Western philosophers and their works

  • Appearance and Reality-F. H. BRADLEY - THE fact of illusion and error is in various ways forced early upon the mind; and the ideas by which we try to understand the universe, may be considered as attempts to set right our failure. In this division of my work I shall criticize some of these, and shall endeavour to show that they have not reached their object. I shall point out that the world, as so understood, contradicts itself; and is therefore appearance, and not reality. In this chapter I will begin with the proposal to make things intelligible by the distinction between primary and secondary qualities.
  • Chronology of the Most Important Modern Philosophical Work: Harald Høffding - Cusanus: De docta ignorantia Machiavelli: Il principe Pomponazzi: De immortalitate animæ Vives: De anima et vita Melanchthon: De anima Copernicus: De revolutionibus orbium coelestium Ramus: Institutiones dialecticæ Telesio: De rerum natura Bodin: […]
  • DISCOURSE ON THE METHOD- Rene Descartes - If this Discourse appear too long to be read at once, it may be divided into six Parts: and, in the first, will be found various considerations touching the Sciences; in the second, the principal rules of the Method which the Author has discovered, in the third, certain of the rules of Morals which he has deduced from this Method; in the fourth, the reasonings by which he establishes the existence of God and of the Human Soul, which are the foundations of his Metaphysic; in the fifth, the order of the Physical questions which he has investigated
  • Egotism in German Philosophy-G. Santana-1916 - Protestantism was not a reformation by accident,because it happened to find the church corrupt; it is a reformation essentially, in that every individual must reinterpret the Bible and the practices of the church in his own spirit. If he accepted them without renewing them in the light of his personal religious experience, he would never have what Protestantism thinks living religion. German philosophy has inherited this characteristic; it is not a cumulative science that can be transmitted ready made.
  • Hegel’s Lectures on Aristotle-1822 - There is a quite generally held opinion that the Aristotelian and Platonic philosophies are directly opposed, the one being idealistic and the other realistic, and that, indeed, in the most trivial sense. For Plato is said to have made the ideal his principle, so that the inward idea creates from itself; according to Aristotle, on the contrary, we are told that the soul is made a tabula rasa, receiving all its determinations quite passively from the outer world; and his philosophy is thus mere empiricism – Locke’s philosophy at its worst. But we shall see how little this really is the case. In fact Aristotle excels Plato in speculative depth, for he was acquainted with the deepest kind of speculation – idealism – and in this upholds the most extreme empirical development.
  • John Locke on Property - I think, it is very easy to conceive, without any difficulty, how labour could at first begin a title of property in the common things of nature, and how the spending it upon our uses bounded it. So that there could then be no reason of quarrelling about title, nor any doubt about the largeness of possession it gave. Right and conveniency went together; for as a man had a right to all he could employ his labour upon, so he had no temptation to labour for more than he could make use of
  • Martin Heidegger: List of Works - Heidegger, M. (1975-) Gesamtausgabe (Collected Edition), Frankfurt: Vittorio Klostermann. Heidegger, M. (1914) Die Lehre vom Urteil im Psychologismus. Ein kritisch-positiver Beitrag zur Logik (The Doctrine of Judgment in Psychologism: A Critical-positive Contribution […]
  • Meditations on First Philosophy:René Descartes - how can I doubt that these hands or this whole body are mine? To doubt such things I would have to liken myself to brain-damaged madmen who are convinced they are kings when really they are paupers, or say they are dressed in purple when they are naked, or that they are pumpkins, or made of glass. Such people are insane, and I would be thought equally mad if I modelled myself on them.
  • Plato Fedr : The Idea - Socrates, Fedr Socrates . Dear Fedr, where and from where? [ Σωκράτης : ὦ φίλε Φαῖδρε, ποῖ δὴ καὶ πόθεν;] Fedr . From Lysias, Socrates, son of Kefal, I go for a walk […]
  • THE FUNCTION OF PHILOSOPHY-Alfred Ayer - THE FUNCTION OF PHILOSOPHY -1936 Among the superstitions from which we are freed by the  abandonment of metaphysics is the view that it is the business of the philosopher to construct a […]
  • The history of ancient philosophy - Extracted from The history of ancient philosophy in summary form BRIEF SUMMARY 1. Prereflective mythology. Ancient culture has its roots in the communal-clan formation, which, transferring to nature and the world the […]
  • Voltaire and his works - Voltaire-François-Marie Arouet (1694-1778) was a leading scholar and thinker at the period of the French Enlightenment. Voltaire, F.-M. A. de (1980) Oeuvres complètes de Voltaire (The Complete Works of Voltaire), ed. R. […]
  • Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) What is Enlightenment:Immanuel Kant - If it is now asked whether we at present live in an enlightened age, the answer is: No, but we do live in an age of enlightenment

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