syllabus

Sanskrit Syllabus for UGC NET

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Subject: SANSKRIT

SYLLABUS

Code No.: 25

Unit – I

Vedic-Literature

(a) General Introduction of Vedic Literature:

• Main theories regarding the Vedās : Maxmüller; A.Weber; Jacobi ; Balgangadhar Tilak; M.Winternitz ; Indian traditional views.

• Saṁhitā Literature
• Dialogue Hymns: Pururavā-Urvaśī; Yama-yamī; Saramā-Paṇi ; Viśvāmitra-Nadī

• Brāhamaṇa-Literature
• Āraṇyaka Literature
• Vedāṅgas: Śikșā; Kalpa; Vyākaraṇa; Nirukta; Chandas; Jyotișa


Unit – II

(b) Specific Study of Vedic Literature:

• Study of the following hymns:

 Ŗgveda : Agni (1.1); Varuṇa (1.25); Sūrya (1.125); Indra (2.12); Uṣas (3.61); Parjanya (5.83); Kitava (10.34); Jñāna (10.71); Puruṣa (10.90); Hiraṇyagarbha (10.121); Vāk (10.125); Nāsadīya (10.129);

 Śuklayajurveda : Śivasaṁkalpa , Chapter-34 (1-6)

 Prajāpati-Chapter-23 (1-5)

 Atharvaveda : Rāṣṭrābhivardhanam (1.29); Kāla (10.53); Prithivī (12.1)

• Brāhmaṇa Literature
 Subject-matter; Vidhi and its types; Agnihotra; Agniṣṭoma; Darśapūrṇamāsa ;

Yajña; Pañcamahāyajña; Akhyāna (Śunahśepa , Vāṅmanas)

• Upaniṣad Literature:

 Subject-matter and main concepts with special reference to the following Upaniṣads ;

 Īśa; Kaṭha; Kena; Bṛhadārṇyaka ; Taittirīya; Śvetāśvatara

• Vedic Grammar; Nirukta and Vedic interpretation

• Ṛkprātiśākhya : Definitions of Samānākṣara ; Sandhyakṣara; Aghoṣa; Soṣman; Svarabhakti ; Yama ; Rakta; Saṁyoga; Pragṛhya ; Riphita

• Nirukta (Chapters-I & 2)
• Four-fold division of Padas-Concept of Nāma; Concept of Ākhyāta ; Meaning of
Upasargas; Categories of Nipātas.

• Purposes of the study of Nirukta
• Principles of Etymology
• Etymology of the following words:

Āchārya; Vīra; Hrada; Go; Samudra; Vṛtra; Āditya; Uṣas; Megha; Vāk; Udak; Nadī; Aśva; Agni; Jātavedas; Vaiśvānara; Nighaṇtu

Nirukta (Chapter-7; Daivatakāṇḍa)
Vedic Accent- Udātta, Anudātta and Svarita


Unit – III

(c) Darśana:

• General Introduction of major schools of Darśana with special reference to the following
:

Pramāṇamīmānsā ; Tattvamīmānsā ; Ācāramīmānsā (Cārvāka , Jaina, Bauddha) Nyāya, Sāṁkhya, Yoga, Nyāya, Vaiśeṣika, mīmānsā


Unit – IV

(d) Darśana Literature: Special Study:

• Īśvarakṛṣna : Sāṁkhyakārikā – Satkāryavāda, Puruṣasvarūpa, Prakṛtisvarūpa,
Sṛștikrama, Pratyaysarga, Kaivalya.

• Sadānanda : Vedāntasāra – Anubandha-catuṣṭaya, Ajñāna, Adhyāropa-Apavāda, Lingaśarīrotpatti, Pañcīkaraṇa, Vivarta, Jīvanmukti

• Annambhaṭṭa, Tarkasaṁgraha / Keśavamiśra; Tarkabhāṣā : Padārtha; Kāraṇa; Pramāṇa; (Pratyakṣa; Anumāna; Upamāna; Śabda), Prāmāṇyavāda, Prameya .

• Laugākṣibhāskara ; Arthasaṁgraha.

