company Guide)
11. S.C.Sen – Mergers, Amalgamation and Take overs (responsible Company))
12. Pundy, Lindhal and Casyer – Corporate Concentration and Public Policy.
13. Department of Company Affairs – Company News and Notes Journal.
14. Company Law Journal – M.L. J. Press, Madras
15. K.I.Kali – A study on Sacchar Committee Report.
Four questions are to be answered out of eight.


Paper – 3.4.3 Total Marks – 80
1. Introduction to Human Rights
2. Philosophy, History and Development of Human Rights
3. International Human Rights Laws –
(a) Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948.
(b) International Convenant on Civil and Political Rights – 1966.
(c) International Covenant on Economic, Social And Cultural Rights – 1966.
(d) Two Protocols of 1966 & 1989
4. The Protection of Human Rights Act 1993
5. Human Right Provisions in the Indian Constitution
6. Role of Judiciary, Media & NGOs in the protection of Human Rights in India
7. Humanitarian Law – Concept and Sources.
Books Recommended :
1. D. Basu – Human Rights in Constitutional Law.
2. P. Diwan – Human Rights and the Law.
3. R.C. Hingorani – Human Rights in India.
4. Paul Sieghart – The International Law of Human Rights.
5. Brownlie – Basic Documents on International Law and Human Rights.
Four questions are to be answered out of eight.


Paper – 3.4.4 Total Marks – 80
1. Negotiable Instruments Act, 1882;
2. Banking Regulator Act, 1949;
3. Regional Rural Banks Act, 1976;
4. Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934;
5. Securitization and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of
Security Interest Act, 2002;
6. Banking Ombudsman Scheme.
Books Recommended :
1. Gupta, S.N. : The Banking Law in Theory and Practice, 3V.
2. Singh, Avtar : Laws of Banking and Negotiable Instruments : An Introduction.
3. Sreekantaradhya, B.S. : Banking and Finance : Perspectives on Reform.
4. Tannan’s Banking Law and Practice in India.
Four questions are to be answered out of eight.


Paper – 3.4.5 Total Marks – 80
Group – A : 40 Marks
The West Bengal Land Reforms Act, 1955
Group – B : 20 Marks
The West Bengal Premises Tenancy Act, 1997
Group – C : 20 Marks
The West Bengal Apartment Ownership Act, 1972
Books Recommended :
1. A. N. Saha – West Bengal Land Reforms Act
2. D. P. Chatterjee- West Bengal Land Reforms Act.
3. N. K. Roy – West Bengal Land Reforms Act
4. S. K. Sen – West Bengal Premises Tenancy Act
5. Justice Mallick – West Bengal Land Reforms Act, 1955
6. A. N. Saha – Premises Tenancy Act
7. Amal Das – West Bengal Land Reforms Act, 1955
8. State Govt. Publication–The West Bengal Apartment Ownership Act, 1972
Two questions out of four are to be answered from Group A and one question each
out of two from Group B and Group C.


(Clinical Course)
Paper – 3.4.6 Total Marks – 100
Group – A : 60 Marks
1. Alternate Dispute Resolution – Meaning, Nature, Scope, Merits and
2. Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 ( Sections- 2-37,44-50,54-59,62-
Group – B : 20 Marks
Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 (Sections- 3,4,6,7,9,10,12,13,19-22E)
Group – C : 20 Marks
Legal Aid Clinic
(Practical Report to be submitted)
Books Recommended :
1. P.C. Rao – Alternate Dispute Resolution
2. S. K. Roy Choudhury and H.K.Saharay – Law of Arbitration and Conciliation
3. Tiwari – Arbitration and Conciliation Act
4. Dr. A. Sen – Lok Adalat, Arbitration, Conciliation and ADR. Arbitration and
Conciliation Act 1996
Three questions out of six are to be answered from Group A and one question out
of two from Group B.


