The Swiss Civil Code

Swiss Civil Code

Federal Act on the Amendment of the Swiss Civil Code

General Provisions

Creation of Obligations

Obligations arising by Contract(1 – 40)

Obligations in Tort(41 – 61)

Obligations deriving from Unjust Enrichment(62 – 67)

Effect of Obligations

Performance of Obligations(68 – 96)

The Consequences of Non-Performance of Obligations(97 – 109)

Obligations involving Third Parties(110 – 113)

Extinction of Obligations(114 – 142)

Special Relationships relating to Obligations

Joint and Several Obligations(143 – 150)

Conditional Obligations(151 – 157)

Earnest Money, Forfeit Money, Salary Deductions and Contractual Penalties(158 – 163)

Assignment of Claims and Assumption of Debt(164 – 183)

Types of Contractual Relationship

Sale and Exchange

General Provisions(184 – 186)

The Chattel Sale(187 – 215)

Sale of Immovable Property(216 – 221)

Special Types of Sale(222 – 236)

The Contract of Exchange(237 – 238)

Gifts(239 – 252)

The Lease

General Provisions(253 – 268)

Protection against Unfair Rents or other Unfair Claims by the Landlord in respect of Leases of Residential and Commercial Premises(269 – 270)

Protection against Termination of Leases of Residential and Commercial Premises(271 – 273)

The Usufructuary Lease(275 – 304)

The Loan

The Loan for Use(305 – 311)

The Fixed-Term Loan(312 – 318)

The Employment Contract

The Individual Employment Contract(319 – 343)

Special Individual Employment Contracts

A. The Apprenticeship Contract(344 – 346)

B. The Commercial Traveller’s Contract(347 – 350)

C. The Homeworker’s Contract(351 – 354)

D. Applicability of General Provisions(355 – 355)

The Collective Employment Contract and the Standard Employment Contract

A. The Collective Employment Contract(356 – 358)

B. The Standard Employment Contract(359 – 360)

Mandatory Provisions(361 – 362)

The Contract for Work and Services(363 – 379)

The Publishing Contract(380 – 393)

The Agency Contract

The Simple Agency Contract(394 – 406)

The Marriage or Partnership Brokerage Contract(406 – 406)

The Letter of Credit and the Loan Authorisation(407 – 411)

The Brokerage Contract(412 – 418)

The Commercial Agency Contract(418 – 418)

Agency without Authority(419 – 424)

The Commission Contract(425 – 439)

The Contract of Carriage(440 – 457)

Registered Power of Attorney and other Forms of Commercial Agency(458 – 465)

The Payment Instruction(466 – 471)

The Contract of Bailment(472 – 491)

The Contract of Surety(492 – 512)

Gambling and Betting(513 – 515)

The Life Annuity Contract and the Lifetime Maintenance Agreement(516 – 529)

The Simple Partnership(530 – 551)

Commercial Enterprises and the Cooperative

The General Partnership

Definition and Formation(552 – 556)

Relationship between Partners(557 – 561)

Relationship between the Partnership and Third Parties(562 – 573)

Dissolution and Withdrawal(574 – 581)

Liquidation(582 – 590)

Time Limits(591 – 593)

The Limited Partnership

Definition and Formation(594 – 597)

Relationship between Partners(598 – 601)

Relationship between the Partnership and Third Parties(602 – 618)

Dissolution, Liquidation, Time Limits(619 – 619)

The Company Limited by Shares

General Provisions(620 – 659)

Rights and Obligations of Shareholders(660 – 697)

Organisation of the Company Limited by Shares

A. The General Meeting(698 – 706)

B. The Board of Directors (707 – 726)

C. The External Auditors(727 – 731)

D. Defects in the Organisation of the Company(731 – 731)

Reduction of the Share Capital(732 – 735)

Dissolution of a Company Limited by Shares(736 – 751)

Liability(752 – 761)

Involvement of Public Sector Corporations(762 – 762)

Exclusion of Application of the Code to Public-Sector Entities(763 – 763)

The Partnership limited by Shares(764 – 771)

The Limited Liability Company

General Provisions(772 – 783)

Rights and Obligations of Company Members(784 – 803)

Organisation of the Company(804 – 820)

Dissolution and Resignation(821 – 826)

Liability(827 – 827)

The Cooperative

Definition and Establishment(828 – 838)

Acquisition of Membership(839 – 841)

Loss of Membership(842 – 851)

Rights and Obligations of the Members(852 – 878)

Organisation of the Cooperative(879 – 909)

Dissolution of the Cooperative(911 – 915)

Liability(916 – 920)

Cooperative Unions(921 – 925)

Involvement of Public Sector Corporations(926 – 926)

The Commercial Register, Business Names and Commercial Accounting

The Commercial Register(927 – 943)

Business Names(944 – 956)

Commercial Accounting and Financial Reporting

General Provisions(957 – 958)

Annual Accounts(959 – 960)

Financial Report for Larger Undertakings(961 – 961)

Financial Statements in accordance with Recognised Financial Reporting Standards(962 – 962)

Consolidated accounts(963 – 964)

Negotiable Securities

Registered Securities, Bearer Securities and Instruments to Order

General Provisions(965 – 973)

Registered Securities(974 – 977)

Bearer Securities(978 – 989)

Bills and Notes

A. Capacity to incur Liability as a party to a Bill(990 – 990)

B. The Bill of Exchange

I. Drawing and Formal Requirements of Bills of Exchange(991 – 1000)

II. Endorsement(1001 – 1010)

III. Acceptance(1011 – 1019)

IV. Bill Guarantees(1020 – 1022)

V. Maturity(1023 – 1027)

VI. Payment(1028 – 1032)

VII. Recourse in the event of Non-Acceptance and Non-Payment(1033 – 1052)

VIII. Devolution of Cover(1053 – 1053)

IX. Act of Honour(1054 – 1062)

X. Production of Multiple Duplicates and Copies of Bills of Exchange(1063 – 1067)

XI. Amendments to the Bill of Exchange(1068 – 1068)

XII. Time Limits(1069 – 1071)

XIII. Cancellation(1072 – 1080)

XIV. General Provisions(1081 – 1085)

XV. Applicable Jurisdiction(1086 – 1095)

C. The Promissory Note(1096 – 1099)

The Cheque

I. Issue and Formal Requirements of Cheques(1100 – 1107)

II. Transfer(1108 – 1113)

III. Cheque Guarantees(1114 – 1114)

IV. Presentation and Payment(1115 – 1122)

V. The Crossed Cheque and the Account-Payee-Only Cheque(1123 – 1127)

VI. Recourse for Non-Payment(1128 – 1131)

VII. Forged Cheques(1132 – 1132)

VIII. Duplicates of a Cheque(1133 – 1133)

IX. Time Limits(1134 – 1134)

X. General Provisions(1135 – 1137)

XI. Applicable Jurisdiction(1138 – 1142)

XII. Applicability of the Law on Bills of Exchange(1143 – 1143)

XIII. Reservation of Specific Law(1144 – 1144)

Bill-like Securities and Other Instruments to Order(1145 – 1152)

Documents of Title to Goods(1153 – 1155)


Obligation to publish a Prospectus when issuing Bonds(1156 – 1156)

Community of Bond Creditors(1157 – 1186)

Transitional Provisions of the Federal Act of 30 March 1911

Final Provisions on the Amendment of 23 March 1962 (1 – 4)

Transitional Provisions on the Amendment of 16 December 2005 (1 – 11)

Transitional Provision to the Amendment of 17 June 2011

Transitional Provision to the Amendment of 23 December 2011 (1 – 2)

Transitional Provisions to the Amendment of 12 December 2014 (1 – 3)

Transitional Provisions to the Amendment of 25 September 2015 (1 – 3)

Final Provisions on Title Eight and Title Eight (1 – 6)

Final and Transitional Provisions on Title X (1 – 8)

Final Provisions on the Fourth Section of Title XIII. (1 – 3)

Transitional provisions on Title XX

Final and Transitional Provisions on Titles XXIV-XXXIII (1 – 19)

Final Provisions on the Twenty-Sixth Title (1 – 9)

Final Provisions on the Second Section of Title XXXIV

Swiss Civil Code of 10 December 1907 (Status as of 1 January 2019)

Swiss Civil Code

The Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation,based on Article 64 of the Federal Constitution and having considered the Dispatch of the Federal Council dated 28 May 19043,decrees:

