Human Rights and Duties: Human rights are moral principles that set out certain standards of human behaviour, and are regularly protected as legal rights in national and international law. They are “commonly understood as inalienable fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being.” Human rights are thus conceived as universal (applicable everywhere) and egalitarian (the same for everyone). The doctrine of human rights has been highly influential within international law, global and regional institutions. Policies of states and in the activities of non-governmental organizations and have become a cornerstone of public policy around the world. The idea of human rights suggests, “if the public discourse of peacetime global society can be said to have a common moral language, it is that of human rights.” The strong claims made by the doctrine of human rights continue to provoke considerable skepticism and debates about the content, nature and justifications of human rights to this day. Indeed, the question of what is meant by a “right” is itself controversial and the subject of continued philosophical debate.
UGC NET Paper-2 Syllabus
The following part of the UGC NET syllabus were previously under UGC NET Paper-2 and Paper-3 (Part-A and Part-B) syllabus in Human Rights and Duties, however, as UGC has now only two papers i.e. UGC NET Paper-1 which is general and compulsory for all subjects and UGC NET Paper-2 on the specific subject (including all electives, without options) instead of previous three papers i.e. UGC NET Paper-1 which was general and compulsory for all subjects and UGC NET Paper-2 and Paper-3 on the specific subject, so, now-a-days, the following part is also considered as part of the UGC NET Paper-2 syllabus.
Unit – I
The Basic Concepts: Individual, Group, State, Civil Society, Liberty, Freedom, Equality, Justice, Violence, Counter Violence.
Human Values: Humanity, Compassion, Virtues.
Indian Concepts: Raj Neeti, Lok Neeti, Danda Neeti, Nyaya, Dharma.
Liberal Perspective: Locke, Rousseau, Thdmas Paine, J. S. Mill, A. V Dicey.
Marxian Perspective: Marx, Gramsci, Rosa Luxemberg.
Critical Theory: Horbeumors.
Feminist Perspective: Gender specificity, Patriarchy, Private and Public independent and inter-dependent individual.
Gandhian Perspective (Ruskin, Thoreau, Tolsto ) : State, Power, Swaraj, Rights and Duties.
Dalit Perspective: Phule, Narayna Guru, Ambedkar.
Amartya Sen: Development as Freedom.
Unit – II
Natural Rights and Human Duties: Origins and Evolution
Civil and Political Rights-Individual vis – a – vis Society and State, the contribution of Magna Carta, American Bill of Rights, the French Revolution and its Goals of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity Marxist Revolutions, Anti-colonial Movements, Non – violent-Freedom Movement in India.
Constitutional Enshrinement of the Human Rights of Citizens in the Western Countries and Entailing Duties.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights ( 1948 ) – International Standards Setting.
Impact of the UDHR on the Constitutions of the ‘New’ States.
Elaboration of Human Rights: International Human Rights Conventions-Debate and Emphasis on Social, Economic and Cultural Rights of Man ( East vs West ; Developing Countries vs Developed Countries ).
International Conventions on Civil and Political Rights, Social, Economic and Cultural Rights and Responsibilities.
Universal Declaration of Human Responsibilities.
International Conventions and Declarations Relating to specific:
Groups – Women, Child, Indigenous People , Minorities, Refugees.
Rights – Religious Freedom, Torture, Development, Racial Discrimination, Sexual Discrimination.
“Third Generation of Human Rights” Collective Rights or Solidarity Rights.
Unit – III
Society, Economy, Polity, Religion and Culture-their Inter – relationship
Impact of Social Structure on Human Behaviour; Role of Socialization in Human Values, Human Rights and Duties.
Science and Technology, Modernization, Globalization and Dehumanization.
Social Stratification: Racial and Caste Prejudice and Discrimination; Human Rights Issues of Weaker Sections and Ethnic Minorities.
Gender: Gender Discrimination, Domestic Violence and Rape.
Children: Child Abuse, Child Labour, Street Children.
Social Structure and Social Problems: Social and Communal Conflicts and Social Harmony.
Rural Poverty, Unemployment, Bonded Labour.
Urban Poverty, Slums, Lack of Basic Civil Services, Prostitution.
Migrant Workers and Human Rights Violations, Human Rights of Mentally and Physically Handicapped.
Environmental Degradation and Rights of Current vs Future Generate as.
Unit – IV
State, Individual liberty, freedom and democracy.
The changing nature of State with special reference to the developing countries:
Soft State, Interventionist State, Welfare State, Repressive State.
Political Regimes and Human Rights in developed as well as developing countries.
Human Rights and International Politics: Emergence of a new global order-Tehran Conference (1968) – Vienna Conference (1993) – Human Rights, Environmental Degradation and Underdevelopment.
International Humanitarian Law : Geneva Conventions-International Red Cross Society – Refugee Protection and the Role of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees – International Tribunals (Rwanda and former Yugoslavia) and the International Criminal Court.
International Intervention: The question of Nation-State, Citizenship and Sovereignty.
Right of Self-determination: Autonomous Movements, Secessionist Movements, Terrorist Movements and Transnational Terrorism.
Grassroots Movements and Human Rights.
Unit – V
Universal Human Rights: Context and the Concerns Universal Declaration of Human Rights International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Option Protocol.
International Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination.
Convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment and punishment.
The UN Convention on the protection of the Rights migrant workers-Indigenous People’s Rights-Human Rights of Refugees.
Convention on Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against women. Convention on Rights of Child.
African Charter – European and Inter-American Convention as Human Rights. Islamic Declaration of Human Rights.