Paper – 3.5.1 Total Marks – 80
Group – A : 40 Marks
The Factories Act
1. Object of the Act.
2. Definitions : Sec. 2 of the Act.
3. Approval and Licensing.
4. Powers and functions of the Inspecting staff i.e. Inspector and certifying
5. Provisions of Health, Safety and Welfare measures.
6. Working conditions of Adult, Adolescent and Child workers including women.
7. Annual leave with wages.
Group – B : 20 Marks
The Worksmen’s Compensation Act,1923 / The Employee’s Compensation Act,2010:
1. Scope and objective of the Act including definitions under Sec. 2 of the Act.
2. Liability and defence against workmen’s compensation.
3. Amount and distribution of compensation.
4. Notice and claim of compensation, requirement under fatal accident.
5. Liability of the master for the act of third party.
6. Commissioner : Appointment, Powers, reference, settlement of dispute.
7. Registration of agreement and effect of non-registration.
8. Appeals, recovery etc.
Group – C : 20 Marks
The Minimum Wages Act,1948:
1. Scope and object of the Act (including definitions, concept of fair wage and
living wage).
2. Fixation and revision of minimum wage.
3. Enforcement of the Act.
Note : All the Statutes to be read with up to date amendments.
Books Recommended :
1. P.L. Malik – Industrial Law
2. S. N. Mishra – An Introduction of Labour and Industrial Law
3. N. D. Kapoor – Handbook of Industrial Law
4. S. Srivastave – Industrial Relations and labour Law
5. S. M. Chaturbedi – Labour and Industrial Laws
6. H.K. Saha Ray – An Industrial and Labour Laws in India
7. Labour Laws Journals.

Two questions out of four are to be answered from Group A and one question each
out of two from Group B and Group C.


Paper – 3.5.2 Total Marks – 80
1. Background and Development:
Patent and its importance; Theories of Protection; Importance of Patent;
International Regime of Patents; Relevant provisions under WTO and TRIPS.
2. Introduction:
Meaning of Patent; Patents & Traditional Knowledge; Bio-patents, software patents
and Protection of traditional knowledge.
3. Grant of Patent:
Features of Patent; Patent Specification; Who can obtain Patent? How to obtain
Patent? Process of Registration of Patent.
4. Rights and obligations of a patentee:
Nature of patent rights; Duration of Patent; Limitation of the patentees’ rights;
Obligation of patentee.
5. Register of Patents and Patent Office:
Register of patent; Patent office; Power of the Controller; Power of Central
Government; Appeal
6. International Patent:
International Patent; How to obtain international Patent; Patent Co-operation treaty
7. Transfer of Patent Rights:
Compulsory Licenses and Licenses of Right; Revocation and surrender of patents.
8. Infringement and Remedies:
Infringement of Patents and penalties; Remedies for Infringement.
Books Recommended:
1. Prabudh Ganguli, Gearing up for Patents
2. Prabudh Ganguli, Intellectual Property Rights
3. P. Narayanan, Intellectual Property Law
4. Wadehra B.L., Patents, Trademarks, Designs and Geological Indications.
5. Cornish P., Intellectual Property Law.
6. P. Narayanan, Patent Law (4th ed., 2006)
Four questions are to be answered out of eight.


Paper – 3.5.3 Total Marks – 80
1. Concept of Corporate Governance
2. Corporate Governance – Historical Perspective
3. Corporate Governance and Role of Institutional Investors
4. Principles of Corporate Governance – OECD Guidelines :
The right of shareholders and equitable treatment of shareholders
The Role of Stakeholders in Corporate Governance.
Disclosure and Transparency.
5. Mechanism and Control :
Internal Corporate Governance Control.
External Corporate Governance Control.
6. The legal obligation of Board of Directors in Corporate Governance and
Board – Management relationship.
7. The Concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in India.
Books Recommended :
1. Subhas Chandra Das – Corporate Governance in India : An Evaluation.
2. Sanjay Bhayana – Corporate Governance Practice.
3. Robert A.G.Monks – Corporate Governance.
4. Avtar Singh – Company Law
5. Darryl Reed and Sanjay Mukherjee – Corporate Governance, Economic
Reforms and development.
6. Sanjay Agarwal – Corporate Social Responsibility in India.
7. Ravi Pullani and Mahesh Pullani (Ed) – Bharat’s Manual of Companies Act
and Corporate Laws : including SEBI Rules, Regulations, etc.
Four questions are to be answered out of eight.