Table of Contents

A. Application of the law Art. 1
B. Scope and limits of legal relationships
I. Acting in good faith Art. 2
II. Good faith Art. 3
III. Judicial discretion Art. 4
C. Federal law and cantonal law
I. Cantonal civil law and local custom Art. 5
II. Cantonal public law Art. 6
D. General provisions of the Code of Obligations Art. 7
E. Rules of evidence
I. Burden of proof Art. 8
II. Proof by public document Art. 9
Repealed Art. 10
Part One: Law of Persons
Title One: Natural Persons
Chapter One: Legal Personality
A. Personality in general
I. Legal capacity Art. 11
II. Capacity to act
1. Nature Art. 12
2. Requirements
a. In general Art. 13
b. Majority Art. 14
c. … Art. 15
d. Capacity of judgement Art. 16
III. Incapacity
1. In general Art. 17
2. Lack of capacity of judgement Art. 18
3. Persons capable of judgement but lacking the capacity to
a. Principle Art. 19
b. Consent of the legal representative Art. 19a
c. Absence of consent Art. 19b
4. Strictly personal rights Art. 19c

IIIbis. Restriction of the capacity to act Art. 19d
IV. Kinship by blood and by marriage
1. Blood kinship Art. 20
2. Kinship by marriage Art. 21
V. Place of origin and domicile
1. Origin Art. 22
2. Domicile
a. Definition Art. 23
b. Change of domicile, temporary residence Art. 24
c. Domicile of minors Art. 25
d. Persons in institutions Art. 26
B. Protection of legal personality
I. Against excessive restriction Art. 27
II. Against infringements
1. Principle Art. 28
2. Actions
a. In general Art. 28a
b. Violence, threats or harassment Art. 28b
3. … Art. 28c–28f
4. Right of reply
a. Principle Art. 28g
b. Form and content Art. 28h
c. Procedure Art. 28i
d. Publication Art. 28k
e. Recourse to the courts Art. 28l
III. Right to use one’s name
1. Protection of one’s name Art. 29
2. Change of name
a. General Art. 30
b. On the death of a spouse Art. 30a
C. Beginning and end of personality rights
I. Birth and death Art. 31
II. Proof
1. Burden of proof Art. 32
2. Evidence
a. In general Art. 33
b. Presumption of death Art. 34
III. Declaration of presumed death
1. In general Art. 35
2. Procedure Art. 36
3. Failure of application Art. 37
4. Effect Art. 38
Chapter Two: Registration of Civil Status
A. Registers
I. In general Art. 39
II. Duty to notify Art. 40
III. Proof of undisputed information Art. 41
IV. Rectification
1. By court order Art. 42
2. By the register authorities Art. 43
V. Data protection and disclosure Art. 43a
B. Organisation
I. Civil register authorities
1. Civil registrars Art. 44
2. Supervisory authorities Art. 45
Ia. Central civil information system Art. 45a
II. Liability Art. 46
III. Disciplinary measures Art. 47
C. Implementing provisions
I. Federal law Art. 48
II. Cantonal law Art. 49
Repealed Art. 50 and 51
Title Two: Legal Entities
Chapter One: General Provisions
A. Legal personality Art. 52
B. Legal capacity Art. 53
C. Capacity to act
I. Requirements Art. 54
II. Action on behalf of the legal entity Art. 55
D. Seat Art. 56
E. Dissolution
I. Application of assets Art. 57
II. Liquidation Art. 58
F. Reservation of public law and company law Art. 59
Chapter Two: Associations
A. Formation
I. Corporate group of persons Art. 60
II. Entry in the commercial register Art. 61
III. Associations lacking legal personality Art. 62
IV. Relationship between articles of association and the law Art. 63
B. Organisation
I. General meeting
1. Function, convening of meetings Art. 64
2. Powers Art. 65
3. Resolutions
a. Form Art. 66
b. Voting rights and majority Art. 67
c. Exclusion from voting Art. 68
II. Committee
1. Rights and duties in general Art. 69
2. Accounting Art. 69a
III. Auditors Art. 69b
IV. Organisational defects Art. 69c
C. Membership
I. Admission, resignation Art. 70
II. Duty to pay subscriptions Art. 71
III. Exclusion Art. 72
IV. Status of former members Art. 73
V. Protection of the objects of the association Art. 74
VI. Protection of members Art. 75
Cbis. Liability Art. 75a
D. Dissolution
I. Manner of dissolution
1. By resolution Art. 76
2. By operation of law Art. 77
3. By court order Art. 78
II. Deletion from the commercial register Art. 79
Chapter Three: Foundations
A. Formation
I. In general Art. 80
II. Form of establishment Art. 81
III. Challenge Art. 82
B. Organisation
I. In general Art. 83
II. Bookkeeping Art. 83a
III. Auditors
1. Duty of audit and applicable law Art. 83b
2. Supervisory authority Art. 83c
IV. Organisational defects Art. 83d
C. Supervision Art. 84
Cbis. Measures in the event of overindebtedness
and insolvency Art. 84a
Art. 84b
D. Modification of the foundation
I. Reorganisation Art. 85
II. Amendment of objects
1. Request by the supervisory authority or the board of
trustees Art. 86
2. At the founder’s request or in accordance with his
testamentary disposition Art. 86a
III. Minor amendments to the charter Art. 86b
E. Family and ecclesiastical foundations Art. 87
F. Dissolution and deletion from the register
I. Dissolution by the competent authority Art. 88
II. Right to apply for dissolution, deletion from the register Art. 89
G. Employee benefits schemes Art. 89a
Title Twobis: Collective Assets
A. No management Art. 89b
B. Jurisdiction Art. 89c
Part Two: Family Law
Division One: Marital Law
Title Three: Marriage
Chapter One: Engagement
A. Betrothal Art. 90
B. Ending the engagement
I. Gifts Art. 91
II. Duty to contribute Art. 92
III. Limitation Art. 93
Chapter Two: Requirements for Marriage
A. Capacity to marry Art. 94
B. Impediments
I. Kinship Art. 95
II. Previous marriage Art. 96
Chapter Three: Preparation and Wedding Ceremony
A. General principles Art. 97
Abis. Circumvention of the legislation on foreign nationals Art. 97a
B. Preparatory procedure
I. Request Art. 98
II. Conduct and completion of the preparatory procedure Art. 99
III. Time limits Art. 100
C. Wedding ceremony
I. Venue Art. 101
II. Form Art. 102
D. Implementing provisions Art. 103
Chapter Four: Annulment of Marriage
A. General principle Art. 104
B. Annulment not subject to a time limit
I. Grounds Art. 105
II. Action for annulment Art. 106
C. Annulment subject to a time limit
I. Grounds Art. 107
II. Action for annulment Art. 108
D. Effects of judgment Art. 109
Repealed Art. 110
Title Four: Divorce and Separation
Chapter One: Requirements for Divorce
A. Divorce by joint request
I. Comprehensive agreement Art. 111
II. Partial agreement Art. 112
Repealed Art. 113
B. Divorce at the petition of one spouse
I. After living apart Art. 114
II. Irretrievable breakdown Art. 115
Repealed Art. 116
Chapter Two: Separation
A. Requirements and procedure Art. 117
B. Effects of separation Art. 118
Chapter Three: Consequences of Divorce
A. Civil status of divorced spouses Art. 119
B. Marital property law and inheritance law Art. 120
C. Family home Art. 121
D. Occupational pensions
I. Principle Art. 122
II. Equitable division of termination benefits Art. 123
III. Equitable division of invalidity pension prior to statutory
retirement age Art. 124
IV. Equitable division in the case of invalidity pensions after
statutory retirement age and in the case of retirement pensions Art. 124a
V. Exceptions Art. 124b
VI. Offset of mutual entitlements Art. 124c
VII. Unreasonableness Art. 124d
VIII. Impossibility Art. 124e
E. Post-marital maintenance
I. Requirements Art. 125
II. Modalities of maintenance contributions Art. 126
III. Regular payments
1. Special terms Art. 127
2. Adjustment for inflation Art. 128
3. Adjustment by court order Art. 129
4. Expiry by law Art. 130
IV. Enforcement
1. Enforcement assistance Art. 131
2. Advance payments Art. 131a
3. Directions to debtors and posting security Art. 132
F. Children
I. Parental rights and obligations Art. 133
II. Change of circumstances Art. 134
Repealed Art. 135–158
Title Five: General Effects of Marriage
A. Marital union; rights and duties of spouses Art. 159
B. Surname Art. 160
C. Cantonal and communal citizenship Art. 161
