AMENDMENTS OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION [1 TO 101 ] 2016
1. The Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1950—This amendment provided for several new grounds of restrictions to the right to freedom of speech and expression and the right to practise any profession or to carry on any trade or business as contained in Article 19 of the Constitution. These restrictions related to public order, friendly relations with foreign States or incitement to an offence in relation to the right to freedom of speech, and to the prescribing of professional or technical qualifications or the carrying on by the State, etc., of any trade, business, industry or service in relation to the right to carry on any trade or business. The amendment also inserted two new Articles, 31A and 31B and the Ninth Schedule to give protection from challenge to land reform laws.
2. The Constitution (Second Amendment) Act, 1952—By this amendment, the scale or
representation for election to the Lok Sabha was readjusted.
3. The Constitution (Third Amendment) Act, 1954—This amendment substituted entry 33 of List III
(Concurrent List) of the Seventh Schedule to make it correspond to Article 369.
4. The Constitution (Fourth Amendment) Act, 1955—Article 31 (2) of the Constitution was
amended to re-state more precisely the State’s power of compulsory acquisition and requisitioning of
private property and distinguish it from cases where the operation of regulatory or prohibitory laws
of the States results in “deprivation of property”. Article 31A of the Constitution was also amended to
extend its scope to cover categories of essential welfare legislation like abolition of zamindaris,
proper planning of urban and rural areas and for effecting a full control over the mineral and oil
resources of the country, etc. Six Acts were also included in the Ninth Schedule. Article 305 was also
amended to save certain laws providing of State Monopolies.
5. The Constitution (Fifth Amendment) Act, 1955—This amendment made a change in Article 3 so
as to empower President to specify a time limit for state legislatures to convey their views on the
proposed Central laws affecting areas, boundaries, etc., of their states.
6. The Constitution (Sixth Amendment) Act, 1956—This amendment made some changes in Articles
269 and 286 relating to taxes on sale and purchase of goods in the course of inter-state trade and
commerce. A new entry 92 A was added to the Union List of the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution.
7. The Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956—This amendment purported to give effect to
the recommendations of the State Reorganisation Commission and the necessary consequential
changes. Broadly, the then existing states and territories were changed to have two-fold classification
of states and union territories. The amendment also provided for composition of the House of the
People, re-adjustment after every census, provisions regarding the establishment of new High Courts,
High Court Judges, etc.
8. The Constitution (Eighth Amendment) Act, 1960—Article 334 was amended with a view to extending the period of reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and to the Anglo-Indian community by nomination in Parliament and in the State Legislatures for a further period of ten years.
9. The Constitution (Ninth Amendment) Act, 1960—The purpose of this amendment is to give effect to the transfer of certain territories to Pakistan in pursuance of the agreement entered into between Governments of India and Pakistan. This amendment was necessitated in view of the Judgement of Supreme Court in In Re Berubari Union by which it was held that any agreement to cede a territory to another country could not be implemented by a law made under Article 3 but would only be implemented by an amendment of the Constitution.
10. The Constitution (Tenth Amendment) Act, 1961—This Act amended Article 240 and the First
Schedule in order to include areas of Dadra and Nagar Haveli as a Union Territory and to provide for
its administration under the regulation making powers of President.
11. The Constitution (Eleventh Amendment) Act, 1961—The purpose of this amendment was to
amend Articles 66 and 71 of the Constitution to provide that the election of President or Vice
President could not be challenged on the ground of any vacancy in the appropriate electoral college.
12. The Constitution (Twelfth Amendment) Act, 1962—This amendment sought to include Goa,
Daman and Diu as a Union Territory and to amend Article 240 for the purpose.
13. The Constitution (Thirteenth Amendment) Act, 1962—By this amendment, a new Article 371A
was added to make special provisions with respect to state of Nagaland in pursuance of an agreement
between Government of India and Naga People’s Convention.
14. The Constitution (Fourteenth Amendment) Act, 1962—By this Act, Pondicherry was included
in the First Schedule as a Union Territory, and this Act has also enabled the creation of Legislature by
Parliamentary law for Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Goa, Daman and Diu and Pondicherry.
15. The Constitution (Fifteenth Amendment) Act, 1963—This amendment provided for increase in
the age of retirement of High Court Judges and for the provision of compensatory allowance to judges
who are transferred from one High Court to another. The Act also provided for appointment of retired
judges to act as judges of High Court. Article 226 was also enlarged to empower High Court to issue
direction, orders or writs to any Government authority, etc., if the cause of action for the exercise of
such power arose in the territories wherein the High Court exercise jurisdiction notwithstanding that
seat of such Government authority is not within those territories. The Act also provided for the
exercise of powers of Chairman of the Service Commissions, in their absence, by one of their
16. The Constitution (Sixteenth Amendment) Act, 1963—Article 19 was amended by this Act to
impose further restriction on the rights to freedom of speech and expression, to assemble peaceably
and without arms and to form associations in the interests of sovereignty and integrity of India. The
oath of affirmation to be subscribed by candidates seeking election to Parliament and State
Legislatures have been amended to include as one of the conditions that they will uphold the
sovereignty and integrity of India. The amendments are intended to promote national integration.
17. The Constitution (Seventeenth Amendment) Act, 1964—Article 31A was further amended to
prohibit the acquisition of land under personal cultivation unless the market value of the land is paid
as compensation and the definition of “estate” as contained in that Article had also been enlarged
with retrospective effect. The Ninth Schedule had also been amended to include 44 more Acts.
18. The Constitution (Eighteenth Amendment) Act, 1966—Article 3 was amended by this Act to
specify that the expression “State” will include a union territory also and to make it clear that the
power to form a new state under this Article includes a power to form a new state or union territory
by uniting a part of a state or a union territory to another state or union territory.
19. The Constitution (Nineteenth Amendment) Act, 1966—Article 324 was amended to effect a
consequential change as a result of the decision to abolish Election Tribunals and to hear election
petitions by High Courts.
20. The Constitution (Twentieth Amendment) Act, 1966—This amendment was necessitated by the
decision of the Supreme Courts in Chandramohan vs. State of Uttar Pradesh in which certain
appointments of District Judges in State of Uttar Pradesh were declared void by Supreme Court. A
new Article 233A was added and the appointments made by Governor were validated.
21. The Constitution (Twenty-first Amendment) Act, 1967—By this amendment, Sindhi Language
was included in the Eighth Schedule.
22. The Constitution (Twenty-second Amendment) Act, 1969—This act was enacted to facilitate the
formation of a new autonomous state of Meghalaya within state of Assam.