• Patañjali ; Yogasūtra – (Vyāsabhāṣya) : Cittabhūmi, Cittavṛttis ; Concept of Īśvara; Yogāṅgas; Samādhi ; Kaivalya

• Bādarāyaṇa ; Brahmasūtra 1.1 (Śānkarabhāṣya)
• Viśvanāthapañcānana ; Nyāyasidhāntamuktāvalī (Anumāna Khaṇḍa)
• Sarvadarśana-Saṁgraha ; Jainism ; Buddhism


Unit – V

(e) Grammar and Linguistics:

• General Introduction of the following grammarians:

Pāṇini , Kātyāyana , Patañjali , Bhartṛhari , Vāmanajayāditya , Bhaṭṭojidīkṣita , Nāgeśabhaṭṭa , Kaiyyaṭa , Jainendra , Śākaṭāyana , Hemacandrasūri , Sārasvatavyākaraṇakāra. Pāṇinīya Śikṣā.

Linguistics:

Definition of Language, Geneological and Morphological classification of Languages, Speech Mechanism and classification of sounds: Stops, Fricatives, Semi-Vowels and vowels (with special reference to Sanskrit sounds).

Phonetic Laws (Grimm, Grassman, Verner). Directions of semantic change and reasons of change. Definition of Vākya and its types

General introduction of Indo-European family of Languages Difference between Vedic Sanskrit and Classical Sanskrit Difference between Bhāșā and Vāk

Difference between language and dialect


Unit – VI

(f) Specific Study of Grammar

• Definition : Saṁhitā, Saṁyoga Guṇa, Vṛddhi, Prātipadika, Nadī , Ghi, Upadhā, Apṛkta, Gati, Pada, Vibhāṣā , Savarṇa, Ṭi, Pragṛhya, Sarvanāmasthāna, Bha , Sarvanāma, Niṣthā .

• Sandhi – Ac sandhi, Hal sandhi, Visarga sandhi (according to laghusiddhāntakaumudī)

• Subanta – Ajanta – Rāma , Sarva (in all genders) , Viśvapā, Hari , Tri (in all genders) , Sakhi , Sudhī , Guru , Pitṛ , Gau , Ramā , Mati , Nadī , Dhenu , Mātṛ , Jñāna , Vāri , Madhu .

• Halanta – Lih , Viśvavāh , Catur (in all genders) , Idam, Kim, Tad (in all genders), Rājan , Maghavan , Pathin , Vidvas , Asmad , Yuṣmad .

• Samāsa – Avyayībhāva , Tatpuruṣa , Bahuvrīhi , Dvandva (according to laghusiddhāntakaumudī)

• Taddhita – Apatyārthaka and Matvarthīya (According to Siddāntakaumudī ),
• Tiṅanta – Bhū , Edh , Ad , Us, Hu , Div , Ṣuñ , Tud , Tan, Kṛ , Rudh , Krīñ, Cur .
• Prayayānta – Nijant, Sannanta , Yańanta , Yańluganta , Nāmdhātu.
• Kṛdanta – Tavya / Tavyat , Anīyar , Yat , Ṇyat , Kyap , Śatṛ , Śānac , Ktvā , Kta ,
Ktavatu , Tumun , Ṇamul .

• Strīpratyaya – According to Laghusiddhāntakaumudī.
• Kāraka Prakarana – According to Siddāntakaumudī .

• Parasmaipada and Ātmanepada Vidhāna – According to Siddāntakaumudī .
• Mahābhāșya (Paspaśāhnika)- Definition of Śabda, Relation between Śabda and

Artha, Purposes of the study of grammar, Definition of Vyākaraṇa, Result of the proper use of word , Method of grammar .

• Vākyapadīyam (Brahmakāṇḍa) – Nature of Sphoṭa, Nature of Śabda-Brahma,

Powers of Śabda-Brahma, Relation between Sphoṭa and Dhvani , Relation between Śabda and Artha, Types of Dhvani, Levels of Language.