D. Marital home Art. 162
E. Maintenance of the family
I. In general Art. 163
II. Allowance for personal use Art. 164
III. Extraordinary contributions by one spouse Art. 165
F. Representation of the marital union Art. 166
G. Spouses’ career or business Art. 167
H. Transactions by the spouses
I. In general Art. 168
II. Family home Art. 169
J. Duty to inform Art. 170
K. Protection of the marital union
I. Counselling agencies Art. 171
II. Court measures
1. In general Art. 172
2. While living together
a. Financial contributions Art. 173
b. Revocation of powers of representation Art. 174
3. Suspension of joint household
a. Grounds Art. 175
b. Arrangements for living apart Art. 176
4. Enforcement
a. Enforcement assistance and advance payments Art. 176a
b. Directions to debtors Art. 177
5. Restriction of power to dispose of assets Art. 178
6. Change of circumstances Art. 179
Repealed Art. 180
Title Six: Marital Property Law
Chapter One: General Provisions
A. Ordinary property regime Art. 181
B. Marital agreement
I. Choice of regime Art. 182
II. Capacity to enter into an agreement Art. 183
III. Form of the agreement Art. 184
C. Extraordinary property regime
I. At the request of one spouse
1. By court order Art. 185
2. … Art. 186
3. Revocation Art. 187
II. In the event of bankruptcy or distraint
1. Bankruptcy Art. 188
2. Distraint
a. By court order Art. 189
b. Request Art. 190
3. Revocation Art. 191
III. Liquidation of the previous marital property regime Art. 192
D. Protection of creditors Art. 193
E. … Art. 194
F. Management of one spouse’s assets by the other Art. 195
G. Inventory Art. 195a
Chapter Two: Statutory Marital Property Regime of
Participation in Acquired Property
A. Ownership
I. Categories Art. 196
II. Acquired property Art. 197
III. Individual property
1. By operation of law Art. 198
2. By marital agreement Art. 199
IV. Proof Art. 200
B. Management, benefits and power of disposal Art. 201
C. Liability toward third parties Art. 202
D. Debts between spouses Art. 203
E. Dissolution of the property regime and liquidation
I. Time of dissolution Art. 204
II. Taking back property and settling debts
1. In general Art. 205
2. Participation in increased value Art. 206
III. Calculating the surplus for each spouse
1. Separation of acquired property and individual property Art. 207
2. Additions Art. 208
3. Compensation operations between acquired property and
individual property Art. 209
4. Surplus Art. 210
IV. Valuation
1. Market value Art. 211
2. Capitalised value
a. In general Art. 212
b. Special circumstances Art. 213
3. Defining juncture Art. 214
V. Participation in the surplus
1. By law Art. 215
2. By agreement
a. In general Art. 216
b. On divorce, separation, annulment of the marriage or
separation of property by court order Art. 217
VI. Payment of the participation claim and the share of the
increased value
1. Deferred payment Art. 218
2. Home and household effects Art. 219
3. Claims against third parties Art. 220
Chapter Three: Community of Property
A. Ownership
I. Categories Art. 221
II. Common property
1. General community of property Art. 222
2. Limited community of property
a. Community restricted to acquired property Art. 223
b. Further community of property regimes Art. 224
III. Individual property Art. 225
IV. Proof Art. 226
B. Management and power of disposal
I. Common property
1. Everyday housekeeping Art. 227
2. Extraordinary housekeeping Art. 228
3. Use of common property for professional or business
purposes Art. 229
4. Renunciation and acceptance of inheritances Art. 230
5. Liability and management costs Art. 231
II. Individual property Art. 232
C. Liability toward third parties
I. Full liability Art. 233
II. Individual liability Art. 234
D. Debts between spouses Art. 235
E. Dissolution of the property regime and liquidation
I. Time of dissolution Art. 236
II. Allocation to individual property Art. 237
III. Compensation operations between joint and individual
property Art. 238
IV. Participation in increased value Art. 239
V. Valuation Art. 240
VI. Division
1. On death or implementation of a different marital
property regime Art. 241
2. In other cases Art. 242
VII. Division of the property
1. Individual property Art. 243
2. Home and household effects Art. 244
3. Other assets Art. 245
4. Further provisions Art. 246
Chapter Four: Separation of Property
A. Management, benefits and power of disposal
I. In general Art. 247
II. Proof Art. 248
B. Liability toward third parties Art. 249
C. Debts between spouses Art. 250
D. Allocation of property in co-ownership Art. 251
Division Two: Kinship
Title Seven: Formation of the Parent-child Relationship
Chapter One: General Provisions
A. Formation of parent-child relationship in general Art. 252
B. … Art. 253
Repealed Art. 254
Chapter Two: Paternity of the Husband
A. Presumption Art. 255
B. Challenge
I. Right to challenge Art. 256
II. Grounds for challenge
1. In the case of conception in wedlock Art. 256a
2. In the case of conception before marriage or while
spouses were living apart Art. 256b
III. Time limits Art. 256c
C. Conflict of presumptions Art. 257
D. Challenge by the parents Art. 258
E. Marriage of the parents Art. 259
Chapter Three: Recognition and Court Declaration of
A. Recognition
I. Admissibility and form Art. 260
II. Challenge
1. Right to challenge Art. 260a
2. Grounds Art. 260b
3. Time limits Art. 260c
B. Action to determine paternity
I. Right to bring the action Art. 261
II. Presumption Art. 262
III. Time limits Art. 263
Chapter Four: Adoption
A. Adoption of minors
I. General requirements Art. 264
II. Joint adoption Art. 264a
III. Adoption by a single person Art. 264b
IV. Adoption of a stepchild Art. 264c
V. Difference in age Art. 264d
VI. Consent of the child and the child protection authority Art. 265
VII. Parents’ consent
1. Form Art. 265a
2. Time of consent Art. 265b
3. Dispensing with consent
a. Requirements Art. 265c
b. Decision Art. 265d
B. Adoption of an adult Art. 266
C. Effects
I. In general Art. 267
II. Name Art. 267a
III. Citizenship Art. 267b
D. Procedure
I. In general Art. 268
II. Investigation Art. 268a
III. Hearing for the child Art. 268abis
IV. Representation for the child Art. 268ater
V. Taking account of the attitude of family members Art. 268aquater
Dbis.Confidentiality of adoption information Art. 268b
Dter. Information on the adoption, the biological parents
and their issue Art. 268c
Dquater. Cantonal information centre and tracing services Art. 268d
Dquinquies. Contact with the biological parents Art. 268e
E. Challenge
I. Grounds
1. Lack of consent Art. 269
2. Other defects Art. 269a
II. Time limits Art. 269b
F. Adoption agency services Art. 269c
Title Eight: Effects of the Parent-Child Relationship
Section One: Community of Parents and Children
A. Family surname
I. Child of married parents Art. 270
II. Child of unmarried parents Art. 270a
III. Consent of the child Art. 270b
B. Citizenship Art. 271
C. Support and common welfare Art. 272
D. Contact
I. Parents and children
1. Principle Art. 273
2. Restrictions Art. 274
II. Third parties Art. 274a
III. Responsible authorities Art. 275
E. Right to information Art. 275a
Section Two: Parents’ Duty of Maintenance
A. General
I. Object and scope Art. 276
II. Precedence of maintenance for minors Art. 276a
B. Duration Art. 277
C. Married parents Art. 278
D. Court action
I. Right to sue Art. 279
II. and III. … Art. 280–284
IV. Amount of child maintenance contribution
1. Parents’ contribution Art. 285
2. Other payments for maintenance of the child Art. 285a
V. Change of circumstances
1. In general Art. 286
2. Shortfalls Art. 286a
E. Maintenance agreements
I. Regular payments Art. 287
II. Scope of a maintenance agreement Art. 287a
III. Final settlement Art. 288
F. Fulfilment
I. Entitlement Art. 289
II. Enforcement
1. Enforcement assistance Art. 290