Paper – 3.5.4 Total Marks – 80
1. Background and Introduction:
Competition law in India; Defination, growth, historical background and need for
change; Globalization and competition Policy in India, Monopoly and the new
2. Competitive Agreements and Contracts:
Anti-competition agreements and the freedom of Contract (S.23&27 of IC Act);
Constitutional initiatives in the protection of monopolistic activities.
3. MRTP and Competition Act:
The short comings of MRTP; Monopolistic Trade Practices, Restrictive Trade Practices
and Unfair Trade Practices; Protection of consumer interests; An overview of the
Competition Act 2002.
4.Prohibition and Merger:
Competition laws; Core issues, Dominant Position and its abuses; The Prohibition of
anti-competitive agreements, Indian position and remedies; Combinations and
regulations of combination-Merger between enterprises.
Authorities under Competition Act; Composition, Powers and Duties of Director
6. Function of Commission:
Powers, Functions and Jurisdiction of Competition Commission of India.
Acceptance and Disposal of cases; Remedies through Competition Commission.
8. Expectations:
Judicial pronouncement of the Commission and the Supreme Court, Future
Challenges; WTO and Competition law.
Books Referred:
1. Competition Law in India – T.Ramappa.
2. Competition Act, 2002- Law and Practice. Suresh T.Vishwanathan.
3. Competition Law-Emerging Trends—P.Satyanaraya Prasad
4. Competition Act, 2002.
Four questions are to be answered out of eight.


Paper – 3.5.5 Total Marks – 80
Group – A : 60 Marks
Information Technology :
1. Background and Preliminary:
History of Information Technology Law; Impact of IT law on other Laws in India; Definitions, Meaning
and Importance of IT Law in India.
2. Electronic Signature and Electronic Governance :
Electronic Signature; Recognition of electronic records; Use of electronic signature and electronic
records; Delivery of service by service provider; Retention of electronic records;
3. Attribution, Acknowledgement and Despatch of Electronic Records:
Validity of electronic contracts; Attribution of electronic records; Acknowledgement of receipt; Time
and Place of dispatch and receipt of electronic records.
4. Regulation of Certifying Authorities:
Appointment of Controller; Functions of Controller; Licence to issue digital signature certificates;
application for licence and its renewal; Suspension, display and surrender of licence; Power of
delegate and investigate contraventions.
5. Secure Electronic Records, Signatures and Electronic Signature Certificates:
Secure Electronic Records and Signature; Certifying Authorities to issue Electronic Signature
Certificate; Representation on Electronic Signature Certificate; Notice of Suspension, Suspension and
Revocation of Electronic Signature Certificate.
6. Duties of Subscriber and Penalties, Compensation and Adjudication:
Generating Key pair; Duties of subscriber of ESC; Acceptance of DSC and Control of private key;
Penalty and compensation for damage to computer system, failure to protect data, failure to furnish
information etc; Residuary penalty; Power to adjudicate; factors considered by adjudicating officer.
7. The Cyber Appellate Tribunal:
Establishment of Cyber Appellate Tribunal; Composition, power and function of Cyber Appellate
Tribunal; Resignation and Removal; Appeal to Cyber Regulation Appellate Tribunal; Appeal to High
Court; Recovery of Penalty and Compensation.
8.Offences and Remedies:
Tampering with computer source documents; Computer related offences; Identity theft; privacy;
cyber terrorism; Publication or transmission of obscene material or sexually explicit act or conduct;
National Nodal Agency; Compounding of offences; Power of Police office or other officer to enter,
search etc.
Group – B : 20 Marks
The Right to Information Act, 2005
Books Referred:
1. J.H.Barowalia – Commentary on the right to Information Act, Universal Law Publications.
2. Information Technology Act, 2000
3. Vakul Sharma – Information Technology law and practice
1. S.V. Joga Rao – Law Relating to Right to Information, vol.1.
2. Ian J Lloyd – Information Technology law, Edn. IV
3. Yatindra Singh – Cyber Laws
Three questions are to be answered from Group A and one question out of two from Group B.


