Bharistan-i-Shahi: History of Kashmir 1300-1600

Jammu and Kashmir

नमस्ते शारदे देवि काश्मीरपुरवासिनि। त्वामहं प्रार्थये नित्यं
विद्यादानं च देहि मे॥


Baharistan-i-shahi: A Chronicle of Mediaeval Kashmir-

Original Persian text is written by an unknown person and Translated by K.N Pandit in English


A positive response from the Indian Council of Historical Research encouraged me to take up the translating of ‘Baharistan-i-Shahi’ from Persian into English. Many friends helped me in bringing this work to its successful completion. I am thankful to them. In particular, I am indebted to Prof. T. N. Dhar of the Department of English, University of Kashmir, for the pains he took in examining, revising and improving the English version. But for his untiring labour and patience and the long and late sittings he had with me, the work could not have seen the light of the day. Professor S. L. Pandit, former Head, Department of English, Kashmir University, graciously agreed to read the final draft and offer valuable suggestions.
I am thankful to Prof. N. N. Raina, formerly Head of the Department of Physics, Kashmir University, for his sustained encouragement and guidance during the course of my work and for agreeing to write a preface to it.

My sincere thanks are also due to Messers Firma KLM Private Ltd. of Calcutta whose staff worked hard to bring out the book within the shortest possible time. I am also thankful to the Government of India, Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, for the financial support they gave me for the printing and publishing of the work. Dr. Kashi Nath Pandita

K.N Pandit

Translation Methodology

1. Since the chronicle was one long narrative, it became necessary to divide it into chapters. There are eight of them, each dealing with a particular period or a particular ruling house. Care has been taken to ensure that minimum dislocation of events or their overlapping takes place.

2. As stated elsewhere in the introduction, translation of verses has been left out. Likewise superfluous titles and appendages to names, a practice very common to Persian historiographical style, have also been left out to make the account readable.

3. Effort has been made to reproduce the place names as correctly as possible; some deficiencies have still remained.

4. Transliteration of Persian/Arabic/Sanskrit words, names, phrases etc. has been done in accordance with the accepted system. (See the key to transliteration). Diacritical marks have been used wherever necessary.

5. Explanatory comments wherever necessary have been put in round parenthesis, but whatever was felt necessary to clear the textual ambiguities has been put in square brackets.

6. Blanks and erasions in the MS have been shown by the sign … in the English translation. Illegible words have also been indicated likewise followed by the abbreviation illeg.

7. Conversion of Hijra years into Christian years has been done on the basis of the Lunar year system of the Muslim calendar and not the Solar year system of the Iranians.

8. Qur’anic verses, which figure in the chronicle, have been rendered into English wherever possible.

9. Folio numbers of the MS and their corresponding printed pages have been given on a separate sheet.

This Book was published by: Firma KLM Private Limited, 257B, B. B. Ganguly Street, Calcutta 700 012, INDIA;

Printed by: Ram Sankar Ghosh, AKHAR MALA , 85, Hari Ghosh Street , Calcutta 700 006, INDIA;

This book is published with financial assistance from the Government of India, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department of Education, vide. Sanction No. F. 4-50/86-L G-cell dated 12.2.1988.


Hindu Period  Ch-1

Zulchu and Rinchan Ch-2

Early Shahmirs Ch-3

Later Shahmiris-4

The Chaks-5

Chak Rulers-6

Yusuf Shah`s ascension to the throne

The Rise and Fall of Yusuf Shah Chak-8 



Rajat. = Rajatarangini, tr. M. A. Stein, 2 vols. London, 1900.
Jonar. = The Rajatarangini of Jonaraja, ed. Srikanth Koul Vishveshvaranand Institute, Hoshiarpur, 1967.
T.H.K. = Tarikh-i-Hasan Khuihami, Pir Ghulam Hasan, Vol II, RPD,* Srinagar 1954.
T.M.H. = Tarikh-i-Malik Haidar, Malik Haidar Chadora, MS. RPD. Acc. No. 39.
T.N.K. = Tarikh-i-Narayan Koul Ajiz, MS. RPD. Acc. No. 934.
Tohfat = Tohfatu’1-Ahbab, Anonymous, transcript copy RPD. Acc. No. 1155.
illeg. = Illegible text
MS = Manuscript
St. = Stanza

— = Omission in the text
… = Sentence incomplete
(tr) = Translation
trans. = Transcript


• A Gazetteer of Kashmir, Bates. C. E., Calcutta, 1873.
• A Literary History of Persia, Browne, E. G., 4 vols. London, 1902-1924.
• Ain-i-Akbari, Abu’l-Fadl, vol. I, tr. Blochmann, Calcutta, 1927. Vol. II & III tr. Jarett, Calcutta, 1948-49.
• Akbar-Nama, Abu’l-Fadl, tr. Beveridge, H., 3 vols. Calcutta, 1897-1939.
• Baharistan-i-Shahi, Anon. MS.
(a) I. O. 509.
(b) Br. Museum Add 16, 706
(c) Transcript copy RPD. Acc. No. 691.
• Buhler’s Report (Tour in search of Sanskrit MSS), Buhler G., R.A.S.B. Bombay, 1877. RPD Acc. No. 2080.
• Central Asiatic Journal, No. II (3), London, 1956.
• Dairatu’l-Ma’arif-i-Islami, vol. X. Lahore, 1973.
• J. B. R. A. S., London, 1861.
• Kings of Kashmir, Dutt, J. C., 3 vols. Calcutta, 1879-98.
• Kashmir, Sufi, G. M. D., Lahore, 1942.
• Kashmir under the Sultans, Mohibbu’l-Hasan, Calcutta, 1959.
• Kashmir Polity, Drabu, V. N., New Delhi, 1986.
• J. A. S. B., 1854, xxiii.
• Muntakhabu’t-Tawarikh, ‘Abdu’l-Qadir Badauni, 3 vols. tr. Ranking, Low and Haig, Calcutta, 1884-1925.
• Muntakhabu’t-Tawarikh, Narayan Koul ‘Ajiz, MS. RPD Acc. No. 934, 1193.
• Majmu’-at-Tawarikh. Birbal Kachroo, MS, RPD. Acc. No. 130.


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