2. Directions to debtors Art. 291
III. Security Art. 292
G. Public law Art. 293
H. Foster parents Art. 294
J. Rights of the unmarried mother Art. 295
Section Three: Parental Responsibility
A. Principles Art. 296
Abis. Death of a parent Art. 297
Ater. Divorce and other marital proceedings Art. 298
Aquater. Recognition and court declaration of paternity
I. Joint declaration by the parents Art. 298a
II. Decision of the child protection authority Art. 298b
III. Paternity action Art. 298c
IV. Change in circumstances Art. 298d
Aquinquies. Change in the situation after the adoption of a
stepchild in a cohabitation relationship Art. 298e
Asexies. Step-parents Art. 299
Asepties. Foster parents Art. 300
B. Scope
I. In general Art. 301
II. Deciding on the place of residence Art. 301a
III. Upbringing Art. 302
IV. Religious upbringing Art. 303
V. Representation
1. In relation to third parties
a. In general Art. 304
b. Child’s legal status Art. 305
2. Within the family community Art. 306
C. Child protection
I. Appropriate measures Art. 307
II. Deputyship Art. 308
Repealed Art. 309
III. Revocation of the right to decide on place of residence Art. 310
IV. Withdrawal of parental responsibility
1. Ex-officio Art. 311
2. With the parents’ consent Art. 312
V. Change in circumstances Art. 313
VI. Procedure
1. General Art. 314
2. Hearing for the child Art. 314a
3. Representation for the child Art. 314abis
4. Committal to a secure institution or psychiatric hospital Art. 314b
5. Right to notify Art. 314c
6. Duty to notify Art. 314d
7. Cooperation and administrative assistance Art. 314e
VII. Jurisdiction
1. In general Art. 315
2. In marital proceedings
a. Jurisdiction of the court Art. 315a
b. Amendment of court orders Art. 315b
VIII. Supervision of foster children Art. 316
IX. Cooperation in youth support Art. 317
Section Four: Property of the Child
A. Management Art. 318
B. Use of income Art. 319
C. Drawing on the child’s assets Art. 320
D. Freely disposable property of the child
I. Endowments Art. 321
II. Statutory entitlement Art. 322
III. Employment income, professional and business assets Art. 323
E. Protection of the child’s property
I. Appropriate measures Art. 324
II. Withdrawal of management Art. 325
F. End of asset management
I. Return of property Art. 326
II. Liability Art. 327
Section Five: Minors subject to Guardianship
A. Principle Art. 327a
B. Legal status
I. Of the child Art. 327b
II. Of the guardian Art. 327c
Title Nine: Family Community
Chapter One: Duty of Assistance
A. Persons obliged to lend assistance Art. 328
B. Scope and enforcement of the claim for assistance Art. 329
C. Maintenance of foundlings Art. 330
Chapter Two: Authority within the Household
A. Requirement Art. 331
B. Effect
I. House rules and welfare Art. 332
II. Liability Art. 333
III. Claims of children and grandchildren
1. Requirements Art. 334
2. Asserting claims Art. 334bis
Chapter Three: Family Property
A. Family foundations Art. 335
B. Ownership in undivided shares
I. Formation
1. Authority Art. 336
2. Form Art. 337
II. Duration Art. 338
III. Effect
1. Type of ownership Art. 339
2. Management and representation
a. In general Art. 340
b. Manager’s powers Art. 341
3. Common property and personal property Art. 342
IV. Dissolution
1. Grounds Art. 343
2. Notice, insolvency, marriage Art. 344
3. Death of a co-owner Art. 345
4. Division Art. 346
V. Revenue-generating co-ownership
1. Nature Art. 347
2. Special grounds for dissolution Art. 348
Repealed Art. 349–359
Division Three: The Protection of Adults
Title Ten: Own Arrangements for Care and Statutory
Section One: Own Arrangements for Care
Subsection One: The Advance Care Directive
A. Principle Art. 360
B. Execution and revocation
I. Execution Art. 361
II. Revocation Art. 362
C. Decision on effectiveness and acceptance Art. 363
D. Interpretation and clarification Art. 364
E. Fulfilment Art. 365
F. Remuneration and expenses Art. 366
G. Termination Art. 367
H. Intervention by the adult protection authority Art. 368
I. Regaining the capacity of judgement Art. 369
Subsection Two: The Patient Decree
A. Principle Art. 370
B. Execution and revocation Art. 371
C. Loss of capacity of judgement Art. 372
D. Intervention by the adult protection authority Art. 373
Section Two: Statutory Measures for Persons lacking
Capacity of Judgement
Sub-Section One: Representation by the Spouse or
Registered Partner
A. Requirements for and extent of the right to act as
representative Art. 374
B. Exercise of the right to act as representative Art. 375
C. Intervention by the adult protection authority Art. 376
Sub-Section Two: Representation in relation to Medical
A. Treatment plan Art. 377
B. The representative Art. 378
C. Urgent cases Art. 379
D. Treatment of a mental disorder Art. 380
E. Intervention by the adult protection authority Art. 381
Sub-Section Three: Stays in Residential or Care
A. Care agreement Art. 382
B. Restriction of freedom of movement
I. Requirements Art. 383
II. Records and Information Art. 384
III. Intervention by the adult protection authority Art. 385
C. Protection of privacy Art. 386
D. Supervision of residential and care institution Art. 387
Title Eleven: Official Measures
Section One: General Principles
A. Aim Art. 388
B. Subsidiarity and proportionality Art. 389
Section Two: The Deputyship
Sub-Section One: General Provisions
A. Requirements Art. 390
B. Scope of responsibilities Art. 391
C. Dispensing with a deputyship Art. 392
Sub-Section Two: Types of Deputyship
A. Assistance deputyship Art. 393
B. Representative deputyship
I. In general Art. 394
II. Asset management Art. 395
C. Advisory deputyship Art. 396
D. Combination of deputyships Art. 397
E. General deputyship Art. 398
Sub-Section Three: End of the Deputyship
Art. 399
Sub-Section Four: The Deputy
A. Appointment
I. General requirements Art. 400
II. Wishes of the client or his or her closely associated persons Art. 401
III. Appointment of two or more persons Art. 402
B. Incapacity and conflict of interests Art. 403
C. Remuneration and expenses Art. 404
Sub-Section Five: Deputyship Tasks
A. Assumption of office Art. 405
B. Relationship with the client Art. 406
C. Client’s autonomy Art. 407
D. Asset management
I. Tasks Art. 408
II. Personal allowance Art. 409
III. Accounts Art. 410
E. Reporting Art. 411
F. Special transactions Art. 412
G. Duties of care and confidentiality Art. 413
H. Amendment of conditions Art. 414
Sub-Section Six: Role of the Adult Protection Authority
A. Examination of accounts and report Art. 415
B. Transactions requiring consent
I. By law Art. 416
II. By order Art. 417
III. Lack of consent Art. 418
Sub-Section Seven: Intervention by the Adult Protection
Art. 419
Sub-Section Eight: Special Provisions for Family
Art. 420
Sub-Section Nine: Termination of the Office of Deputy
A. By law Art. 421
B. Discharge
I. At the deputy’s request Art. 422
II. Other cases Art. 423
C. Continuation of transactions Art. 424
D. Final report and final accounts Art. 425
Section Three: Care-Related Hospitalisation
A. The measures
I. Hospitalisation for treatment or care Art. 426
II. Detention of persons admitted voluntarily Art. 427
B. Responsibility for hospitalisation and discharge
I. Adult protection authority Art. 428
II. Doctors
1. Responsibility Art. 429
2. Procedures Art. 430
C. Regular review Art. 431
D. Authorised representative Art. 432
E. Medical measures in the case of a mental disorder
I. Treatment plan Art. 433
II. Treatment without consent Art. 434
III. Emergencies Art. 435
IV. Pre-discharge interview Art. 436
V. Cantonal law Art. 437
F. Measures restricting freedom of movement Art. 438
G. Petition to the court Art. 439
Title Twelve: Organisation
Section One: Authorities and Local Jurisdiction
A. Adult protection authority Art. 440
B. Supervisory authority Art. 441
C. Local jurisdiction Art. 442
Section Two: Procedure