(Clinical Course)
Paper – 3.5.6 Total Marks – 100
1. Drafting – 40 Marks
General principles of drafting and relevant substantive rules (it includes not
less than 15 practical exercises in drafting carrying a total of 45 marks (3
marks for each).
2. Pleadings – 40 Marks
i) Civil – Plaint, Written Statement, Interlocutory Application, Original
Petition, Affidavit, Execution Petition, Memorandum of Appeal and Revision,
Petition under Art.226 and 32 of the Constitution of India.
ii) Criminal – Complaint, Criminal Miscellaneous petition, Bail Application,
Memorandum of Appeal and Rivision.
iii) Conveyance – Sale Deed, Mortgage Deed, Lease Deed, Gift Deed,
Promissory Note, Power of Attorney, Will, Trust Deed.
iv) Drafting of Writ petition and PIL petition.
3. Viva-Voce – 20 Marks
Books Recommended :
1. Ganguly A. C. – Civil Court Practice Procedure
2. Ghosh S.C. – Forms & Pleading
3. Gupta – Conveyancing, Pleading and Deeds – 5 vols.
4. Mazumder A.B. – Pleading
5. Mogha – Indian Conveyancer
6. Mulla – Civil Procedure Code (Students Edition).
Note : This course will be taught through class instructions and simulation exercise,
preferably with assistance of practicing lawyers/retired judges.


Paper – 3.6.1 Total Marks – 80
Definition, Nature, Scope, history, Indian copyright, main features, object, International conventions, copyright
and GATT, fixation of copyright, originality as an element of copyright, Ideas, impact of digital medium.
Who is author? Joint authorship, status of the author, first owner of copyright, Employee work, Commissioned
work, Author of a cinematographic work and sound recording, Computer generated works, ownership of moral
right and related right.
Introduction, term in case of published literary, dramatic musical or dramatic works, term in case of anonymous
and pseudonymous work, term in case of posthumous, photograph, cinematograph, sound recording,
Government works, works of public undertakings and in work of international organisation; Limitations to of
copyright, temporal limitations, statutory licences, Fair Access to copyrighted creations, Doctrine of Fair dealing
or permitted acts.
General, interest of authors, exclusive economic right, moral right, and related rights.
Assignments, transfer by law, relinquishment of copyright; licences, voluntary licences, non-voluntary licences
Copyright office, Register of copyright office, evidentiary value of register of copyright, function and obligation of
registrar of Copyright; Copyright Board, constitution and function of copyright board, power and procedure of
copyright board and its obligation; Copyright society, registration of copyright society, function and obligation of
copyright society, control of owners of copyright, rights and liabilities of pre-existing societies.
Introductory, qualification for registration, procedure for registration, entries in register, correction of entries,
rectification of register by Copyright Board.
General, what is infringement? When copyright is infringed? Which are not infringements of copyright? When
breach of conditions amount to infringement of copyright? Importation of infringing copy, transit rights of land
locked countries, obligation of copyright societies in case of account, resale- share right in original copies of
Introduction ; Who can claim remedy? Against whom one may proceed? Civil remedies, Criminal remedies,
Administrative remedies, Anton Pillar order, Protection of separate rights, restriction of remedies, suit for
declaration, jurisdiction of court, delivery of infringing copies and plates. Remedy by appeal.
Books recommended:
1. P. Narayanan, Copyright and Industrial Design, Eastern Book House.
2. W.R. Cornish, Intellectual Property, Sweet and Maxwell,
3. S.M. Steward, International Copyright and Neighbouring Rights, Butterworths.
4. Alka Chawla, Copyright and Related Rights Nayional and International perspective, Macmillan India Ltd.
5. P. Narayanan, Intellectual Property Law, Eastern Law House
6. Dr. S.N. Mandal, Copyright Laws : Cases & Materials.
Four questions are to be answered out of eight.


