Crime as a Legal, Social and Psychological Construct; Deviance and Crime; Traditional Crimes: Crimes against Property and Person(Children, Women, Lesbian, Gay, Bi-sexual, Transgender, Queer (LGBTQ), Marginalized, Men). Victimless Crimes: Alcoholism, Drug Addiction, Beggary, Commercial Sex, Suicide; Family-centred Crimes: Dowry, Domestic Violence, Child Abuse; Community Problems: Inter-religion and Inter-caste tensions and conflicts.Modern Crimes: Organized Crimes, Economic Crimes, Corruption, Corporate Crimes, Development induced Crime, Environmental Crimes, Hate Crimes, Cyber Crimes and Cyber assisted Crimes.Terrorism and Insurgency; Crime and Politics.Media, Technology and Crime.Transnational Crimes.
Criminology: Definition and Scope; Criminology and other Social Sciences; Criminology vs. Criminal Justice. Structure of Criminal Justice System in India; Role of LegislatureandLaw making; Coordination among criminal justice system. Participation of Victims and Witnesses in the Criminal Justice Process.Crime Prevention: Neighbourhood Involvement, Situational Crime Prevention, Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED), Electronic Monitoring.
Schools of Criminology: Demonology, Classical, Neo-Classical Schools, Positivist/ PositiveSchool, Cartographic School, Biological and Constitutional School-Body Types, Hereditary Traits, Endocrine Glands; Economic Theories of Crime; Multiple Factors. Psycho-Analytical Theoriesand Psychopathic Personality.Social Strain Theories: Anomie Theory, Culture conflict and Subculture theory. Social Ecology Theories: Concentric Zone theory, Environmental Criminology, Social disorganization theory, Lower class culture theory.
Social Learning Theories: Theory of Imitation, Differential Association Theory, Differential Identification theory, and Differential opportunity theory
Social Control Theories: Drift and Neutralization theory, Containment theory, Social bond theory. Social Conflict Theories: Labelling Theory, Radical Criminology, Conflict Criminology, Critical Criminology, Realist Criminology. Modern Theories: Routine Activities Theory, Rational Choice theory, Shaming theory, Broken windows theory, Feminist Criminology, Masculinity theory, Life Course theory, Integrated theories, Space Transition theory. Contemporary Perspectives: Cultural Criminology, News making Criminology, Peacemaking Criminology, Green Criminology, Visual Criminology, Cyber Criminology, Positive Criminology, Translational Criminology.
Legal Approaches: Accusatorial and Inquisitorial; Substantive and Procedural Laws-Criminal Liability, Strict Liability; Indian Penal Code-General Exceptions, Offences Against Property; Criminal Procedure Code; Cognizable and Non-Cognizable offences, Bailable and Non-bailable, Compoundable and Non-compoundable offences; Investigation of Crimes; Complaint, F. I. R. Arrest, Search, Seizure, Police Custody, Judicial Remand and Bail; Types of Evidence, Admissibility of Confession, Dying declaration.Human Rights: Fundamental rights, Rights of accused and victims, Rights of persons in custody, Rights of prisoners. Supreme Court Landmark Judgments on Criminal Justice Reforms, The Protection of Human Rights Act, Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act (POCSO)Act-Salient features.
Importance and Types -Descriptive, Analytical, Experimental, Exploratory and Doctrinal. Quantitative vs Qualitative research. Mixed Methods. Main Steps in Criminological Research.Ethics and Confidentiality in Criminal Justice Research.Researcher Fraud and Plagiarism. Crime and Criminal Justice Data. Statistical Applications in Criminological Research.
Penology –definition, nature and scope. Punishment-in ancient, medieval and modern times.Punishment: Significance, Concept, Aims and types. Theories of Punishment. Sentencing –Principles, Policies and Procedures. Capital Punishment. Recent approaches to Punishment –Restorative Justice, Restitution and Victim-offender Mediation. History and evolution of Prison legislations –Prison Manualsandrules.Various Prison Reforms Committees and Commissions. Standard Minimum Rules for Non-custodial Measures (Tokyo Rules)and Nelson Mandela Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners.
Development of various prison systems-Penitentiary, Pennsylvania, Auburn system. Evolution and development of Prison system in India. InstitutionalTreatment: Meaning and purpose. PrisonTypesand Classification of prisoners.Adult Institutions: Central, District and Sub Jails. Women Institutions: Vigilance Home, Protective home. Open Prisons. Accommodation, food and medical care in prisons. Correctional Programmes –Educational, work and prison panchayats. Community-based Corrections: Probation and Admonition: Concept and Scope, Historical development of probation. Probation in India –Probation of offenders Act. Parole: Meaning and Scope. After Care services in India.Current problems and challenges in Correctional Administration.
Juvenile and Youth Justice: Definition and Concept.Delinquency. Children in conflict with Law; Children and Vulnerability. Truancy and Vagrancy. Youth Crimes. Main Features of latest Juvenile Justice Act;
Institutions: Juvenile Justice Board, Child Welfare Committee, Observation Homes, Juvenile Homes, Special Homes, and ‘fit’ Institutions; Juvenile Aftercare Services. Juvenile Police Unit.
UN Documents: United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for Juvenile Justice (Beijing Rules) and UN Riyadh Guidelines. Prevention of Delinquency.
Historical development of Victimology. Basic Concepts of Victimology. UN Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power, 1985. Victim –Offender relationship.Impact of Victimization–Physical, Financial and Psychological (including Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), (Acute Stress Disorder (ASD), resilience, post-traumatic growth,anger and the way victims are viewed) Impact. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Victimization. Role of NGOs in Victim Assistance.Criminological perspectives:Repeat victimization, routine activities, lifestyle exposure, fear of crime, punitivity and victimization surveys including cost of crime. Effects of crime on victims.
Legal perspectives: Rights of the Crime Victims as per Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC)and other Laws-Victim Compensation Schemes.
Contemporary Developments in Victimology: Mass Victimsand MassVictimisation, Clinical Victimology, Therapeutic Jurisprudence, Cyber Victimology, Positive Victimology.