Sub-section One: Before the Adult Protection Authority
A. Notification rights and obligations Art. 443
B. Verification of jurisdiction Art. 444
C. Precautionary measures Art. 445
D. Procedural principles Art. 446
E. Hearing Art. 447
F. Obligations to cooperate and administrative assistance Art. 448
G. Assessment in an institution Art. 449
H. Appointment of a representative Art. 449a
I. Inspection of files Art. 449b
J. Notification duty Art. 449c
Sub-section Two: Before the Appellate Authority
A. Object and right of appeal Art. 450
B. Grounds of appeal Art. 450a
C. Deadline for filing the appeal Art. 450b
D. Suspensive effect Art. 450c
E. Consultation with the lower instance and
reconsideration Art. 450d
F. Special provisions in the case of care-related
hospitalisation Art. 450e
Sub-Section Three: Joint Provision
Art. 450f
Sub-Section Four: Enforcement
Art. 450g
Section Three: Relationship with Third parties and
Duty of Cooperation
A. Duty of confidentiality and information Art. 451
B. Effect of the measures on third parties Art. 452
C. Duty of cooperation Art. 453
Section Four: Accountability
A. Principle Art. 454
B. Limitation periods Art. 455
C. Liability under agency law Art. 456
Part Three: Law of Succession
Division One: Heirs
Title Thirteen: Statutory Heirs
A. Related heirs
I. Issue Art. 457
II. Parental line Art. 458
III. Grandparental line Art. 459
IV. Scope of succession rights Art. 460
Art. 461
B. Surviving spouses and registered partners Art. 462
Repealed Art. 463–464
C… Art. 465
D. State authority Art. 466
Title Fourteen: Testamentary Dispositions
Section One: Testamentary Capacity
A. Wills Art. 467
B. Contract of succession Art. 468
C. Voidable dispositions Art. 469
Section Two: Testamentary Freedom
A. Disposable part
I. Scope of testamentary powers Art. 470
II. Statutory entitlement Art. 471
III. … Art. 472
IV. Dispositions in favour of the spouse Art. 473
V. Calculation of the disposable part
1. Deduction of debts Art. 474
2. Inter vivos gifts Art. 475
3. Insurance claims Art. 476
B. Disinheritance
I. Grounds Art. 477
II. Effect Art. 478
III. Burden of proof Art. 479
IV. Disinheritance of an insolvent person Art. 480
Section Three: Types of Disposition
A. In general Art. 481
B. Burdens and conditions Art. 482
C. Naming of heirs Art. 483
D. Legacy
I. Nature Art. 484
II. Duty on the obligor of the legacy Art. 485
III. Relationship to the estate Art. 486
E. Substitution Art. 487
F. Remaindermen
I. Designation of a remainderman Art. 488
II. Time of delivery Art. 489
III. Security Art. 490
IV. Legal status
1. Of the provisional heir Art. 491
2. Of the remainderman Art. 492
V. Issue lacking capacity of judgement Art. 492a
G. Foundations Art. 493
H. Contracts of succession
I. Contracts naming heirs and making legacies Art. 494
II. Renunciation of inheritance
1. Significance Art. 495
2. Void renunciation Art. 496
3. Rights of the creditors of the estate Art. 497
Section Four: Formal Requirements of Testamentary
A. Wills
I. Drawing up a will
1. In general Art. 498
2. By public deed
a. Formal requirements Art. 499
b. Role of the public official Art. 500
c. Role of the witnesses Art. 501
d. Drawing up a will without the testator reading
and signing it Art. 502
e. Persons involved Art. 503
f. Safekeeping of wills Art. 504
3. Holographic will Art. 505
4. Oral will
a. Dispositions Art. 506
b. Conversion into deed Art. 507
c. Loss of validity Art. 508
II. Revocation and destruction
1. Revocation Art. 509
2. Destruction Art. 510
3. Subsequent wills Art. 511
B. Contracts of succession
I. Execution Art. 512
II. Revocation
1. Inter vivos
a. By contract and by will Art. 513
b. By withdrawal from the contract Art. 514
2. Predeceased heir Art. 515
C. Restriction of testamentary freedom Art. 516
Section Five: Executors
A. Appointment of executors Art. 517
B. Function of an executor Art. 518
Section Six: Declaration of Invalidity and Abatement of
A. Action for declaration of invalidity
I. On grounds of lack of testamentary capacity, lack of free
will, unlawfulness or immorality Art. 519
II. On grounds of formal defect
1. In general Art. 520
2. In holographic wills Art. 520a
III. Time limits Art. 521
B. Action in abatement
I. Requirements
1. In general Art. 522
2. Bequests in favour of heirs with a statutory entitlement Art. 523
3. Rights of creditors Art. 524
II. Effect
1. Of abatement in general Art. 525
2. On specific legacies Art. 526
3. On dispositions inter vivos
a. Cases Art. 527
b. Restitution Art. 528
4. On assurance claims Art. 529
5. On usufruct and annuities Art. 530
6. On naming of remaindermen Art. 531
III. Order of abatement Art. 532
IV. Prescription Art. 533
Section Seven: Claims under Contracts of Succession
A. Claims in respect of lifetime transfers Art. 534
B. Hotchpot in the case of renunciation of inheritance
I. Abatement Art. 535
II. Reimbursement Art. 536
Division Two: Succession
Title Fifteen: Commencement of Succession
A. Requirements for the deceased Art. 537
B. Place where succession commences Art. 538
C. Requirements for the heirs
I. Capacity
1. Legal capacity Art. 539
2. Unworthiness to inherit
a. Grounds Art. 540
b. Effect on issue Art. 541
II. Capacity to inherit on succession
1. As heir Art. 542
2. As legatee Art. 543
3. Unborn child Art. 544
4. Remaindermen Art. 545
D. Presumption of death
I. Inheriting from persons presumed dead
1. Devolution against security Art. 546
2. Annulment of presumption of death and restitution Art. 547
II. Succession rights of persons presumed dead Art. 548
III. Correlation of the two cases Art. 549
IV. Procedure ex officio Art. 550
Title Sixteen: Effect of Succession
Chapter One: Measures to Safeguard Succession
A. In general Art. 551
B. Sealing the estate Art. 552
C. Inventory Art. 553
D. Estate administrators
I. In general Art. 554
II. In the case of unknown heirs Art. 555
E. Probate proceedings
I. Duty to submit the will Art. 556
II. Reading the will Art. 557
III. Notification of interested parties Art. 558
IV. Release of the estate Art. 559
Chapter Two: Vesting of the Estate
A. Vesting
I. Heirs Art. 560
II. … Art. 561
III. Legatees
1. Vesting Art. 562
2. Object Art. 563
3. Relationship between creditors and legatees Art. 564
4. Abatement Art. 565
B. Disclaimer
I. Declaration
1. Right to renounce Art. 566
2. Time limit
a. In general Art. 567
b. In the case of an inventory Art. 568
3. Passing of right to disclaim Art. 569
4. Form Art. 570
II. Forfeiture of right to disclaim Art. 571
III. Disclaimer by one co-heir Art. 572
IV. Disclaimer by all the nearest heirs
1. In general Art. 573
2. Entitlement of surviving spouse Art. 574
3. Disclaimer in favour of subsequent heirs Art. 575
V. Extension of time limit Art. 576
VI. Disclaimer of a legacy Art. 577
VII. Security for the heir’s creditors Art. 578
VIII. Liability in the event of disclaimer Art. 579
Chapter Three: Public Inventory
A. Requirements Art. 580
B. Procedure
I. Inventory Art. 581
II. Formal call to account Art. 582
III. Inclusion ex officio Art. 583
IV. Result Art. 584
C. Situation of the heirs during the inventory
I. Administration Art. 585
II. Debt enforcement, litigation, time limit Art. 586
D. Effect
I. Time limit for declaration of intention Art. 587
II. Declaration of intention Art. 588
III. Effects of acceptance subject to public inventory
1. Liability as per inventory Art. 589
2. Liability beyond the inventory Art. 590
E. Liability for debts subject to a surety Art. 591
F. Acquisition by a state authority Art. 592
Chapter Four: Official Liquidation
A. Requirements
I. At the request of an heir Art. 593
II. At the request of the deceased’s creditors Art. 594
B. Procedure
I. Administration Art. 595
II. Ordinary
liquidation Art. 596
III. Liquidation by the bankruptcy office Art. 597
Chapter Five: Action for Recovery of Inheritance
A. Requirements Art. 598
B. Effect Art. 599
C. Time limit Art. 600