Paper – 3.6.2 Total Marks – 80
1. Trademark-Introduction and Concepts:
Definition and concept of trademarks; Distinction between trademark and property mark;
Need for Protection of Trademarks-rationale as an aspect of commercial and as consumer
2. Registration and Rights:
Procedural Requirements for Protection of Trademarks; Kinds of Trademarks-Registration;
International Legal Instruments on Trademarks; Content of the Rights, Exhaustion of Rights;
Right of Goodwill.
3. Assignment and Licensing:
Assignment and Licensing; Modes of assignment.
4. Infringement and Remedies:
Infringement of Trademark; Criteria of infringement; Passing Off; Standards of proof in
passing off action; Remedies.
5. Designs-Definition and Concepts:
Definition of Design; Copyright in Design (duration); Need for protection of industrial
designs; Subject matter of protection and requirements.
6. Registration, Rights and Transfer of Rights:
Procedure for obtaining design protection; Registration of design for articles; Rights in
registered design; Transfer of rights; Cancellation of Design.
7. Infringement and Remedies:
Piracy or Infringement of copyright in Design; Remedies for infringement.
8. Designs of Integrated Circuits- Layout:
The Semiconductor Integrated Circuits Layout; Requirements and procedure for registration;
Duration and effect of registration; Assignment and transmission.
Books recommended:
1. Ashwani Kr. Bansal, Law of Trade Marks in India (2nd ed., 2006)
2. V.K. Ahuja, Law Relating to Intellectual Property Rights (2007)
3. P. Narayanan, Copyright and Industrial Designs (2007)
4. P. Narayanan, Law of Trade Marks and Passing off (6th ed., 2004)
5. Ashwani Kr. Bansal, Materials on Copyright (2004)
6. V.K. Ahuja, Law of Copyright and Neighbouring Rights: National and International
7. Alka Chawla, Copyright and Related Rights: National and International Perspectives
8. Wadhera, B.L., Law Relating to Patents, Trademarks, Copyrights, Designs & Geographic
Four questions are to be answered out of eight.


Paper – 3.6.3 Total Marks – 80
1. General Principles;
Definitions of Insurance;
2. Essential Elements : Insurable Interest;
Materiality of Facts;
3. Life Insurance;
4. Fire Insurance;
5. Marine Insurance;
6. Liability Insurance;
7. The Insurance Act, 1938;
8. The Insurance Regulatory and Development Authorities Act, 1999.
Books Recommended :
Murthy, K.S.N. and Sarma, K.V.S. : Modern Law of Insurance in India.
Singh, Avtar : Law of Insurance.
Bharat’s Manual of Insurance Laws.
Misra, M.N. : Insurance Law.
Nagarjun, R.K. : Law of Insurance.
Four questions are to be answered out of eight.


Paper – 3.6.4 Total Marks – 80
Group – A : 60 Marks
1) Introduction
a. Meaning of interpretation
b. Inter pretation and construction
c. Kinds of Interpretation
d. Object of Interpretation
2) Basic Rules of Interpretation
a. Literal Rule
b. Mischief Rule
c. Golden Rule
3) Guiding Rules of Interpretation
a. Harmonious construction
b. Beneficial construction
4) Maxims of Interpretation
a. Ut res magis valeat quqm pereat
b. Noscitur a sociis
c. Ejusdem generis
d. Reddendo Singula singuli
e. Casus omissus
f. Expression unis est exclusion Alterius
5) Presumptions
a. Staute must be read as a whole
b. The Legislature does not commit mistake or make omissions
c. Technical words in technical sense
d. Intention of legislature predominates.
e. Statutes are not intended to be in constant with international law.
f. Mens rea is generally required for a Criminal act.
g. Words to be constructed according to its popular sense.
h. Presumption against extra territorial operation of statute.

