Development of Islamic Theological Jurisprudence

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE

All Hijri Calender 

11 M.d.; Abu Bakr Kh.

13 ‘Umar Kh.

14 Battle of al-Qadisiya; fall of Jerusalem; al-Basra founded; fall of Damascus.

17 Al-Kufa founded; Syria and Mesopotamia conquered.

20 Conquest of Egypt.

21 Battle of Nahawand; Persia conquered.

23 ‘Uthman Kh.

30 Final redaction of the Qur’an.

35 ‘Ali Kh.

36 Battle of Carmel.

40 ‘Ali d.

41 Mu‘awiya I. Kh.; Herat.

49 Al-Hasan d.

56 Samarqand.

60 Schism of Ibadites from Kharijites.

61 Karbala & d. of al-Husayn.

73 Storm of Mecca & d. of ‘Abd Allah b. az-Zubayr.

74 Carthage.

80 Ma‘bad executed.

81 M. b. al-Hanafiya d.

93 Toledo.

99-101 ‘Umar II. Kh.

110 Hasan al-Basri d.

114 Charles the Hammer at Tours (a.d. 732).

121 Zayd b. Zayn al-‘Abidin d.

124 Az-Zuhri d.

127-132 Marwan II. Kh.

130 Jahm b. Safwan killed

131 Wasil b. ‘Ata d.

132 Fall of Umayyads; as-Saffah first ‘Abbasid Kh.

134 First Ibadite Imam.

135 Rabi‘a d.?

136-158 Al-Mansur Kh.

138-422 Umayyads of Cordova.

140 Ibn al-Muqaffa‘ killed.

143 Halley’s comet.

144 ‘Amr b. ‘Ubayd d.?

145 Baghdad founded; ‘A’isha d. of Ja‘far as-Sadiq d.

147 Homage to al-Mahdi as successor in Kh.

148 Ja‘far as-Sadiq d.

150 Abu Hanifa d.; trace of Sufi monastery in Damascus.

157 Al-Awza‘i d.

158-169 Al-Mahdi Kh.; John of Damascus d.?

161 Sufyan ath-Thawri d.; Ibrahim b. Adham d.

165 Da’ud b. Nusayr d.

167 Bashshar b. Burd killed.

170-193 Harun ar-Rashid Kh.

172-375 Idrisids.

179 Malik b. Anas d.

182 The Qadi Abu Yusuf d.

187 Fall of Barmecides; al-Fudayl b. ‘Iyad d.

189 M. b. al-Hasan d.

198-218 Al-Ma’mun Kh.

200 Ma‘ruf of al-Karkh d.; trace of Sufi monastery in Khurasan.

204 Ash-Shafi‘i d.

208 Abu ‘Ubayda d.; the Lady Nafisa d.

211 Theodorus Abucara d.

212 Decree that the Qur’an is created.

213 Thumama b. Ashras d.

215 Abu Sulayman of Damascus d.; 2nd decree.

218-234 The Mihna; Al-Mu‘tasim Kh.

220 Ma‘mar b. ‘Abbad.

223 Fatima of Naysabur d.

226 Abu Hudhayl M. al-‘Allaf d.

227 Bishr al-Hafi d.; al-Wathiq Kh.

231 An-Nazzam d.

232 Al-Mutawakkil Kh.

234 Decree that Qur’an is uncreated; Scotus Erigena transl. pseudo-Dionysius, a.d. 850.

240 Ibn Abi Duwad d.

241 Ahmad b. Hanbal d.

243 Al-Harith al-Muhasibi d.

245 Dhu-n-Nun d.; al-Karabisi d.

250-316 ‘Alids of Zaydite branch in north Persia.

255 Al-Jahiz d.

256 Ibn Karram d.

257 Al-Bukhari d.; Sari as-Saqati d.

260 Al-Kindi d.? M. b. al-Hasan al-Muntazar vanished.

261 Muslim d.; Abu Yazid al-Bistami d.

270 Da’ud az-Zahiri d.

273 Ibn Maja d.

275 Abu Da’ud as-Sijistani d.

277 Qarmatians hold fortress in Arab ‘Iraq.

279 At-Tirmidhi d.

280 Zaydite Imams at as-Sa‘da and San‘a.

289 ‘Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi in North Africa.

295-320 Al-Muqtadir ‘Abbasid Kh.

297 First Fatimid Kh.; al-Junayd d.

300 Return of al-Ash‘ari.

303 An-Nasa‘i d.; Al-Jubba‘i d.

309 Al-Hallaj executed.

317 Umayyads of Cordova take title of Commander of the Faithful; Qarmatians in Mecca.

320-447 Buwayhids; al-Ash‘ari d.?