D. Action by a legatee Art. 601
Title Seventeen: Division of the Estate
Chapter One: Community of Heirs prior to Division
A. Effect of succession
I. Community of heirs Art. 602
II. Liability of the heirs Art. 603
B. Right to division Art. 604
C. Deferral of division Art. 605
D. Claims of household members Art. 606
Chapter Two: Method of Division
A. In general Art. 607
B. Instructions concerning the division
I. Testamentary disposition Art. 608
II. Assistance from the authorities Art. 609
C. Performing the division
I. Equal rights of heirs Art. 610
II. Formation of lots Art. 611
III. Allocation and sale of specific objects Art. 612
IV. Allocation of the home and household effects to the
surviving spouse Art. 612a
D. Special items
I. Items that belong together, family documents Art. 613
I.bis Agricultural inventory Art. 613a
II. Claims of the deceased against his or her heirs Art. 614
III. Pledged estate property Art. 615
Repealed Art. 616
IV. Land
1. Method of allocation
a. Imputed value Art. 617
b. Valuation procedure Art. 618
V. Agricultural businesses and land Art. 619
Repealed Art. 620–625
Chapter Three: Hotchpot
A. Hotchpot duty of the heirs Art. 626
B. Hotchpot if heirs cease to be heirs Art. 627
C. Calculation method
I. In kind or by imputation of value Art. 628
II. Correlation with share of the estate Art. 629
III. Hotchpot value Art. 630
D. Education costs Art. 631
E. Occasional gifts Art. 632
Repealed Art. 633
Chapter Four: Completion and Effect of Division
A. Agreement
I. Contract of division Art. 634
II. Contracts regarding shares of the estate Art. 635
III. Contracts prior to succession Art. 636
B. Liability among co-heirs
I. Warranty Art. 637
II. Challenging the division Art. 638
C. Liability toward third parties
I. Joint and several liability Art. 639
II. Recourse against co-heirs Art. 640
Part Four: Property Law
Division One: Ownership
Title Eighteen: General Provisions
A. Nature of ownership
I. In general Art. 641
II. Animals Art. 641a
B. Scope of ownership
I. Constituent parts Art. 642
II. Natural fruits Art. 643
III. Accessories
1. Definition Art. 644
2. Exclusions Art. 645
C. Collective ownership
I. Co-ownership
1. Relationship among co-owners Art. 646
2. Use and administration rules Art. 647
3. Ordinary administration Art. 647a
4. Major administrative acts Art. 647b
5. Construction work
a. Necessary work Art. 647c
b. Useful work Art. 647d
c. Works to improve appearance or convenience Art. 647e
6. Power of disposal over the object Art. 648
7. Costs and expenses Art. 649
8. Binding nature of rules and noting in the land register Art. 649a
9. Exclusion from collective ownership
a. Co-owners Art. 649b
b. Further entitled persons Art. 649c
10. Dissolution
a. Right to request division Art. 650
b. Form of partition Art. 651
c. Animals kept as pets Art. 651a
II. Joint ownership
1. Prerequisites Art. 652
2. Effect Art. 653
3. Dissolution Art. 654
III. Joint ownership of agricultural enterprises and land Art. 654a
Title Nineteen: Land Ownership
Chapter One: Object, Acquisition and Loss of Land
A. Subject matter
I. Immovable property Art. 655
II. Dependent property Art. 655a
B. Acquisition
I. Registration Art. 656
II. Types of acquisition
1. Transfer Art. 657
2. Appropriation Art. 658
3. Formation of new land Art. 659
4. Ground displacement
a. In general Art. 660
b. Constant ground displacement Art. 660a
c. Redrawing of boundaries Art. 660b
5. Adverse possession
a. Ordinary adverse possession Art. 661
b. Extraordinary adverse possession Art. 662
c. Time limits Art. 663
6. Ownerless and public objects Art. 664
III. Right to registration Art. 665
C. Loss Art. 666
D. Judicial measures
I. Where the owner cannot be found Art. 666a
II. In the absence of the required management bodies Art. 666b
Chapter Two: Substance and Limitation of Land
A. Substance
I. Scope Art. 667
II. Boundaries
1. Type of boundary Art. 668
2. Duty to establish boundaries Art. 669
3. Co-ownership of boundary markers Art. 670
III. Buildings on the parcel of land
1. Land and building materials
a. Ownership Art. 671
b. Compensation Art. 672
c. Assignment of land ownership Art. 673
2. Encroaching buildings Art. 674
3. Building right Art. 675
4. Pipes, cables, conduits Art. 676
5. Movable structures Art. 677
IV. Plants grown on the parcel of land Art. 678
V. Landowner’s liability
1. Acts in excess of ownership rights Art. 679
2. Lawful management of the land Art. 679a
B. Limitations
I. In general Art. 680
II. Restrictions on alienation; statutory right of pre-emption
1. General principles Art. 681
2. Exercise Art. 681a
3. Modification, waiver Art. 681b
4. In respect of co-ownership and building rights Art. 682
5. Right of pre-emption of farms and farmland Art. 682a
Repealed Art. 683
III. Law of neighbours
1. Excess detriment Art. 684
2. Excavation and construction
a. Rule Art. 685
b. Cantonal regulations Art. 686
3. Plants
a. Rule Art. 687
b. Cantonal regulations Art. 688
4. Flowing waters Art. 689
5. Drainage Art. 690
6. Pipes, cables, conduits
a. Duty to permit Art. 691
b. Safeguarding the interests of the servient landowner Art. 692
c. Change of circumstances Art. 693
7. Rights of way
a. Necessary right of way Art. 694
b. Other rights of way Art. 695
c. Notation in the land register Art. 696
8. Enclosure Art. 697
9. Duty to maintain Art. 698
IV. Right of access and to ward off danger
1. Access Art. 699
2. Retrieval of driftage and the like Art. 700
3. Trespass to ward off danger or damage Art. 701
V. Public law restrictions on ownership
1. In general Art. 702
2. Land improvements Art. 703
C. Rights to springs and wells
I. Spring ownership and spring rights Art. 704
II. Diversion of springs Art. 705
III. Cutting off springs
1. Damages Art. 706
2. Restoration Art. 707
IV. Community of spring owners Art. 708
V. Use of springs Art. 709
VI. Right to use an essential water source Art. 710
VII. Duty to cede
1. Water sources Art. 711
2. Land Art. 712
Chapter Three: Condominium
A. Definition and object
I. Definition Art. 712a
II. Object Art. 712b
III. Power of disposal Art. 712c
B. Creation and extinction
I. Deed of constitution Art. 712d
II. Layout of the condominium units and shares in the property Art. 712e
III. Extinction Art. 712f
C. Administration and use
I. Applicable provisions Art. 712g
II. Communal charges and costs
1. Definition and distribution Art. 712h
2. Liability for cost contributions
a. Statutory lien Art. 712i
b. Special lien Art. 712k
III. Community’s capacity to act Art. 712l
D. Organisation
I. Assembly of condominium owners
1. Competence and legal status Art. 712m
2. Convening and chairing meetings Art. 712n
3. Voting rights Art. 712o
4. Quorum Art. 712p
II. Administrator
1. Appointment Art. 712q
2. Removal Art. 712r
3. Duties
a. Implementation of provisions and resolutions concerning
administration and use Art. 712s
b. External representation Art. 712t
Title Twenty: Chattel Ownership
A. Object Art. 713
B. Forms of acquisition
I. Transfer
1. Delivery of possession Art. 714
2. Reservation of ownership
a. In general Art. 715
b. Transactions involving payment by instalments Art. 716
3. Acquisition without possession Art. 717
II. Appropriation
1. Ownerless chattels Art. 718
2. Escaped animals Art. 719
III. Found property
1. Reporting, tracing
a. In general Art. 720
b. Animals Art. 720a
2. Safekeeping and auction Art. 721
3. Acquisition of ownership, return Art. 722
4. Treasure trove Art. 723
5. Objects of scientific value Art. 724
IV. Driftage Art. 725
V. Processing Art. 726
VI. Joining and mixing chattels Art. 727
VII. Adverse possession Art. 728
C. Loss Art. 729
Division Two: Limited Rights in rem
Title Twenty-One: Easements and Real Burdens
Chapter One: Easements
A. Object Art. 730
B. Creation and extinction
I. Creation
1. Registration Art. 731
2. Legal transaction Art. 732
3. Creation in favour of own property Art. 733
