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  1. In early civilisations, most communities were sharply divided into two classes, Precis Writing those who laboured and those who did not. The small number of rulers – kings, priests, military leaders – lived in great comfort, and did very little work. The vast majority of the population enjoyed very few comforts, did a lot of work, and had scarcely any political power. In some societies, there was an even more wretched
    class, the slaves, who had no rights at all.
    The Industrial Revolution of Europe led to the production of vast quantities of goods, and workers began to be dissatisfied with their poverty. The factory owners needed skilled workers, and gradually they realised that they must show goodwill to their workforce, in order to stay in business. As in many other reforms, some enlightened slowly spread that workers were entitled to some consideration. Since men were free to work for any master they chose, good master soon had the pick of the workers and old-fashioned employers found themselves with a factory full of lower-grade workforce. Such a situation soon led to an all-round improvement in standards, and good employers tried to raise working conditions still higher. These improvements were speeded up by the increased orgnisation of workers in Trade Union movements, particularly in low-standard factories, where the owner often had to deal with strike action by dissatisfied workers.
    Now that the working classes are getting better and better working conditions, the need to strike has lessened considerably; and employers and workers alike have come to realise that they depend on each other for their livelihood. (292 words)


ANSWER: An important feature of this century is the improvement of the lot of the workers. In earlier ciyilisations, kings, priests, etc., lived confortably doing little, while the majority vhrked hard with few comforts and rights. Some societies had slaves too. During the Industrial Revolution, production increased and workers started feeling
dissatisfied. Clever employers attracted the best workers by offering better conditions and thus led to improvement in production. Some employers thought that workers had a right to better conditions. Soon Trade unions were organised to fight for workers rights with srrikes, if necessary. Now, there is increasing realisation of the mutual dependence of employers and their workers. (107 words)

2. The chief object of the repetitive form of advertisement is to help people to remember the prduct. The general principle is similar to that followed by Bajaj Automotives Ltd: “You just can’t beat a bajaj”. The repetition of a phrase, the inclusion of a trade name or a trade mark in every advertisement; is intended to impress upon the mind of the reader listener that name or phrase or picture. The response sought by the advertiser is achieved when a customer enters a shop for, say, toothpaste. To the shop-keeper’s question, “hy particular brand, please?, . the customer gives the reply that is in his mind, not necessarily because he has arrived at a decision by any process of reasoning, nor because some strong feeling has been aroused for some particular brand, but simply because he has repeatedly seen the name, wd it is associated in his mind with the idea of a good toothpaste. k Some trade names become so common that they displace the true name of the commodity itself, such as ‘vaseline’, the well-known trade name for ‘petroleum jelly’. Advertisements which have relied on repetition have, in the past, proved very powerful, b”t with the increased variety of proprietary articles and products
intended for the same purpose, this kind of advertising is losing some ok its value because of the confusion of names that arise in a customer’s mind when he wishes
to buy, say, cigarettes, tobacco, soap, chocolates, tea and other goods which are widely used. (248 words)


ANSWER: The use of repetition is the simplest form of advertising. In advertisements, repeated use of a particular phrase or trade-mark aims to make such an impression on the customer that he will tend to buy that product. Indeed, some trade-names, ‘vaseline’ for example, have become so well known that they are used instead of the real name of the products. Owing to the large number of consumer articles and products now in the market, advertising by repetition is less effective than it was in the past. (87 words)

Make Precis and give suitable Title.

1]  Trees give shade for the benefit of others, and while they themselves stand in the sun and endure the scorching heat, they produce the fruit of which others profit. The character of good men is like that of trees. What is the use of this perishable body if no use is made of it for the benefit of mankind? Sandalwood, the more it is rubbed, the more scent does it yield. Sugarcane, the more it is peeled and cut up into pieces, the more juice does it produce. The men who are noble at heart do not lose their qualities even in losing their lives. What matters whether men praise them or not? What difference does it make whether they die at this moment or whether lives are prolonged? Happen what may, those who tread in the right path will not set foot in any other. Life itself is unprofitable to a man who does not live for others. To live for the mere sake of living one’s life is to live the life of dog and crows. Those who lay down their lives for the sake of others will assuredly dwell forever in a world of bliss.


Good men live for others
The character of good men is like that of trees. They live for others and do not lose their qualities even in losing their lives. They always follow the right path. Praise is immaterial to them To live for one’s own sake is to lead the life of beasts. Only those who lay down their lives for others will live for ever in a world of bliss.

2] It is physically impossible for a well-educated, intellectual, or brave man to make money the chief object of his thoughts just as it is for him to make his dinner the principal object of them. All healthy people like their dinners, but their dinner is not the main object of their lives. So all healthy minded people like making money ought to like it and enjoy the sensation of winning it; it is something better than money.

A good soldier, for instance, mainly wishes to do his fighting well. He is glad of his pay—very properly so and justly grumbles when you keep him ten years without it—till, his main mission of life is to win battles, not to be paid for winning them. So of clergymen. The clergyman’s object is essentially baptize and preach not to be paid for preaching. So of doctors. They like fees no doubt—ought to like them; yet if they are brave and well-educated the entire object to their lives is not fees. They on the whole, desire to cure the sick; and if they are good doctors and the choice were fairly to them, would rather cure their patient and lose their fee than kill him and get it. And so with all the other brave and rightly trained men: their work is first, their fee second—very important always; but still second.


Money-making is a common attraction in life. But it cannot be the principal aim of well educated, cultured and brave man. A brave soldier prizes honour and victory more than his pay. A good clergyman is more interested in the moral welfare of his people than his returns. A doctor (good) values the care of his patient far more than his fees. Thus with all the well-educated, intellectual persons, their work is first, money next.