23. The Constitution (Twenty-third Amendment) Act, 1969—Article 334 was amended so as to
extend the safeguards in respect of reservation of seats in Parliament and State Legislatures for
Schedules Castes and Scheduled Tribes as well as for Anglo-Indians for a further period of ten years.
24. The Constitution (Twenty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1971—This amendment was passed in the
context of a situation that emerged with the verdict in Golaknath’s case by Supreme Court.
Accordingly, this Act amended Article 13 and Article 368 to remove all doubts regarding the power
of Parliament to amend the Constitution including the Fundamental Rights.
25. The Constitution (Twenty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1971—This amendment further amended
Article 31 in the wake of the Bank Nationalisation case. The word ‘amount’ was substituted in place
of ‘compensation’ in the light of the judicial interpretation of the word ‘compensation’ meaning
26. The Constitution (Twenty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1971—By this amendment, the privy and
privileges of the former rulers of Indian states were abolished. This amendment was passed as a
result of Supreme Court decision in Madhav Rao’s case.
27. The Constitution (Twenty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1971—This amendment was passed to
provide for certain matters necessitated by the reorganisation of north-eastern states. A new Article
239B was inserted which enabled the promulgation of Ordinances by Administrators of certain union
28. The Constitution (Twenty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1972—The amendment was enacted to
abolish the special privileges of the members of Indian Civil Services in matters of leave, pension
and rights as regard to disciplinary matters.
29. The Constitution (Twenty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1972—The Ninth Schedule to the Constitution
was amended to include therein two Kerala Acts on land reforms.
30. The Constitution (Thirtieth Amendment) Act, 1972—The purpose of the amendment was to
amend Article 133 in order to do away with the valuation test of Rs 20,000 as fixed therein, and to
provide instead for an appeal to Supreme Court in Civil proceedings only on a certificate issued by
High Court that the case involves a substantial question of law of general importance and that in
opinion of High Court, the question needs to be decided by Supreme Court.
31. The Constitution (Thirty-first Amendment) Act, 1973—This Act, inter alia, raises the upper
limit for the representation of states in the Lok Sabha from 500 to 525 and reducing the upper limit for
the representation of union territories from 25 members to 20.
32. The Constitution (Thirty-second Amendment) Act, 1973—This Act provided the necessary
constitutional authority for giving effect to the provision of equal opportunities to different areas of
the State of Andhra Pradesh and for the constitution of an Administrative Tribunal with jurisdiction to
deal with grievances relating to public services. It also empowered Parliament to legislate for the
establishment of a Central University in the State.
33. The Constitution (Thirty-third Amendment) Act, 1974—By this amendment, Articles 101 and
190 were amended in order to streamline the procedure for resignation of Members of Parliament and
34. The Constitution (Thirty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1974—By this Act, twenty more land tenure
and land reforms laws enacted by various State Legislatures were included in the Ninth Schedule.
35. The Constitution (Thirty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1974—By this Act a new Article 2A was added
thereby conferring on Sikkim the status of an associate State of Indian Union. Consequent amendments
were made to Articles 80 and 81. A new schedule, i.e., Tenth Schedule, was added laying down terms
and conditions of association of Sikkim with the Union.
36. The Constitution (Thirty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1975—This was enacted to make Sikkim a
full-fledged State of Indian Union and to include it in the First Schedule to the Constitution and to
allot to Sikkim one seat each in the Council of States and in the House of the People. Article 2A and
the Tenth Schedule inserted by the Constitution (Thirty-fifth Amendment) Act were omitted and
Articles 80 and 81 were suitably amended.
37. The Constitution (Thirty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1975—By this Act, Union Territory of
Arunachal Pradesh was provided with a Legislative Assembly. Article 240 of the Constitution was
also amended to provide that as in the case of other union territories with Legislatures, the power of
President to make regulations for the Union Territory of Arunachal Pradesh may be exercised only
when the assembly is either dissolved or its functions remain suspended.
38. The Constitution (Thirty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1975—This Act amended Articles 123, 213
and 352 of the Constitution to provide that the satisfaction of President or Governor contained in
these Articles would be called in question in any court of law.
39. The Constitution (Thirty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1975—By this Act, disputes relating to the
election of President, Vice-President, Prime Minister and Speaker are to be determined by such
authority as may be determined by Parliamentary Law. Certain Central enactments were also included
in the Ninth Schedule by this Act.
40. The Constitution (Fortieth Amendment) Act, 1976—This act provided for vesting in the Union
of all mines, minerals and other things of value lying in the ocean within the territorial waters or the
continental shelf or the exclusive economic zone of India. It further provided that all other resources
of the exclusive economic zone of India shall also vest in the Union. This act also provided that the
limits of the territorial waters, the continental shelf, the exclusive economic zone and the maritime
zones of India shall be as specified from time to time by or under any law made by Parliament. Also
some more Acts were added to the Ninth Schedule.
41. The Constitution (Forty-first Amendment) Act, 1976—By this Act, Article 316 was amended to
raise the retirement age of Members of State Public Service Commissions and Joint Public Service
Commissions from 60 to 62 years.
42. The Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976—This act made a number of important amendments in the Constitution. These amendments were mainly for purpose of giving effect to the recommendations of Swaran Singh Committee.
Some of the important amendments made are for the purpose of spelling out expressly the high ideals of socialism, secularism and the integrity of the nation, to make the Directive Principles more comprehensive and giving them precedence over those Fundamental Rights which have been allowed to be relied upon to frustrate socio-economic reforms. The amendment Act also inserted a new chapter on the Fundamental Duties of citizens and made special provisions for dealing with antinational activities, whether by individuals or by associations. The judiciary provisions were also amended by providing for a requirement as to the minimum number of judges for determining question as to the constitutional validity of law and for a special majority of not less than two-third for declaring any law to be constitutionally invalid.
To reduce the mounting arrears in High Courts and to secure the speedy disposal of service matters, revenue matters and certain other matters of special importance in the context of socioeconomic development and progress, this amendment Act provided for the creation of Administrative and other tribunals for dealing with such matters while preserving the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in regard to such matters under Article 136 of the Constitution. Certain modifications in the writ jurisdiction of High Courts under Article 226 were also made.
43. The Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act, 1977—This Act, inter alia, provided for the
restoration of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and High Courts, curtailed by the enactment of the
Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976 and accordingly Articles 32A, 131A, 144A, 226A
and 228A included in the Constitution by the said amendment, were omitted by this Act. The Act also
provided for the omission of Article 31 which conferred special powers on Parliament to enact
certain laws in respect of anti-national activities.