II. Extinction
1. In general Art. 734
2. Amalgamation Art. 735
3. By court order Art. 736
C. Nature
I. Scope
1. In general Art. 737
2. As defined by land register entry Art. 738
3. If needs change Art. 739
4. Cantonal law and local custom Art. 740
5. In the case of two or more beneficiaries Art. 740a
II. Duty of maintenance Art. 741
III. Relocation of the encumbrance Art. 742
IV. Partition of a property Art. 743
Repealed Art. 744
Chapter Two: Usufruct and other Personal Servitudes
A. Usufruct
I. Object Art. 745
II. Establishment
1. In general Art. 746
2. … Art. 747
III. Extinction
1. Grounds Art. 748
2. Duration Art. 749
3. Replacement on extinction of usufruct Art. 750
4. Return
a. Duty Art. 751
b. Liability Art. 752
c. Costs Art. 753
5. Limitation of compensation rights Art. 754
IV. Scope
1. Rights of the usufructuary
a. In general Art. 755
b. Natural fruits Art. 756
c. Interest Art. 757
d. Assignability Art. 758
2. Rights of the owner
a. Supervision Art. 759
b. Security Art. 760
c. Security in the case of gifts and statutory usufruct Art. 761
d. Consequence of failure to provide security Art. 762
3. Inventory Art. 763
4. Costs
a. Preservation of the object Art. 764
b. Maintenance and administration Art. 765
c. Duty to pay interest on usufruct of assets Art. 766
d. Insurance Art. 767
V. Special cases
1. Land
a. Fruits Art. 768
b. Use Art. 769
c. Woodland Art. 770
d. Mines Art. 771
2. Consumables and valued chattels Art. 772
3. Claims
a. Scope Art. 773
b. Repayments and reinvestment Art. 774
c. Right to assignment Art. 775
B. Right of residence
I. In general Art. 776
II. Rights of the usufructuary Art. 777
III. Maintenance costs Art. 778
C. Building right
I. Object and entry in the land register Art. 779
II. Legal transaction Art. 779a
III. Nature, scope and noting Art. 779b
IV. Consequences of expiry
1. Reversion Art. 779c
2. Compensation Art. 779d
Repealed Art. 779e
V. Premature reversion
1. Prerequisites Art. 779f
2. Exercising the right of reversion Art. 779g
3. Other applicable cases Art. 779h
VI. Liability for remuneration for the right
1. Right to establish a lien Art. 779i
2. Registration Art. 779k
VII. Maximum duration Art. 779l
D. Right of access to water sources Art. 780
E. Other servitudes Art. 781
F. Judicial measures Art. 781a
Chapter Three: Real Burdens
A. Object Art. 782
B. Establishment and extinction
I. Establishment
1. Registration and form of acquisition Art. 783
2. Public law real burdens Art. 784
Repealed Art. 785
II. Extinction
1. In general Art. 786
2. Redemption
a. By the creditor Art. 787
b. By the debtor Art. 788
c. Redemption sum Art. 789
3. Prescription Art. 790
C. Scope
I. Creditor’s rights Art. 791
II. Debt liability Art. 792
Title Twenty-Two: Mortgages
Chapter One: General Provisions
A. Requirements
I. Types Art. 793
II. Form of the debt
1. Amount Art. 794
2. Interest Art. 795
III. Immovable property
1. Property subject to a charge Art. 796
2. Specification
a. In the case of a single property Art. 797
b. In the case of more than one property Art. 798
3. Agricultural properties Art. 798a
B. Creation and extinction
I. Creation
1. Registration Art. 799
2. In the case of joint ownership Art. 800
II. Extinction Art. 801
III. Charges on consolidated land
1. Transfer of liens Art. 802
2. Redemption by the debtor Art. 803
3. Monetary compensation Art. 804
C. Effect
I. Extent of security Art. 805
II. Rent Art. 806
III. Prescription Art. 807
IV. Safeguarding powers
1. In the event of a reduction in value
a. Court order and action by the creditor Art. 808
b. Security, restoration, redemption Art. 809
2. Depreciation without owner’s fault Art. 810
3. Disposal of minor portions of the property Art. 811
V. Further encumbrances Art. 812
VI. Rank
1. Effect of rank Art. 813
2. Ranking Art. 814
3. Vacant ranks Art. 815
VII. Foreclosure
1. Mode Art. 816
2. Distribution of the proceeds Art. 817
3. Extent of security Art. 818
4. Security for maintenance costs Art. 819
VIII. Lien in the case of land improvements
1. Precedence Art. 820
2. Extinction of debt and lien Art. 821
IX. Entitlement to insurers’ payments Art. 822
X. Untraceable creditor Art. 823
Chapter Two: The Mortgage Contract
A. Purpose and nature Art. 824
B. Establishment and extinction
I. Establishment Art. 825
II. Extinction
1. Right to have entry deleted Art. 826
2. Position of owner Art. 827
3. Unilateral redemption
a. Conditions and procedure Art. 828
b. Public auction Art. 829
c. Official valuation Art. 830
4. Termination Art. 831
C. Effect
I. Ownership and liability
1. Alienation Art. 832
2. Division Art. 833
3. Notice of assumption of debt Art. 834
II. Assignment of a debt Art. 835
D. Statutory mortgage right
I. Under cantonal law Art. 836
II. With entry
1. Cases in point Art. 837
2. Vendor, co-heirs and co-owners Art. 838
3. Tradesmen and building contractors
a. Registration Art. 839
b. Rank Art. 840
c. Privileged claim Art. 841
Chapter Three: Mortgage Certificates
A. Mortgage certificate
I. Purpose; Relationship with the debt arising from the basic
relationship Art. 842
II. Form Art. 843
III. Position of owner Art. 844
IV. Sale. Division Art. 845
V. Mortgage certificate debt and ancillary agreements
1. In general Art. 846
2. Notice Art. 847
VI. Protection of persons acting in good faith Art. 848
VII. Objections by the debtor Art. 849
VIII. Authorised person Art. 850
IX. Place of payment Art. 851
X. Changes in the legal relationship Art. 852
XI. Discharge Art. 853
XII. Extinction
1. In the absence of a creditor Art. 854
2. Deletion Art. 855
XIII. Public call to creditors Art. 856
B. Register mortgage certificate
I. Establishment Art. 857
II. Transfer Art. 858
III. Pledging, distraint and usufruct Art. 859
C. Mortgage certificate on paper
I. Creation
1. Registration Art. 860
2. Document of title Art. 861
II. Protection of persons acting in good faith Art. 862
III. Creditor’s rights
1. Claims Art. 863
2. Assignment Art. 864
IV. Cancellation Art. 865
Repealed Art. 866–874
Chapter Four: Issue of Bonds secured by a Mortgage
A. Bond issues secured by a lien Art. 875
Repealed Art. 876–883
Title Twenty-Three: Charges on Chattels
Chapter One: Pledges of Chattels and Special Liens
A. Pledges
I. Establishment
1. Possession by pledgee Art. 884
2. Pledge of livestock Art. 885
3. Subordinate pledge Art. 886
4. Further pledge by pledgee Art. 887
II. Extinction
1. Loss of possession Art. 888
2. Return Art. 889
3. Liability of the pledgee Art. 890
III. Effect
1. Rights of the pledgee Art. 891
2. Scope of the general lien Art. 892
3. Rank Art. 893
4. Default agreements Art. 894
B. Special lien
I. Requirements Art. 895
II. Exceptions Art. 896
III. In the event of insolvency Art. 897
IV. Effect Art. 898
Chapter Two: Liens on Debts and Other Rights
A. In general Art. 899
B. Establishment
I. In the case of ordinary claims Art. 900
II. In the case of securities Art. 901
III. In the case of documents of title to goods Art. 902
IV. Subordinate pledge Art. 903
C. Effect
I. Extent of security Art. 904
II. Representation of pledged shares and capital contributions
to limited liability companies Art. 905
III. Administration and payment Art. 906
Chapter Three: Pawnbroking
A. Pawnbrokers
I. Licensing Art. 907
II. Duration of licence Art. 908
B. Pawning
I. Establishment Art. 909
II. Effect
1. Sale of pawned chattel Art. 910
2. Right to surplus Art. 911
III. Redemption of the pawned chattel
1. Right of redemption Art. 912
2. Pawnbroker’s rights Art. 913
C. Purchase with right of repurchase Art. 914
D. Rules governing pawnbroking Art. 915
Chapter Four: … Art. 916–918
Division Three: Possession and the Land Register
Title Twenty-Four: Possession
A. Definition and types
I. Definition Art. 919
II. Direct and derivative possession Art. 920
III. Temporary interruption Art. 921
B. Transfer
I. Among parties present in person Art. 922
