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India and Indian Constitution is not Federal

“India that is Bharat shall be Union of States”

1) Power of the Union Parliament, under Article 3, to alter the names, areas and boundaries of the existing States;

2) Provision for single citizenship under Article 9;

3) Position of the Governor, as an agent of the Central Government;

4) Discretion vested with the Governor under Article 174 and Article 200;

5) Power of the Parliament to make laws on subjects mentioned in the State List under Articles 249, 250 and 253;

6) The rule of repugnancy operating in favour of the Central Law under Article 254;

7) Powers of the central Government, in respect of emergency, under Articles 352 to 360.


Single Citizenship:

A Strong Centre:

Single Constitution for Union and States:

Centre Can Change Name and Boundaries of States:

Single Unified Judiciary:

Unitary in Emergencies:

Common All-India Services:

Inequality of Representation in the Council of States:

Appointment of Governor by President:

Appointment of the High Court Judges by the President:

The Office of the Comptroller and Auditor-General:

Centralized Electoral Machinery:

Flexible Constitution:

Special Powers of Council of State over State List:

Control over State Laws:

Financial Dependence of States:

Considering the above-stated provisions, Dr. K.C. Wheare has coined the expression “quasifederal’ for Indian Constitution. In the opinion of Dr. Ivor Jennings, it is a unitary’ “Constitution with subsidiary’ federal features.” Prof. Alexandro Wicz holds it “a unitary’ Constitution with vertically divided sovereignty.”

Calling India as federal is emotional rather than legal .


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