44. The Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978—The right to property which had been
the occasion for more than one amendment of Constitution was omitted as a Fundamental Right and it
was made only as a legal right. It was, however, ensured that the removal of the right to property from
the list of Fundamental Rights would not affect the right of minorities to establish and administer
educational institutions of their choice. Article 352 of the Constitution was amended to provide
“armed rebellion” as one of the circumstances for declaration of emergency. Internal disturbance not
amounting to armed rebellion would not be a ground for the issuance of a Proclamation. The right to
personal liberty as contained in Articles 21 and 22 is further strengthened by the provision that a law
for preventive detention cannot authorise, in any case, detention for a longer period than two months
unless an Advisory Board has reported that there is sufficient cause for such detention. The additional
safeguard has also been provided by the requirements that Chairman of an Advisory Board shall be a
serving Judge of the appropriate High Court and that the Board shall be constituted in accordance
with the recommendations of the Chief Justice of that High Court.
With a view to avoid delays, Articles 132 and 134 were amended and a new Article 134A was
inserted to provide that a High Court should consider the question of granting a certificate for appeal
to Supreme Court immediately after the delivery of the judgement, final order or sentence concerned
on the basis of an oral application by a party or, if the High Court deems it so to do, on its own. The
other amendments made by the Act are mainly for removing or correcting the distortions which came
into the Constitution by reason of the amendment initiated during the period of internal emergency.
45. The Constitution (Forty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1980—This was passed to extend safeguards in
respect of reservation of seats in Parliament and State Assemblies for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled
Tribes as well as for Anglo-Indians for a further period of ten years.
46. The Constitution (Forty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1982—Article 269 was amended so that the tax
levied on the consignment of goods in the course of inter-state or commerce shall be assigned to the
states. This Article was also amended to enable Parliament to formulate by law principle for
determining when a consignment of goods takes place in the course of inter-state trade or commerce.
A new entry 92B was also inserted in the Union List to enable the levy of tax on the consignment of
goods where such consignment takes place in the course of inter-state trade or commerce.
Clause (3) of Article 286 was amended to enable Parliament to specify, by law, restrictions and
conditions in regard to the system of levy rates and other incidence of tax on the transfer of goods
involved in the execution of a works contract, on the delivery of goods on hire-purchase or any
system of payment of instalments, etc.
Article 366 was also suitably amended to insert a definition of “tax on the sale or purchase of
goods” to include transfer for consideration of controlled commodities, transfer of property in goods
involved in the execution of a works contract, delivery of goods on hire-purchase or any system of
payment by instalments, etc.
47. The Constitution (Forty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1984—This amendment is intended to
provide for the inclusion of certain land Reforms Acts in the Ninth Schedule to the Constitution with a
view to obviating the scope of litigation hampering the implementation process of those Acts.
48. The Constitution (Forty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1984—The Proclamation issued by President
under Article 356 of the Constitution with respect to the State of Punjab cannot be continued in force
for more than one year unless the special conditions mentioned in clause (5) of the said Article are
satisfied. As it is felt that the continued force of the said Proclamation is necessary, therefore, the
present amendment had been effected so as to make the conditions mentioned in clause (5) of Article
356 inapplicable in the instant case.
49. The Constitution (Forty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1984—Tripura Government recommended that
the provisions of the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution may be made applicable to tribal areas of that
State. The amendment involved in this Act is intended to give a constitutional security to the
autonomous District Council functioning in the State.
50. The Constitution (Fiftieth Amendment) Act, 1984—By Article 33 of the constitution, Parliament
is empowered to enact laws determining to what extent any of the rights conferred by Part III of the
constitution shall, in their application to the members of the armed forces or the forces charged with
the maintenance of public order, be restricted or abrogated so as to ensure proper discharge of their
duties and maintenance of discipline among them.
It was proposed to amend Article 33 so as to bring within its ambit:
(i) the members of the Force charged with the protection of property belonging to or in the charge
or possession of the state; or
(ii) persons employed in any bureau or other organisation established by the state for purposes of
intelligence or counter-intelligence; or
(iii) persons employed in or in connection with the telecommunication systems set up for the
purposes of any Force, bureau or organisation.
Experience has revealed that the need for ensuring proper discharge of their duties and
maintenance of discipline among them is of paramount importance in the national interest.
51. The Constitution (Fifty-first Amendment) Act, 1984—Article 330 has been amended by this Act
for providing reservation of seats for Scheduled Tribes in Meghalaya, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh
and Mizoram in Parliament and Article 332 has been amended to provide similar reservation in the
Legislative Assemblies of Nagaland and Meghalaya to meet the aspirations of local tribal population.
52. The Constitution (Fifty-second Amendment) Act, 1985—It amends the Constitution to provide
that a Member of Parliament or a State Legislature who defects or is expelled from the party which
set him up as a candidate in the election or if an independent member of the House joins a political
party after expiry of six months from the date on which he takes seat in the House shall be
disqualified to remain a member of the House. The Act also makes suitable provisions with respect to
splits in and merger of political parties.
53. The Constitution (Fifty-third Amendment) Act, 1986—This has been enacted to give effect to
the Memorandum of Settlement of Mizoram which was signed by Government of India and Mizoram
Government with Mizoram National Front on 30th June 1986. For this purpose, a new Article 371G
has been inserted in the Constitution inter alia preventing application of any Act of Parliament in
Mizoram in respect of religious or social practices of Mizos, Mizos’ customary law and procedure,
administration of civil and criminal practice involving decisions according to Mizos’ customary law
and ownership and transfer of land unless a resolution is passed in the Legislative Assembly to that
effect. This, however, will not apply to any Central Act already in force in Mizoram before the
commencement of this amendment. The new Article also provides that the Legislative Assembly of
Mizoram shall consist of not less than 40 members.
54. The Constitution (Fifty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1986—This Act increases the salaries of
Supreme Court and High Court judges as follows :
Chief Justice of India ₹ 10,000 per month
Judges of Supreme Court ₹ 9,000 per month
Chief Justice of High Court ₹ 9,000 per month
Judges of High Court ₹ 8,000 per month
This Act amended Part ‘D’ of the Second Schedule to the Constitution to give effect to the above
increases in the salaries of judges and to make an enabling provision in Articles 125 and 221 to
provide for changes in the salaries of judges in future by Parliament by law.
55. The Constitution (Fifty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1986—This Act seeks to give effect to the
proposal of Government of India to confer statehood on the Union Territory of Arunachal Pradesh and
for this purpose, a new Article 371H has been inserted which, inter alia, confers, having regard to
the sensitive location of Arunachal Pradesh to vest special responsibility on Governor of the new
State of Arunachal Pradesh with respect to law and order in the State and in the discharge of his
functions, the Governor shall after consulting the Council of Ministers, exercise his individual
judgement, as to the action to be taken and this responsibility shall cease when President so directs.