II. Among absent persons Art. 923
III. Without physical transfer Art. 924
IV. In the case of documents of title to goods Art. 925
C. Legal remedies
I. Protection of possession
1. Defence against interference Art. 926
2. Action for restitution Art. 927
3. Action for trespass Art. 928
4. Admissibility and prescription Art. 929
II. Remedies
1. Presumption of ownership Art. 930
2. Presumption of indirect ownership Art. 931
3. Action against the possessor Art. 932
4. Power of disposal and right of restitution
a. Entrusted objects Art. 933
b. Stolen or lost chattels Art. 934
c. Cash and bearer securities Art. 935
d. Bad faith Art. 936
5. Presumption of title to land Art. 937
III. Liability
1. Possessor in good faith
a. Use Art. 938
b. Indemnity Art. 939
2. Possession in bad faith Art. 940
IV. Adverse possession Art. 941
Titel Twenty-Five: The Land Register
A. Organisation
I. Constituent parts
1. In general Art. 942
2. Registered data
a. Object Art. 943
b. Exceptions Art. 944
3. Registers
a. Main Register Art. 945
b. Folio Art. 946
c. Joint folio Art. 947
d. Journal, supporting documents Art. 948
4. Implementing ordinances
a. In general Art. 949
b. For electronic registers Art. 949a
4b. … Art. 949b
4c. … Art. 949c
4c. Commissioning private individuals to use the electronic
version of the land register Art. 949d
5. Official cadastral survey Art. 950
II. Keeping the register
1. Districts
a. Allocation to districts Art. 951
b. Land straddling more than one district Art. 952
2. Land registries Art. 953
3. Fees Art. 954
III. Liability Art. 955
IV. Administrative supervision Art. 956
V. Legal protection
1. Right of appeal Art. 956a
2. Appeal proceedings Art. 956b
Repealed Art. 957
B. Registration
I. Land register entries
1. Ownership and rights in rem Art. 958
2. Priority notices
a. Personal rights Art. 959
b. Restrictions on powers of disposal Art. 960
c. Provisional entries Art. 961
d. Entry of subordinate rights Art. 961a
II. Noting
1. Restrictions under public law Art. 962
2. Of representatives Art. 962a
III. Requirements for entry
1. Applications
a. For an entry Art. 963
b. For a deletion Art. 964
2. Authority
a. Valid proof of authority Art. 965
b. Completion of application Art. 966
IV. Manner of entry
1. In general Art. 967
2. For easements Art. 968
V. Duty to notify Art. 969
C. Public nature of land register
I. Information and right of consultation Art. 970
II. Publication Art. 970a
D. Effect
I. Need for an entry Art. 971
II. Effect of entry
1. In general Art. 972
2. In relation to third parties acting in good faith Art. 973
3. In relation to third parties acting in bad faith Art. 974
E. Deletion and amendment of entries
I. Revision
1. On the division of property Art. 974a
2. In the case of the consolidation of parcels of land Art. 974b
II. Unwarranted entries Art. 975
III. Simplified deletion
1. Clearly insignificant entries Art. 976
2. Other entries
a. In general Art. 976a
b. On objection Art. 976b
3. Public revision procedure Art. 976c
IV. Corrections Art. 977
Final Title: Commencement and Implementing
Chapter One: Application of Former and New Law
A. General provisions
I. General rule of non-retroactive effect Art. 1
II. Retroactive effect
1. Public policy and good morals Art. 2
2. Relationships defined by law Art. 3
3. Non-vested rights Art. 4
B. Law of persons
I. Capacity to act Art. 5
II. Presumed death Art. 6
IIa. Central civil register database Art. 6a
III. Legal entities
1. In general Art. 6b
2. Accounting and auditors Art. 6c
C. Family law
I. Marriage Art. 7
Ibis. Divorce
1. Principle Art. 7a
2. Pending divorce proceedings Art. 7b
3. Period of separation for pending divorce proceedings Art. 7c
4. Occupational pension Art. 7d
5. Conversion of existing pensions Art. 7e
Iter. Effects the marriage in general
1. Principle Art. 8
2. Surname Art. 8a
3. Citizenship Art. 8b
II. Marital property law applicable to marriages contracted
before 1 January 1912 Art. 9
IIbis. Marital property law applicable to marriages contracted
after 1 January 1912
1. In general Art. 9a
2. Change from a union of property to participation in
acquired property
a. Change to the bodies of assets Art. 9b
b. Preferential right Art. 9c
c. Division of marital property under the new law Art. 9d
3. Retention of the union of property regime Art. 9e
4. Retention of separation of property by operation of law or
by court order Art. 9f
5. Marital agreement
a. In general Art. 10
b. Legal effect in relation to third parties Art. 10a
c. Application of the new law Art. 10b
d. Contractual separation of property according to previous
law Art. 10c
e. Marital agreements concluded with a view to the new law
coming into force Art. 10d
f. Register of marital property Art. 10e
6. Repayment of debts in the case of separation of assets
under the law of marital property Art. 11
7. Protection of creditors Art. 11a
III. The parent-child relationship in general Art. 12
IIIbis. Adoption
1. Continuation of the previous law Art. 12a
2. Pending proceedings Art. 12b
3. Application of the new law Art. 12c
Repealed Art. 12cbis
IIIter.Contesting a declaration of legitimacy Art. 12d
IV. Paternity actions
1. Pending actions Art. 13
2. New actions Art. 13a
IVbis. Time limit for declaring or challenging the parent-child
relationship Art. 13b
IVter. Maintenance contributions
1. Existing maintenance titles
2. Pending proceedings Art. 13c
IV quater. Name of the child Art. 13d
V. Adult protection
1. Existing measures Art. 14
2. Pending proceedings Art. 14a
D. Succession law
I. Heirs and succession Art. 15
II. Testamentary dispositions Art. 16
E. Property law
I. Rights in rem in general Art. 17
II. Right to entry in the land register Art. 18
III. Adverse possession Art. 19
IV. Special rights of ownership
1. Trees on another person’s land Art. 20
2. Condominium
a. Original Art. 20bis
b. Converted Art. 20ter
c. Correction of the land registers Art. 20quater
V. Easements Art. 21
VI. Mortgage rights
1. Recognition of the existing document of title Art. 22
2. Creation of liens Art. 23
3. Repayment of securities Art. 24
4. Extent of liability under the lien Art. 25
5. Rights and obligations from the mortgage
a. In general Art. 26
b. Rights to security Art. 27
c. Termination, transfer Art. 28
6. Ranking Art. 29
7. Ranking positions Art. 30
8. … Art. 31 and 32
9. Equal status of previous forms of lien with those under
the new law Art. 33
10. Continued application of previous law to existing forms
of lien Art. 33a
11. Conversion the form of the mortgage certificate Art. 33b
VII. Charges on chattels
1. Provisions on form Art. 34
2. Effect Art. 35
VIII. Special lien Art. 36
IX. Possession Art. 37
X. Land register
1. Establishment of the land register Art. 38
2. Official cadastral survey
a. … Art. 39
b. Relation to the land register Art. 40
c. Time schedule Art. 41
Repealed Art. 42
3. Registration of rights in rem
a. Procedure Art. 43
b. Consequences of non-registration Art. 44
4. Abolished rights Art. 45
5. Postponement in the introduction of the land register Art. 46
6. Introduction of the property law before the land register Art. 47
7. Effect of cantonal forms Art. 48
F. Prescription Art. 49
G. Forms of contract Art. 50
Chapter Two: Introductory and Transitional Provisions
A. Repeal of cantonal civil law Art. 51
B. Supplementary cantonal provisions
I. Rights and duties of the cantons Art. 52
II. Substitute ordinances Art. 53
C. Designation of competent authorities Art. 54
D. Public deeds
I. In general Art. 55
II. Electronic copies and legalisations Art. 55a
E. Allocation of water rights Art. 56
F.–H. … Art. 57
J. Debt enforcement and bankruptcy Art. 58
K. Application of Swiss and foreign law Art. 59
L. Repeal of federal civil law Art. 60
M. Final Provision Art. 61

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Swiss Civil Code

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