UN Organs :
UN Commission of Human Rights.
UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF).
UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR).
UN Commission on the Status of Women.
International Labour Organization (ILO).
UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
European Commission on Human Rights.
Universal Human Rights: Changing World Order
Unit – VI
Models of Development: Growth Approach, Basic Needs Approach, Sustainable Human Development, Development as Freedom.
Globalization and Human Rights: Dynamics of Globalization, Emergence of Market Forces, Assertion of Civil Society, Retreat of State, Privatization, Liberalization, Emergence of Information Age.
Economic Growth Strategies (Developing Countries): Implications for Poverty, Employment, Planned Development and Social Inequality.
World Trade Organization: Implication for Human Rights Impact on Developing Countries with special reference to India; DSM (Dispute Settlement Mechanism ).
Intellectual Property Rights : Patents Law, Bio-diversity Convention, Agenda 21, Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights ( TRIPRs ), Trade Related International Investment Measures ( TRIMs ), General Agreement on Trade in Services ( GATS ), Agreement on Agriculture ( AOA ).
Transnational Corporations (TNCs) and Human Rights Situation in Developing Countries.
International Labour Organization (ILO), Conventions and Standards for Human Rights and Quality of Life.
Right to Development: The Third World Concerns, Working Group Recommendations, UNDP – initiatives.
State and Development of the Marginahzed / Disadvantaged Groups in India: The Poor, the Unemployed and the Socially Dislocated People.
Minimum Wages Act – Problems of Implementation, Right to Security of Food, Health and Education.
New Social Movements, Democratic Struggles and Human Rights.
Concepts of Development, Underdevelopment and Social Action.
Need for Collective Action in Developing Societies and Methods of Social Action.
Social Movements : Political, Social and Religious Reform.
Agrarian and Peasant Movements.
Backward Class, Dalit and Women Movements.
Ecological and Environment Movements.
Non-Government Organisations (NGOs): Structure, Functions and Problems.
NGOs and Human Rights Movements: Amnesty International, Asia Watch, International Committee of Red Cross.
NGOs and Human Rights in India: Land, Water and Forest Issues.
Human Rights Movement: People’s Union for Civil Liberties ( PUCL ), People’s Union for Democratic Rights ( PUDR ) and other Civil and Democratic Rights Organization in India.
Indian Civilization: Change and Continuity.
Indian Constitution: Freedom Movement.
Indian Constitution: Sociological Foundation.
Constitutional Vision of role of the State.
Constitutional Vision of Freedom : Fundamental Rights.
Constitutional Vision of Justice : Directive Principles of State Policy.
Constitution : Human Duties.
Judicial Interpretations: Landmark Judgements.
Constitutional Review: The Contemporary Debates.
Constitutional Governance: State of Rule of Law.
Constitutional Organs: Inter and intra-relationships /conflict and cooperation.
Fundamental Rights and Repressive Laws: Preventive Detention, MISA, NASA, TADA, Armed Force Special Power Act and Criminal Law Amendment.
Imposition of National Emergency: The Societal Experience.
The Criminal Justice System: Crime, Punishment and Human Rights with special reference-IPC & CRPC and Indian Evidence Act.
The Directive Principles of State Policy: The Question of Effectiveness and Enforcement.
Judicial Activism: Public Interest Litigation.
Legislation for the Weaker Sections: The Question of Enforcement.
Law Enforcing Agencies: Police, military, Para – military – emerging experience.
Human Rights Enforcement: NHRC, State Human Rights Commissions, Human Rights Courts.
Human Rights Education: Problems and Prospects.
Inter – relativity of Human Rights and Responsibilities.
Diverse Perspectives of Human Rights, Revolution of Rising Aspirations and Needs of the Peoples Worldover.
Challenging problems in the areas of the Right of self-determination of peoples; the Protection of Minorities; the Rights of Indigenous peoples; the Rights of Women and the Child, Freedom from Torture; Freedom from Pollution, Freedom from any Discrimination.
The Problems of the Right to-Development; the Problems of the Right to Clean Environment; the Problems of the Right to Racial Discrimination.
Freedom from Sexual Discrimination and Harassment.
Protection of Refugees and of Civilians in Armed Conflict.
Right to Life and the Basic Needs – Food, Water, Health, Housing and Education.
Right to Information.
Assertion of the Identity of Ethnic Groups.
Universal Entitlement of People to Democracy as a Legitimate form of Government.
Duties and Rights : State Duties and the Duties of other Entities Exercising Authority.
Retreat of the Nation-State.
Science, Technology, and Human Rights and Duties.
Need of Spelling out Human Duties and Eternal Human Values.
The paper-1 of Human Rights and Duties is of general and compulsory for all subjects and will have 50 MCQ question and total 100 marks and it will includes teaching aptitude, research aptitude, comprehension, communication, mathematical reasoning and aptitude, logical reasoning, data interpretation, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), people, development and environment and higher education system. The UGC NET Paper 1 syllabus, old examination questions papers along with answer keys (solved questions) can be found at UGC NET Paper 1
The paper-2 covers only the syllabus of Human Rights and Duties and will have 100 MCQ question and total 200 marks (including all electives, without options). The examination for paper-2 will also be Computer Based Test (CBT) through Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) consisting of ascending-descending or sequencing / chronological questions; assertion-reason questions; checkbox or Multiple True / False Questions (MTFQ) or multiple selection questions or Multiple Response Questions (MRQ) or multiple choice-multiple answer questions; matching questions and paragraph or reading comprehension tests paragraph question.