The new Article also provides that the new Legislative Assembly of the new State of Arunachal
Pradesh, shall consist of not less than thirty members.
56. The Constitution (Fifty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1987—Government of India has proposed to
constitute the territories comprised in Goa District of the Union Territory of Goa, Daman and Diu as
the State of Goa and the territories comprised in Daman and Diu districts of that Union Territory as a
new Union Territory of Daman and Diu. In this context, it was proposed that the Legislative Assembly
of the new State of Goa shall consist of 40 members. The existing Legislative Assembly of the Union
Territory of Goa, Daman and Diu has 30 elected members and three nominated members. It was
intended to make this Assembly with the exclusion of two members representing Daman and Diu
districts the provisional Legislative Assembly for the new State of Goa until elections are held on the
expiry of the five year terms of the existing Assembly. It was, therefore, decided to provide that the
Legislative Assembly of the new State of Goa shall consist of not less than 30 members. The special
provision required to be made to give effect to this proposal is carried out by this amendment.
57. The Constitution (Fifty-seventh amendment) Act, 1987—The Constitution (Fifty-first
Amendment) Act, 1984 was enacted to provide for reservation of seats in the house of the people for
scheduled tribes in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh and also for reservation
of seats for scheduled tribes in the legislative assemblies of Nagaland and Meghalaya by suitably
amending articles 330 and 332. Even though these states are predominantly tribal, the underlying
objective of the aforesaid act was to ensure that the members of scheduled tribes in these areas do not
fail to secure a minimal representation because of their inability to compete with the advanced
sections of the people. The Constitution (fifty-first amendment) Act, though formally enforced, could
not be fully implemented unless parallel action is taken to determine the seats which are to be
reserved for Scheduled tribes in these areas. The number of seats reserved for Schedule Castes and
Schedule Tribes in the Legislative Assembly of any State under article 332 of the constitution will
have to be determined having regard to the provisions of article 332 (3) of the Constitution. However,
in view of the historical background with respect to the areas comprised in north-eastern states, the
circumstances obtaining in these areas in the State of development of Scheduled Tribes and other
relevant considerations, it was considered necessary to provide for special arrangements with regard
to the reservation for Scheduled Tribes in these areas for a temporary period so as to facilitate easy
transition of these areas to the normal arrangements as envisaged in the Constitution. Article 332 of
the Constitution was further amended for making a temporary provision, until the re-adjustment of
seats on the basis of first census after the year 2000 under article 170 of the Constitution for these
states, for the determination of the number of seats reserved for Scheduled Tribes. This amendment
seeks to provide that if all the seats in the Legislative Assembly of such States in existence on the date
of coming into force of this constitution amendment act are held by the members of Scheduled Tribes,
all the seats except one shall be reserved for scheduled tribes and in any other case such number of
seats as bears to the total number of seats a proportion not less than the number of members belonging
to Scheduled Tribes in the existing assembly bears to the total number of seats in the existing
assembly. The Act achieves these objectives.
58. The Constitution (Fifty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1987—There has been general demand for the
publication of authoritative text of the Constitution in Hindi. It is imperative to have an authoritative
text of the Constitution for facilitating its use in the legal process. Any Hindi version of the
Constitution should not only conform to the Hindi translation published by the Constituent Assembly,
but should be in conformity, with the language style and terminology adopted in the authoritative texts
of Central Acts in Hindi. The Constitution has been amended to empower President of India to
publish under his authority the translation of the Constitution in Hindi signed by the Members of the
Constituent Assembly with such modification as may be necessary to bring it in conformity with the
language, style and terminology adopted in the authoritative texts of Central Acts in Hindi language.
President has also been authorised to publish the translation in Hindi of every amendment of the
Constitution made in English.
59. The Constitution (Fifty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1988—The Act amends Article 365 (5) of the
Constitution so as to facilitate the extension of a Presidential Proclamation issued under clause (1) of
Article 356 beyond a period of one year, if necessary upto a period of three years, as permissible
under clause (4) of Article 356 with respect to the State of Punjab because of the continued disturbed
situation there. The Act also amends Article 352 of the Constitution pertaining to the Proclamation of
Emergency in its application to the State of Punjab and includes internal disturbance as one of the
grounds for making a Proclamation in respect of the State of Punjab only. As a consequence of
amendment in Article 352, Articles 358 and 359 in relation to the State of Punjab will be operative
only for a period of two years from 30 March 1988, which is the date of commencement of the
60. The Constitution (Sixtieth Amendment) Act, 1988—The Act amends clause (2) of Article 276
of the Constitution so as to increase the ceiling of taxes on professions, trades, callings and
employment from Rs 250 per annum to Rs 2,500 per annum. The upward revision of this tax will help
state governments in raising additional resources. The proviso to clause (2) has been omitted.
61. The Constitution (Sixty-first Amendment) Act, 1989—The Act provides for reducing voting age
from 21 to 18 years by amending Article 326 of the Constitution to provide to the unrepresented youth
of the country an opportunity to give vent to their feelings and help them become a part of political
62. The Constitution (Sixty-second Amendment) Act, 1989—Article 334 of the Constitution lays
down that the provisions of the Constitution relating to the reservation of seats for the Scheduled
Castes and the Scheduled Tribes and the representation of the Anglo-Indian community by nomination
in the Lok Sabha and in the Legislative Assemblies of the States shall cease to have effect on the
expiry of a period of 40 years from the commencement of the Constitution. Although the Scheduled
Castes and the Scheduled Tribes have made considerable progress in the last 40 years, the reasons
which weighed with the Constituent Assembly in making provisions with regard to the aforesaid
reservation of seats and nomination of members, have not ceased to exist. The Act amends Article
334 of the Constitution to continue the reservation for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes
and the representation of the Anglo-Indians by nomination for a further period of 10 years.
63. The Constitution (Sixty-third Amendment) Act, 1989—The Constitution (Fifty-ninth
Amendment) Act, 1988 was enacted in March 1988 making certain changes in regard to making a
Proclamation of Emergency in Punjab and to the duration of President’s rule in State. On
reconsideration, the Government decided that the special powers in regard to the Proclamation of
Emergency in Punjab as envisaged in the said amendment is no longer required. Accordingly the
provision to clause (5) of Article 356 and Article 359A of the Constitution have been omitted.
64. The Constitution (Sixty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1990—This Act amends clauses (4) and (5) of
Article 356 of the Constitution with a view to facilitate the extension of the proclamation issued under
clause (1) of Article 356 of the Constitution on 11th May 1987 upto a total period of three years and
six months in relation to the State of Punjab.
