The primary rule of construction of a document is the intention of the executants, which must be found in the words used in the document. The question is not what may be supposed to have been intended, but what has been said. We need to carry on the exercise of construction or interpretation of the document only if the document […]

A composite document is severable and in part clearly testamentary, such part may take effect as a Will and other part if it has the characteristics of a settlement and that part will take effect in that way. A document which operates to dispose of properly in praesenti in respect of few items of the properties is a settlement and […]

Hon’ble Apex Court in 2009 (9) SCC 689 in the matter of Shub Karan Buba Alias Shub Karan vs. Sita Saran Bubna & Ors. has, inter alia held at Paragraphs 5 & 6 observed as follows: “5. `Partition’ is a re-distribution or adjustment of pre-existing rights, among co-owners/coparceners, resulting in a division of lands or other properties jointly held by […]

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Supreme Court in Himanshu Singh Sabharwal v. State of M.P. and Ors. (2008) 4 SCR 783, where this Court in paragraphs 14 and 15 has observed as under: 14. “Witnesses” as Benthem said: are the eyes and ears of justice. Hence, the importance and primacy of the quality of trial process. If the witness himself is incapacitated from acting as […]

KEYWORD:- Tape recorded speech – Evidence- The evidence of voice identification is at best suspect, if not, wholly unreliable. Accurate voice identification is much more difficult than visual identification. It is prone to such extensive and sophisticated tampering, doctoring and editing that the reality can be completely replaced by fiction. Therefore, the Courts have to be extremely cautious in basing […]

Corroboration is not the sine qua non for conviction in a rape case. The observations of Vivian Bose, J. in Rameshwar v. State of Rajasthan were: The rule, which according to the cases has hardened into one of law, is not that corroboration is essential before there can be a conviction but that the necessity of corroboration, as a matter […]

CHILD WITNESS: In Rameshwar S/o Kalyan Singh v. The State of Rajasthan, AIR 1952 SC 54, Supreme Court examined the provisions of Section 5 of Indian Oaths Act, 1873 and Section 118 of Evidence Act, 1872 and held that every witness is competent to depose unless the court considers that he is prevented from understanding the question put to him, […]

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