3] Home is the young, who known “nothing of the world and who would be forlorn and sad, if thrown upon it. It is providential, shelter of the weak and inexperienced, who have to learn as yet to cope with the temptations which lies outside of it. It is the place of training of those who are not only ignorant, but have no yet learnt how to learn, and who have to be taught by careful individual trail, how to set about profiting by the lessons of teacher. And it is the school of elementary studies—not of advances, for such studies alone can make master minds. Moreover, it is the shrine of our best affections, the bosom of our fondest recollections, at spell upon our after life, a stay for world weary mind and soul; wherever we are, till the end comes. Such are attributes or offices of home, and like to these, in one or other sense or measure, are the attributes and offices of a college in a university.


Home shelters the young who are weak and inexperienced and unable to face the temptations in life. It is a centre of their elementary education and a nursery of sweet affections and pleasant memories. Its magic lasts forever. A weary mind turns to it for rest. Such is the function of a home and in some measure of the

4] Teaching is the noblest of professions. A teacher has a scared duty to perform. It is he on whom rests the responsibility of moulding the character of young children. Apart from developing their intellect, he can inculcate in them qualities of good citizenship, remaining neat and clean, talking decently and sitting properly. These virtues are not easy to be imbibed. Only he who himself leads a life of simplicity, purity and rigid discipline can successfully cultivate these habits in his pupils.

Besides a teacher always remain young. He may grow old in age, but not in spite. Perpetual contact with budding youths keeps him happy and cheerful. There are moments when domestic worries weigh heavily on his mind, but the delightful company of innocent children makes him overcome his transient moods of despair.


Teaching is the noblest profession. A teacher himself leading a simple, pure and disciplined life can mould the character of the young children and make them neat and good mannered citizens. Besides he remains every young forgetting his own domestic worries in the constant company of the young.

5] English education and English language have done immense goods to India, inspite of their glaring drawbacks. The notions of democracy and self-government are the born of English education. Those who fought and died for mother India’s freedom were nursed in the cradle of English thought and culture. The West has made contribution to the East. The history of Europe has fired the hearts of our leaders. Our struggle for freedom has been inspired by the struggles for freedom in England, America and France. If our leaders were ignorant of English and if they had not studied this language, how could they have been inspired by these heroic struggles for freedom in other lands? English, therefore, did us great good in the past and if properly studied will do immense good in future.

English is spoken throughout the world. For international contact our comrherce and trade, for the development of our practical ideas, for the scientific studies, English-is indispensable “English is very rich in literature,” our own literature has been made richer by this foreign language. It will really be a fatal day if we altogether forget Shakespeare, Milton, Keats and Shaw.


Notwithstanding its various defects English education has done great good to India. The ideas of democracy and self-government are its gifts. Nursed on English education the Indian leaders were inspired by the Western thought, culture and freedom struggles. They fought for and won their motherland’s freedom. Being spoken thought-out the world English is necessary for interna­tional contact, trade, commerce and science. English is rich in literature; its master mind cannot be neglected.

6] When we survey our lives and efforts we soon observe that almost the whole of our actions and desires are bound up with the existence of other human beings. We notice that whole nature resembles that of the social animals. We eat food that others have produced, wear clothes that others have made, live in houses that others have built. The greater part of our knowledge and beliefs has been passed on to us by other people though the medium of a language which others have created. Without language and mental capacities, we would have been poor indeed comparable to higher animals.

We have, therefore, to admit that we owe our principal knowledge over the least to the fact of living in human society. The individual if left alone from birth would remain primitive and beast like in his thoughts and feelings to a degree that we can hardly imagine. The individual is what he is and has the significance that he has, not much in virtue of the individuality, but rather as a member of a great human community, which directs his material and spiritual existence from the cradle to grave.


Being social animals, human beings have their actions and desires bound up with society. In matter of food, clothes, knowledge and belief they are interdependent. They use language created by others. Without language their mental power would not grow. They are superior to beast, because they live in human society. An individual life left alone from birth would grow utterly beast like. So human society and not individuality guides man’s material and spiritual existence.

7] All human beings are liable to err. To be at peace with oneself,the realization of this fact is essential.Humanity is faced with numerous struggles and difficulties.We should view our own problems as part of a universal struggle and brace ourselves to meet every difficulty with fortitude.To be frantic and desperate n such occasions cannot help the situation .Perhaps the greatest folly is for each of us to hug his troubles to himself.Often the path through our worst worries can be made smoother if we seek the guidance of a trusted friend. But there are limits to human wisdom.The only adequate way to endure large evils is to find large consolations.The key to this search is prayer.The faith in a beneficent “Higher Power” can carry us through our most anxious moments.It has cured many people of their diseases and banished melancholy from their hearts.It was faith in God coupled with hardwork, which enabled Alexis Carrel to face ridicule and rejection calmly and finally became the recipient of the Nobel Prize.Finally ,how much less we should be if we could see our struggle as a part of the struggle of a whole creation intent on growth and renewal. By doing so, we not only make our lives easier ,but we also add our bit to the sum of human dignity and faith.


Man is not perfect so one should not take his mistakes on heart and consider his problems as universal struggle.The best way to combat evils and hopelessness,one should rely on divine medicine,that is prayer and faith in Almighty.Only hard work along with faith leads to success like as Alexis Carrel who achieved Nobel prize.One should consider his individual struggle as contribution in betterment of humanity.