65. The Constitution (Sixty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1990—Article 338 of the Constitution provides
for a Special Officer for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to investigate all matters relating
to the safeguards provided for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes under the Constitution and
to report to the President on their working. The Article has been amended for the constitution of a
National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes consisting of a Chairperson, Vice
Chairperson and five other Members who shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his
hand and seal. The amended Article elaborates the duties of the said Commission and covers
measures that should be taken by the Union or any state for the effective implementation of the reports
presented by the Commission. It also provides that the Commission shall, while investigating any
matter or inquiring into any complaint have all the powers of a Civil Court trying a suit and the
reports of the said Commission shall be laid before Parliament and the Legislature of the states.
66. The Constitution (Sixty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1990—The Act protects 55 State Acts relating
to land reforms and ceiling on agricultural land holdings enacted by States of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar,
Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa,
Rajasthan,Tamilnadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and administration of the Union Territory of
Puducherry, from challenge in courts, by including them in the Ninth Schedule to the Constitution.
67. The Constitution (Sixty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1990—The three year period in the case of
proclamation issued on 11th May 1987 with respect to the State of Punjab was extended to three years
and six months by the Constitution (Sixty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1990. This Act further amends
clause (4) of Article 356 so as to further extend the period upto a total period of four years.
68. The Constitution (Sixty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1991—The three year period in the case of
proclamation issued on 17th May 1987 with respect to the State of Punjab was earlier extended to
four years by the Constitution (sixty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1990. This Act further amends clause
(4) of Article 356 so as to further extend the period upto a total period of five years.
69. The Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991—The Government of India appointed on
24th December 1987 a Committee to go into various issues connected with the administration of
Delhi and to recommend measures, inter alia, for the streamlining of the administrative set up. After
detailed inquiry and examination, it recommended that Delhi should continue to be a union territory
and may be provided with a Legislative Assembly and a Council of Ministers responsible to such
assembly with appropriate powers to deal with matters of concern to the common man. The
Committee also recommended that with a view to ensuring stability and permanence, arrangements
should be incorporated in the constitution to give the national capital a special status among the union
territories. This act has been passed to give effect to the above recommendations.
70. The Constitution (Seventieth Amendment) Act, 1992—While considering the (Seventy-fourth
Amendment) Bill, 1991 and the Government of National Capital Territory Bill, 1991 views were
expressed in both the Houses of Parliament in favour of including also the elected members of the
legislative assemblies of union territories in the electoral college for the election of the President
under Article 54 of the Constitution.
At present Article 54 relating to the election of the President provides for an electoral college
consisting of only the elected Members of Parliament as well as the legislative assemblies of the
states (not of union territories). Similarly, Article 55 providing for the manner of such election also
speaks of legislative assemblies of states.
Accordingly, an Explanation was inserted in Article 54 to provide that reference to ‘State’ in
Article 54 and 55 would include the National Capital Territory of Delhi and the Union Territory of
Puducherry for constituting the electoral college for election of the President. This would enable the
elected members of the Legislative Assembly created for the Union Territory of Puducherry under the
provisions of Article 239A and of the proposed Legislative Assembly of the National Capital
Territory of Delhi under Article 239AA to be included in the electoral college.
71. The Constitution (Seventy-first Amendment) Act, 1992—There have been demands for
inclusion of certain languages in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution. This Act amends the Eighth
Schedule to the Constitution to include Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali languages in the Eighth
Schedule to the Constitution.
72. The Constitution (Seventy-second Amendment) Act, 1992—For restoring peace and harmony in
the areas of the State of Tripura where disturbed conditions prevailed, a Memorandum of Settlement
was signed by the Government of India with Tripura National Volunteers on 12 August 1988.
In order to implement the said Memorandum, Article 332 of the Constitution has been amended by
the Constitution (Seventy-second Amendment) Act, 1992 for making a temporary provision for the
determination of the number of seats reserved for the Scheduled Tribes in the State Assembly of
Tripura, until the re-adjustment of seats is made on the basis of the first Census after the year 2000
under Article 170 of the Constitution.
73. The Constitution (Seventy-third Amendment) Act, 1993—Article 40 of the Constitution which
enshrines one of the Directive Principles of State Policy lays down that the State shall take steps to
organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to
enable them to function as units of self-government.
In the light of the above, a new Part IX relating to the Panchayats has been inserted in the
Constitution to provide for among other things, Gram Sabha in a village or group of villages;
constitution of Panchayats at village and other level or levels; direct elections to all seats in
Panchayats at the village and intermediate level, if any and to the offices of Chairpersons of
Panchayats at such levels; reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in
proportion to their population for membership of Panchayats and office of Chairpersons in Panchayats
at each level; reservation of not less than one-third of the seats for women; fixing tenure of five years
for Panchayats and holding elections within a period of six months in the event of supersession of any
74. The Constitution (Seventy-fourth Amendment) Act, 1993—In many states local bodies have
become weak and ineffective on account of a variety of reasons, including the failure to hold regular
elections, prolonged supersession and inadequate devolutions of powers and functions. As a result,
Urban Local Bodies are not able to perform effectively as vibrant democratic units of selfgovernment.
Having regard to these inadequacies a new part IX-A relating to the Municipalities has been
incorporated in the Constitution to provide for among other things, constitution of three types of
Municipalities, i.e., Nagar Panchayats for areas in transition from a rural area to urban area,
Municipal Councils for smaller urban areas and Municipal Corporations for larger urban areas.
75. The Constitution (Seventy-fifth Amendment) Act, 1994—The operation of the Rent Control
Legislations, as are today in various states, suffers from major weaknesses and has led to various
unintended consequences. Some of the deleterious legal consequences include mounting and mending
litigation, inability of the courts to provide timely justice, evolution of practices and systems to
bypass the operations of rent legislations and steady shrinkage of rental housing market.
The Supreme Court taking note of the precarious state of rent litigation in the country in case of
Prabhakaran Nair and others vs. State of Tamilnadu (Civil Writ Petition 506 of 1986) and other writs
observed that the Supreme Court and the High Courts should be relieved of the heavy burden of rent
litigation. Tiers of appeals should be curtailed. Laws should be simple, rational and clear, litigations
must come to end quickly.
Therefore, this Act amends Article 323B in Part XIVA of the Constitution so as to give timely
relief to the rent litigants by providing for setting up of state-level Rent Tribunals in order to reduce
the tiers of appeals and to exclude the jurisdiction of all courts, except that of the Supreme Court,
under Article 136 of the Constitution.
