Genetics & Molecular Biology

Genetics is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms.

In modern research, genetics provides important tools in the investigation of the function of a particular gene, or the analysis of genetic interactions. Within organisms, genetic information generally is carried in chromosomes, where it is represented in the chemical structure of particular DNA molecules.

Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level.

This field overlaps with other areas of biology, particularly with genetics and biochemistry. Molecular biology chiefly concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interrelationship of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis and learning how these interactions are regulated.

• Compare and contrast the fundamental features of mitosis and meiosis with emphasis
on the movement of homologous chromosomes during these cellular reproductive
• Define Mendel’s two laws of heredity that explain the transmission of traits from one
generation to the next and provide selected examples of transmission of traits that
deviate from these laws.
• Analyze human pedigrees to determine if a trait is dominant or recessive, the gene for
the trait is located on an autosome or sex chromosome, and if the trait is likely
controlled by a single gene or more than one gene.
• Describe the basic chemical structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and how it
differs from ribonucleic acid (RNA); what role does each molecule play in the transfer of
information from genotype (DNA) to phenotype (protein) and the deciphering of the
genetic code.
• Identify the regulatory elements and how they function in the control of gene
expression of inducible and repressible operons in prokaryotes.
• Define the classes of physical and chemical mutagens and their effect on the coded
amino acids in a polypeptide, and the resulting phenotype.
• Understand the basic principles of DNA technology/Biotechnology, its applications and
the ethical and societal implications of this technological revolution.