The concept of separation of powers is a well-known fundamental political maxim which many modern democracies have adopted. Our Constitution has not strictly adhered to that doctrine but it does provide for distribution of powers to ensure that one organ of the government does not trench on the constitutional powers of other organs. This is evident from Part V and Part VI of the Constitution. There is and can be no dispute that the distribution of powers concept assumes the existence of a judicial system free from external as well as internal pressures. Under our constitutional scheme, the judiciary has been assigned the onerous task of safeguarding the fundamental rights of our citizens and of upholding the rule of law. Since the Courts are entrusted the duty to uphold the Constitution and the laws, it very often comes in conflict with the State when it tries to enforce its orders by exacting obedience from recalcitrant or indifferent State agencies.
Therefore, the need for an independent and impartial judiciary manned by persons of sterling quality and character, undaunting courage and determination and resolute impartiality and independence who would dispense justice without fear or favour, ill-will or affection. justice without fear or favour, ill-will or affection, is the cardinal creed of our Constitution and a solemn assurance of every Judge to the people of this great country. There can be no two opinions at the Bar that an independent and impartial judiciary is the most essential characteristic of a free society. Even though on the question that our judiciary should be independent of the executive and the legislature there is no divergence of views at the Bar, there was some difference of opinion on the actual content of the concept. Hence a brief look into the historical background of the development of this concept in our country[Supreme Court Advocates-on-Record Association and another Vs Union of India AIR 1994 SC 268]