76. The Constitution (Seventy-sixth Amendment) Act, 1994—The policy of reservation of seats in
educational institutions and reservation of appointments or posts in public services for Backward
Classes, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes has had a long history in Tamilnadu dating back to
the year 1921. The extent of reservation has been increased by the State Government from time to
time, consistent with the needs of the majority of the people and it has now reached the level of 69
per cent (18 per cent Scheduled Castes, one per cent Scheduled Tribes and 50 per cent Other
The Supreme Court in Indira Sawhney and others vs. Union of India and others (AIR, 1993 SC
477) on 16th November 1992 ruled that the total reservations under Article 16(4) should not exceed
50 per cent.
The Tamilnadu Government enacted a legislation, namely, Tamilnadu Backward Classes,
Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Reservation of Seats in Educational Institution and of
appointments or posts in the Services under the State) Bill, 1993 and forwarded it to the Government
of India for consideration of the President of India in terms of Article 31-C of the Constitution. The
Government of India supported the provision of the State legislation by giving the President’s assent
to the Tamilnadu Bill. As a corollary to this decision, it was necessary that the Tamilnadu Act 45 of
1994 was brought within the purview of the Ninth Schedule to the Constitution so that it could get
protection under Article 31B of the Constitution with regard to the judicial review.
77. The Constitution (Seventy-seventh Amendment) Act, 1995—The Schedule Castes and the
scheduled tribes have been enjoying the facility of reservation in promotion since 1955. The Supreme
Court in its judgment dated 16th November 1992 in the case of Indira Sawhney and others vs. Union
of India and others, however, observed that reservation of appointments or posts under Article 16(4)
of the Constitution is confined to initial appointment and cannot extend to reservation in the matter of
promotion. This ruling of the Supreme Court will adversely affect the interests of the Scheduled
Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Since the representation of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled
Tribes in services in the States have not reached the required level, it is necessary to continue the
existing dispensation of providing reservation in promotion in the case of the Scheduled Castes and
the Scheduled Tribes. In view of the commitment of the Government to protect the interests of the
Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, the Government have decided to continue the existing
policy of reservation in promotion for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. To carry out
this, it was necessary to amend Article 16 of the Constitution by inserting a new clause (4A) in the
said Article to provide for reservation in promotion for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled
78. The Constitution (Seventy-eighth Amendment) Act, 1995—Article 31B of the Constitution
confers on the enactments included in the Ninth Schedule to the Constitution immunity from legal
challenge on the ground that they violate the fundamental rights enshrined in Part III of the
Constitution. The Schedule consists of list of laws enacted by various State Governments and Central
Government which, inter alia, affect rights and interest in property including land.
In the past, whenever, it was found that progressive legislation conceived in the interest of the
public was imperilled by litigation, recourse was taken to the Ninth Schedule. Accordingly, several
State enactments relating to land reforms and ceiling on agricultural land holdings have already been
included in the Ninth Schedule. Since, the Government is committed to give importance to land
reforms, it was decided to include land reform laws in the Ninth Schedule so that they are not
challenged before the courts. The State Governments of Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa, Rajasthan,
Tamilnadu and West Bengal had suggested the inclusion of some of their Acts relating to land reforms
in the Ninth Schedule.
Since the amendment to Acts which are already placed in the Ninth Schedule are not automatically
immunised from legal challenge, a number of amending Acts along with a few principal Acts have
been included in the Ninth Schedule so as to ensure that implementation of these Acts is not adversely
affected by litigation.
79. The Constitution (Seventy-ninth Amendment) Act, 1999—By this Act the Government has
extended the reservations of seats for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes as well as for
the Anglo-Indians in the House of the People and in the Legislative Assemblies of the States for
another ten years.
80. The Constitution (Eightieth Amendment) Act, 2000—Based on the recommendations of the
Tenth Finance Commission, an alternative scheme for sharing taxes between the Union and the States
has been enacted by the Constitution (Eightieth Amendment) Act, 2000. Under the new scheme of
devolution of revenue between Union and the States, 26 per cent out of gross proceeds of Union taxes
and duties is to be assigned to the States in lieu of their existing share in the income-tax, excise duties,
special excise duties and grants in lieu of tax on railway passenger fares.
81. The Constitution (Eighty-first Amendment) Act, 2000—By this amendment the unfilled
vacancies of a year which were reserved for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes for
being filled up in that year in accordance with any provision for reservations made under Article 16
of the Constitution, shall be considered as a separate class of vacancies to be filled up in any
succeeding year or years, and such class of vacancies shall not be considered together with the
vacancies of the year in which they were filled up for determining the ceiling of fifty per cent
reservation against total number of vacancies of that year.
82. The Constitution (Eighty-second Amendment) Act, 2000—The amendment provides that nothing
in Article 335 shall prevent the State from making any provision in favour of the members of the
Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes for relaxation in qualifying marks in any examination or
lowering the standards of evaluation for reservation in matters of promotion to any class or classes of
services or posts in connection with affairs of the Union or of a State.
83. The Constitution (Eighty-third Amendment) Act, 2000—The Act amended Acticle 243M of the
Constitution to provide that no reservation in Panchayats need be made in favour of the Scheduled
Castes in Arunachal Pradesh wholly inhabited by tribal population.
84. The Constitution (Eighty-fourth Amendment) Act, 2001—The Act amended provisos to articles
82 and 170(3) of the Constitution to readjust and rationalise the territorial constitutencies in the
States, without altering the number of seats allotted to each State in House of People and Legislative
Assemblies of the States, including the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes constituencies, on the
basis of the population ascertained at the census for the year 1991 so as to remove the imbalance
caused due to uneven growth of population/electorate in different constituencies. It is also to refix the
number of seats reserved for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in the House of the
People and the Legislative Assemblies of the States on the basis of the population ascertained at the
census for the year 1991 so as to remove the imbalance caused due to uneven growth of
population/electorate in different constituencies. It is also to refix the number of seats reserved for
Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in the House of the People and the Legislative
Assemblies of the States on the basis of the population ascertained at the census for the year 1991.
85. The Constitution (Eighty-fifth Amendment) Act, 2001—This Act amended article 16(4A) of the
Constitution to provide for consequential seniority in the case of promotion by virtue of rule of
reservation for the Government servants belonging to the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.
It also provides retrospective effect from 17th day of June 1995.
86. The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002—The Act deals with insertion of a new
article 21A after article 21. The new article 21A deals with Right to Education—“The State shall
provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such
manner as the State may, by law, determine”.
Substitution of new Article for Article 45. For Article 45 of the Constitution, the following article
shall be substituted, namely, Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the
age of six years. Article 45: “The State shall endeavour to provide early childhood care and
education for all children until they complete the age of six years.”