6) Internal aids to construction
a. Long title
b. Preamble
c. Heading
d. Punctuation
e. Illustration
f. Explanation
g. Marginal notes
h. Proviso
i. Schedule
7) External aid to construction
a. Dictionaries
b. Parliamentary History
c. Reference to other statutes
d. Use of Foreign decisions
e. Text Books.
f. Government Publications and Reports
8) Construction of Penal and Remedial Statute
9) Construction of taxing statutes
10) Interpretation of the constitution.
11) Principles of legislation
a. Meaning of legislation
b. Different kinds of legislation
c. Commencement, Repeal and Revival of legislation
Group – B : 20 Marks
General Clauses Act, 1897
(Sections : 2, 3, 5 – 9, 12 – 13, 17 – 19, 26 – 27)
Book Recommended:
1) G.P. Singh – Principles of statutory Interpretation
2) Maxwell on Interpretation of statutes
3) V. Sarathi – Interpretation of statutes
4) N. S. Bindra – Interpretation of statutes
5) S.K. Tiwari – Interpretation of statutes and Principles of Legislation
6) T. Bhattacharya – The Interpretation of statutes
Three questions out of six are to be answered from Group A and one question out
of two from Group B


Paper – 3.6.5 Total Marks – 80
1. Basic Concept : Direct and Indirect Tax, Source of Income Tax Law in India, Basic
Principles of Charging Income Tax, Diversion & Application of Income, ‘Equity’, ‘quio
and Pro quo and res-judication principles in taxation provisions, Exemption &
Deductions, Tax evasion, Tax avoidance, Tax Planning, Rate or Rates of Tax, CBDT.
2. Important Definitions: Person, Assessee, Assessment year, Previous year, Income,
Gross Total Income, Heads of Income, Casual income, Business, Capital assets, Capital
receipts and Revenue receipts, Capital expenditure and Revenue expenditure,
Amalgamation, Demarger, Infrastructure capital company and infrastructure capital
fund, under the Income Tax Act.
3. Residential status and tax incidence.
4. Income exempt from tax (sec.10).
5. Agricultural Income – Meaning, Instances of agricultural income and non-agricultural
income, Treatment of partly agricultural income, Tax treatment of agricultural income
and computation of agricultural income.
6. Computation of Taxable income of individual, salaries and income from houseproperty;
only concepts and simple problems.
7. Deduction from gross total income: Section: 80C, 80CCC, 80D, 80DD, 80DDB, 80E and
8. Tax Management: Submission of returns and procedure of assessment, PAN, TAN,
Preliminary ideas of deduction and collection of tax at source, Advancement of tax,
Refund of tax, Appeals and Revision.
9. Central Sales Tax Act, 1956: Introduction, objects, basic features, definition of certain
terms, incidence and levy of tax, Registration of dealers & procedures thereof.
10. West Bengal Value Added Tax: VAT Concepts, Salient features of VAT, VAT versus sales
tax, Merits & demerits of VAT, Coverage of goods under VAT, Goods outside VAT,
Method of computation of VAT, Definitions of certain terms, Registration of dealers.
Provisions are to be read with latest Amendments.
Books Recommended :
Taxmann : Direct Taxes : Law and Practice
Taxmann : Indirect Taxes : Law and Practice
Taxmann : Income Tax Act.
Four questions are to be answered out of eight.


(Clinical Course)
Paper – 3.6.6 Total Marks – 100
1. Moot Court 30 Marks
Every student may be required to do moot courts in a semester. The moot
court work will be an assigned problem and it will be evaluated 5 marks for
written submissions and 5 marks for oral advocacy.
2. Observance of Trial in Civil and Criminal Courts
a) Students may be required to attend trials in the course of the last two or
three years of LL. B studies. They will maintain a record and enter the
various steps observed during their attendance on different days in the
District / Sub-Divisional Court, Calcutta High Court and Supreme Court,
New Delhi assignments. 30 marks
b) Viva-Voce – 10 marks
3. Pre-trial preparation and Internship diary 30 marks
Each student will observe two interviewing sessions of clients at the Lawyer’s
Office/Legal Aid Office and record the proceedings in a diary which will carry
15 marks.
Each student will further observe the preparation of documents and court
papers by the Advocate and the procedure for the filing of the suit/petition.
This will be recorded in the diary, which will carry 15 marks.