Unit – VII

Sanskrit Literature, Poetics and Prosody

(a) General Introduction of following

• Bhāsa, Aśvaghośa , kālidāsa, Śūdraka, Viśākhadatta, Bhāravi, Māgha, Harṣa, Bāṇabhaṭṭa, Daṇḍin, Bhavabhūti, Bhaṭṭanārāyaṇa, Bhilhaṇa, Shrῑharṣa, Ambikādatta vyāsa, Panditā Kṣamārao, V. Raghavan, Shri Dhar Bhaskar Varnekar

• Schools of Sanskrit Poetics – Rasa, Alaṅkāra, Rīti, Dhwani, Vakrokti, Aucitya,

• Western Poetics – Aristotle, Longinus, Croche


Unit – VIII

(b) Specific study of the following

• Poetry: Buddhacaritam (First Canto), Raghuvaṁśam (First Canto), Kirātārjunīyam (First Canto), Śiśupālavadham (First Canto), Naiṣadhīyacaritam (First Canto)

• Drama: Svapnavāsavadattām, Abhijñānaśākuntalam, Mṛcchakaṭikam, Uttararāmacaritam, Mudrārākṣasam, Uttararāmacaritam, Ratnāvalī

• Prose: Daśakumāracaritam ( viii Ucchvāsa), Harṣacaritam ( V Ucchvāsa), Kādambarī (Śukanāsopadeśa)

• Campū Kāvya – Nala Campū (I Ucchvāsa)

• Sāhityadarpaṇaḥ:

Definition of Kāvya, Refutation of other definitions of Kāvya, Śabdaśakti – Saṅketagraha; Abhidhā; Lakṣanā; Vyanjanā, Kāvyabheda (Chapter Fourth), Śravyakāvya (prose poetry and mix)

• Kāvyaprakaśa –

Kāvyalakṣhṇa, Kāvyaprayojana, Kāvyahetu, Kāvyabheda, Śabdaśakti, Abhihitānvayavāda, Anvitābhidhānvayavāda, concept of Rasa, discussion of Rasasūtra, Rasadoṣa, Kāvyaguṇa, Vyanjanāvriti (Fifth Chapter)

• Alaṁkāras –

Vakrokti; Anuprāsa, Yamaka, Śleṣa, Upamā, Rūpaka, Utprekṣā, Samāsokti, Apahnuti, Nidarśanā, Arthāntaranyāsa, Dṛṣṭānta, Vibhāvanā, Viśeṣokti, Svabhāvokti, Virodhābhāsa, Saṅkara, Sansṛṣṭi

• Dhvanyāloka (I Udyota)

• Vakroktijīvitam (I Unmeṣa)
• Bharata – Nāṭyaśāstram (First and Sixth Chapter)

• Daśarūpakam (First and Third Prakāśa)
• Chanda –

Āryā, Anuṣṭup, Indravajrā, Upendravajrā, Vasantatilakā, Upajāti, Vaṁśastha, Drutavilambita, Śālinī, Mālinī, Śikharṇī, Mandākrāntā, Hariṇī, Śārdūlavikrῑḍita, Sragdharā


Unit – IX

Purāṇetihāsa, Dharmaśāstra and Epigraphy

(a) General introduction of the followings:

• Rāmāyaṇa –

Subject matter, age, society in the Rāmāyaṇa, Rāmāyaṇa as a source of later Sanskrit works and literal value of the Rāmāyaṇa, legends in the Rāmāyaṇa

• Mahābhārata –

Subject matter, age, society in the Mahābhārata, Mahābhārata as a source of later Sanskrit works and literal value of the Mahābhārata, legends in the Mahābhārata

• Purāṇa –

Definition of Purāṇa, maha Purāṇa and Upa Purāṇas, Purāṇic cosmology and Purāṇic legends

• General introduction of main Smṛitis.

• General introduction Kauṭilīya Arthaśāstra

• Paleography –

History of the decipherment of Brāhmī script, Theories of the origin of Brāhmī Script

• Inscriptions – General introduction


Unit – X

(b) Specific study of the following

• Kauṭilīya arthaśātra (First – Vinayadikarika)

• Manusmṛti (I, II and VII Adhyāyas)

• Yājñavalkyasmṛti (Vyavahārādhyaya only)

• Paleography and Inscriptions –
 Brahmi Script of Mauryan and Gupta periods

 Inscription of Ashoka – Major Rock Edicts, Major Pillar Edicts

 Post – Mauryan inscriptions –

Sāranātha Buddhist Image Inscription of Kaniṣka’s regal – year, 3, Girnār Rock Inscription of Rudradāman,

Hāthīgumphā inscription of Khāravela
 Gupta and Post-Gupta inscriptions –

Allahabad Pillar Inscriptions of Samudragupta,
Mandasor Pillar Inscription of Yasodharman,
Banāskherā Copper Plate Inscription of Harṣa,

Aihole Stone Inscription of Pulakeśīn II


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