Article 51A of the Constitution was amended and a new clause (k) was added after clause (j),
namely, “(k) who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or, as the
case may be, ward between the age of six and fourteen years.”
87. The Constitution (Eighty-seventh Amendment) Act, 2003 – In Article 81 of the Constitution, in
clause (3), in the proviso, in clause (ii), for the figures “1991”, the figures “2001” shall be
In Article 82 of the Constitution, in the third proviso, in clause (ii), for the figures “1991”, the
figures “2001” shall be substituted.
In Article 170 of the Constitution, – (i) in clause (2), in the Explanation, in the proviso, for the
figures “1991”, the figures “2001” shall be substituted; (ii) in clause (3), in the Explanation, in the
third proviso, for the figures “1991”, the figures “2001” shall be substituted.
In Article 330 of the Constitution, in the Explanation, in the proviso, for the figures “1991”, the
figures “2001” shall be substituted.
88. The Constitution (Eighty-eighth Amendment) Act, 2003 – It shall come into force on such date
as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint.
After Article 268 of the Constitution, the following article shall be inserted, namely :
“268A. (1) Taxes on services shall be levied by the Government of India and such tax shall be
collected and appropriated by the Government of India and the States in the manner provided in
(2) The proceeds in any financial year of any such tax levied in accordance with the provisions of
clause (1) shall be – (a) collected by the Government of India and the States; (b) appropriated by the
Government of India and the States, in accordance with such principles of collection and
appropriation as may be formulated by Parliament by law”.
In Article 270 of the constitution, in clause(1), for the words and figures “Article 268 and 269”,
the words, figures and letter “Articles 268, 268A and 269” shall be substituted.
In the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution, in List I-Union List, after entry 9.2B, the following
entry shall be inserted, namely : “92C. Taxes on services”.
89. The Constitution (Eighty-ninth Amendment) Act, 2003-It shall come into force on such date as
the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint.
In Article 338 of the Constitution, – (a) for the marginal heading, the following marginal heading
shall be substituted, namely :
“National Commission for : Scheduled Castes”; India_2018_Google: E published on Google
(b) for clauses (1) and (2), the following clauses shall be substituted, namely:
“(1) There shall be a Commission for the Scheduled Castes to be known as the National
Commission for the Scheduled Castes.
(2) Subject to the provisions of any law made in this behalf by Parliament, the Commission shall
consist of a Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and three other Members and the conditions of service
and tenure of office of the Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and other Members so appointed shall be
such as the President may by rule determine”;
(c) in clauses (5), (9) and (10), the words “and Scheduled Tribes”, wherever they occur, shall be
After Article 338 of the Constitution, the following article shall be inserted, namely:
“338A. (1) There shall be a Commission for the Scheduled Tribes to be known as the National
Commission for the Scheduled Tribes.
(2) Subject to the provisions of any law made in this behalf by Parliament, the Commission shall
consist of a Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and three other Members and the conditions of service
and tenure of office of the Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and other Members so appointed shall be
such as the President may by rule determine.
(3) The Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and other Members of the Commission shall be
appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal.
(4) The Commission shall have the power to regulate its own procedure.
(5) It shall be the duty of the Commission – (a) to investigate and monitor all matters relating to
the safeguards provided for the Scheduled Tribes under this Constitution or under any other law for
the time being in force or under any order of the Government and to evaluate the working of such
safeguards; (b) to inquire into specific complaints with respect to the deprivation of rights and
safeguards of the Scheduled Tribes; (c) to participate and advise on the planning process of socioeconomic
development of the Scheduled Tribes and to evaluate the progress of their development
under the Union and any State; (d) to present to the President, annually and at such other times as the
Commission may deem fit, reports upon the working of those safeguards; (e) to make in such reports
recommendations as to the measures that should be taken by the Union or any State for the effective
implementation of those safeguards and other measures for the protection, welfare and socioeconomic
development of the Scheduled Tribes; and (f) to discharge such other functions in relation
to the protection, welfare and development and advancement of the Scheduled Tribes as the President
may, subject to the provisions of any law made by Parliament, by rule specify.
(6) The President shall cause all such reports to be laid before each House of Parliament along
with a memorandum explaining the action taken or proposed to be taken on the recommendations
relating to the Union and the reasons for the non-acceptance, if any, of any of such recommendations.
(7) Where any such report, or any part thereof, relates to any matter with which any State
Government is concerned, a copy of such report shall be forwarded to the Governor of the State who
shall cause it to be laid before the Legislature of the State along with a memorandum explaining the
action taken or proposed to be taken on the recommendations relating to the State and reasons for the
non-acceptance, if any, of any of such recommendations.
(8) The Commission shall, while investigating any matter referred to in sub-clause(a) or
inquiring into any complaint referred to in sub-clause (b) of clause (5), have all the powers of a civil
court trying a suit and in particular in respect of the following matters, namely:
(a) summoning and enforcing the attendance of any person from any part of India and examining
him on oath; (b) requiring the discovery and production of any document; (c) receiving evidence on
affidavits; (d) requisitioning any public record or copy thereof from any court or office; (e) issuing
commissions for the examination of witnesses and documents; (f) any other matter which the President
may, by rule, determine.
(9) The Union and every State Government shall consult the Commission on all major policy
matters affecting Scheduled Tribes”.
90. The Constitution (Ninetieth Amendment) Act, 2003-In Article 332 of the Consitution, in clause
(6), the following proviso shall be inserted, namely :
“Provided that for elections to the Legislative Assembly of the State of Assam, the representation
of the Scheduled Tribes and non-Scheduled Tribes in the constituencies included in the Bodoland
Territorial Areas District, so notified, and existing prior to the constitution of the Bodoland
Territorial Areas District, shall be maintained”.
91. The Constitution (Ninety-first Amendment), Act, 2003 – In Article 75 of the Constitution, after
clause (1), the following clauses shall be inserted, namely :
“(1A) The total number of Ministers, including the Prime Minister, in the Council of Ministers
shall not exceed fifteen per cent of the total number of members of the House of the People.