322 Ibn ash-Shalmaghani.

331 At-Tahawi d.

333 Al-Mataridi d.

333-356 Sayf ad-Dawla.

334 Buwayhids in Baghdad; ash-Shibli d.

339 Return of Black Stone by Qarmatians; al-Farabi d.

356 Fatimids conquer Egypt; Cairo founded.

360 Ikhwan as-Safa fl.

362 Ibn Hani d.

381-422 Al-Qadir Kh.

386 Abu Talib al-Makki d.

388-421 Mahmud of Ghazna.

403 Al-Baqilani d.

408 Persecution of Mu‘tazilites under al-Qadir.

411 Al-Hakim Fatimid Kh. vanished; Firdawsi d.

428 Ibn Sina d.

434 Abu Dharr d.

440 Al-Beruni d.

447 Tughril Beg, the Saljuq, in Baghdad.

449 Abu-l-‘Ala al-Ma‘arri d.

450 Persecution of Ash‘arites.

455 Alp-Arslan; Nizam al-Mulk Wazir; end of persecution of Ash‘arites.

456 Ibn-Hazm az-Zahiri d.

465 Al-Qushayri d.

478 Imam al-Haramayn d.

481 Nasir b. Khusraw d.

483 Hasan b. as-Sabbah seizes Alamut.

485 Nizam al-Mulk assass.

488 Al-Ghazzali leaves Baghdad.

505 Al-Ghazzali d.

515 ‘Umar al-Khayyam d.

516 Al-Baghawi d.

524 Ibn Tumart al-Mahdi d.

524-558 ‘Abd al-Mu’min.

524-667 The Muwahhids.

533 Abu Bakr b. Bajja d.

537 Abu Hafs an-Nasafi d.

538 Az-Zamakhshari d.

540 Yehuda Halevi d. = a.d. 1145.

546 Abu Bakr b. al-‘Arabi d.

548 Ash-Shahrastani d.

558 ‘Abd al-Mu’min the Muwahhid d.

558 ‘Adi al-Hakkari d.

558-580 Abu Ya‘qub the Muwahhid.

561 ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani, founder of order of darwishes, d.

567 Conquest of Egypt by Saladin and end of Fatimids.

576 Order of Rifa‘ites founded.

580 Abu Ya‘qub d.

580-596 Abu Yusuf al-Mansur.

581 Ibn Tufayl d.

587 As-Suhrawardi executed.

589 Saladin d.

590 Abu Shuja‘ d.?

595 Ibn Rushd d.; Abu Yusuf al-Mansur the Muwahhid d.

601 Maimonides d. = a.d. 1204.

606 Fakhr ad-Din ar-Razi d.

620 Abu-l-Hajjaj b. Tumlus d.; Fakhr ad-Din b. ‘Asakir d.; St. Francis of Assisi d. = a.d. 1226.

625-941 Hafsids at Tunis.

630-640 Ar-Rashid the Muwahhid.

632 ‘Umar b. al-Farid.

638 Ibn ‘Arabi d.

648 Frederick II. d. = a.d. 1250.

654 End of Assassins by Mongols; Ash-Shadhili, founder of order of darwishes, d.

667 Ibn Sab‘in d.; end of Muwahhids.

672 Jalal ad-Din ar-Rumi d.

675 Ahmad al-Badawi, founder of order of darwishes, d.

681 Ibn Khallikan d.

685 Al-Baydawi d.

693, 698-708, 709-741 Muhammad An-Nasir, Mamluk Sultan, reg.

719 An-Nasr al-Manbiji d.?

724 Ibn Rushd is still studied at Almeria.

728 Ibn Taymiya d.; Meister Eckhart d. = a.d. 1328.

730 ‘Abd ar-Razzaq d.

756 Al-‘Iji d.; Heinrich Suso d.

791 At-Taftazani d.; an-Naqshbandi, founder of order of darwishes, d.

808 Ibn Khaldun d.

857 Capture of Constantinople by Ottomans and office of Shaykh al-Islam created = a.d. 1453. Thomas à Kempis d. = a.d. 1471.

895 M. b. Yusuf as-Sanusi d.

907 Accession of Safawids.

922 Conquest of Egypt by Ottoman Turks.

945 Death of al-Mutawakkil, last ‘Abbasid.

951 Beginning of Sharifs of Morocco.

973 Ash-Sha‘rani d.

1201 ‘Abd al-Wahhab d. = a.d. 1787.

1205 Sayyid Murtada d.; al-Fudali fl. circ. 1220.

1252 Foundation of Brotherhood of as-Sanusi = a.d. 1837.

1260 Ibrahim al-Bajuri d.; Decree of Porte that apostate Muslims should not be put to death.

1275 Death of founder of Brotherhood of as-Sanusi = a.d. 1859.


Islam History

Islam alids


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