“India that is Bharat shall be Union of States”

1) Power of the Union Parliament, under Article 3, to alter the names, areas and boundaries of the existing States;

2) Provision for single citizenship under Article 9;

3) Position of the Governor, as an agent of the Central Government;

4) Discretion vested with the Governor under Article 174 and Article 200;

5) Power of the Parliament to make laws on subjects mentioned in the State List under Articles 249, 250 and 253;

6) The rule of repugnancy operating in favour of the Central Law under Article 254;

7) Powers of the central Government, in respect of emergency, under Articles 352 to 360.


Single Citizenship:

A Strong Centre:

Single Constitution for Union and States:

Centre Can Change Name and Boundaries of States:

Single Unified Judiciary:

Unitary in Emergencies:

Common All-India Services:

Inequality of Representation in the Council of States:

Appointment of Governor by President:

Appointment of the High Court Judges by the President:

The Office of the Comptroller and Auditor-General:

Centralized Electoral Machinery:

Flexible Constitution:

Special Powers of Council of State over State List:

Control over State Laws:

Financial Dependence of States:

Considering the above-stated provisions, Dr. K.C. Wheare has coined the expression “quasifederal’ for Indian Constitution. In the opinion of Dr. Ivor Jennings, it is a unitary’ “Constitution with subsidiary’ federal features.” Prof. Alexandro Wicz holds it “a unitary’ Constitution with vertically divided sovereignty.”

Calling India as federal is emotional rather than legal .