(1B) A member of either House of Parliament belonging to any political party who is disqualified
for being a member of that House under paragraph 2 of the Tenth Schedule shall also be disqualified
to be appointed as a Minister under clause (1) for duration of the period commencing from the date of
his disqualification till the date on which the term of his office as such member would expire or
where he contests any election to either House of Parliament before the expiry of such period, till the
date on which he is declared elected, whichever is earlier”
In Article 164 of the Constitution, after clause (i), the following clauses shall be inserted, namely:
“(1A) the total number of Ministers, including the Chief Minister, in the Council of Ministers in a
State sall not exceed fifteen per cent of the total number of members of the Legislative Assembly of
that State :
Provided that the number of Ministers, including the Chief Minister, in a State shall not be less
Provided further that where the total number of Ministers, including the Chief Minister, in the
Council of Ministers in any State at the commencement of the Constitution (Ninety-first Amendment)
Act, 2003 exceeds the said fifteen per cent or the number specified in the first proviso, as the case
may be, then, the total number of Ministers in that State shall be brought in conformity with the
provisions of this clause within six months from such date as the President may by public notification
(1B) A member of the Legislative Assembly of a State or either House of the Legislature of a State
having Legislative Council beloging to any poitical party who is disqualified for being a member of
that House under paragraph 2 of the Tenth Schedule shall also be disqualified to be appointed as a
Minister under clause (1) for duration of the period commencing from the date of his disqualification
till the date on which the term of his office as such member would expire or where he contests any
election to the Legislative Assembly of a State or either House of the Legislature of a State having
Legislative Council, as the case may be, before the expiry of such period, till the date on which he is
declared elected, whichever is earlier”
After Article 361A of the Constitution, the following article shall be inserted, namely :
316B. A member of a House belonging to any political party who is disqualified for being a
member of the House under paragraph 2 of the Tenth Schedule shall also be disqualified to hold any
remunerative political post for duration of the period commencing from the date of his
disqualification till the date on which the term of his office as such member would expire or till the
date on which he contests an election to a House and is declared elected, whichever is earlier.
Explanation : For the purposes of this Article,—
(a) the expression “House” has the meaning assigned to it in clause (a) of paragraph 1 of the
Tenth Schedule :
(b) the expression “remunerative political post” means any office—(i) under the Government of
India or the Government of a State where the salary or remuneration for such office is paid out of the
public revenue of the Government of India or the Government of the State, as the case may be, or (ii)
under a body, whether incorporated or not, which is wholly or partially owned by the Government of
India or the Government of a State and the salary or remuneration for such office is paid by such
body, except where such salary or remuneration paid is compensatory in nature’.
In the Tenth Schedule to the Constitution,—(a) in paragraph, 1, in clause (b), the words and figure
“paragraph 3 or, as the case may be,” shall be omitted; (b) in paragraph 2, in sub-paragraph (1), for
the words and figures “paragraphs 3, 4 and 5”, the words and figures “paragraphs 4 and 5” shall be
substituted; (c) paragraph 3 shall be omitted.
92. The Constitution (Ninety-second Amendment) Act, 2003—In the Eighth Schedule to the
Constitution,—(a) existing entry 3 shall be re-numbered as entry 5, and before entry 5 as so
renumbered, the following entries shall be inserted, namely:
(b) existing 4 to 7 shall respectively be re-numbered as entries 6 to 9; (c) existing entry 8 shall be
re-numbered as entry 11 and before entry 11 as so renumbered, the following entry shall be inserted,
(d) existing entries 9 to 14 shall respectively be re-numbered as entries 12 to 17;
(e) existing entry 15 shall be re-numbered as entry 19 and before entry 19 as so re-numbered, the
following entry shall be inserted, namely :
(f) existing entries 16 to 18 shall respectively be re-numbered as entries 20 to 22.
93. The Constitution (Ninety-third amendment) Act, 2006—Greater access to higher education
including professional education, is of great importance to a large number of students belonging to the
Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes and other socially and educationally backward classes of
citizens. The reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes and the Other
Backward Classes of citizens in admission to educational institution is derived from the provisions of
clause (4) of articles 15 of the constitution. At present, the number of seats available in aided or State
maintained institutions, particularly in respect of professional education, is limited, in comparison to
those in private unaided institutions.
Clause (i) of article 30 of the Constitution provides the right to all minorities to establish and
administer educational institutions of their choice. It is essential that the rights available to minorities
are protected in regard to institutions established and administered by them. Accordingly, institutions
declared by the State to be minority institutions under clause (1) of article 30 are excluded from the
operation of this enactment.
To promote the educational advancement of the socially and educationally backward classes of
citizens, i.e., the Other Backward Classes or of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in
matters of admission of students belonging to these categories in unaided educational institutions,
other than the minority educational institutions referred to in clause (1) of article 30, the provisions of
article 15 were amplified. The new clause (5) of said article 15 shall enable the Parliament as well
as the State Legislatures to make appropriate laws for the above mentioned purpose.
94. The Constitution (Ninety-fourth amendment) Act, 2006—In Article 164 of the Constitution, in
Clause (I), in the proviso, for the word “Bihar”, the words “Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand” shall be
95. The Constitution (Ninety-fifth amendment) Act, 2009—In Article 334, Extended the reservation
of the seats for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies from Sixty Years to Seventy
96. The Constitution (Ninety-Sixth Amendment) Act, 2011—In Schedule 8 of the Constitution, Substituted “Odia” for “Oriya”.
97. The Constitutions (Ninety-Seventh Amendment) Act, 2011—Added the words “Or Co-operative Societies” after the world “Or Unions” in Article 19(i)(c) and insertion of article 43B, i.e., Promotion of Co-operative Societies and added Part 1×8, i.e. The Co-operative Societies.
98. The Constitution (Ninety-Eighth Amendment) Act, 2012—Inserted Article 371J in the
constitution. The objective was to empower the Governor of Karnataka to take steps to develop the Hyderabad-Karnataka region.
99. The Constitution (Ninety-Ninth Amendment) Act, 2014-Inserted new articles-124 A, 124B and 124C after article 124 of the constitution. The Act also provided for the composition and the functions of the proposed National Judicial Appointments Commission.
100. The Constitution (One Hundredth Amendment) Act, 2015—amended the First Schedule of the Constitution, for the purpose of giving effect to the acquiring of territories by India and transfer of territories to Bangladesh through retaining of adverse possession and exchange of enclaves, in pursuance of the Agreement between India and Bangladesh concerning the demarcation of the land boundary, signed on 16th May 1974 and its Protocal, signed on 6th September, 2011.
101. The Constitution (One Hundred and First Amendment) Act, 2016—The act amends the constitution to introduce “The Goods and Services Tax (GST)”. It amended the articles 248, 249, 250, 268, 269, 270, 271, 286, 366 & 368. Amended the Sixth & Seventh Schedules. Omitted article 268A. Inserted new articles 246A (Special provision with respect to goods and services tax), 269A (Levy and collection of goods and services tax in course of inter-State trade or commerce) and 279A (Goods and Services Tax Council). The act also provided for compensation to States for loss of revenue on account of introduction of goods and services tax.