Law of England

United Kingdom

Blackstone’s Commentaries on the Laws of England-1765

Halsbury’s Laws of England-Being A Complete Statement of the Whole Law of England-1907

  • House of Lords (Decisions)
  • Judicial Committee of Privy Council (Decisions)
  • Supreme Court of UK (Decisions)

 Acts of the English Parliament (1267 – 2020)

Constitution of the United Kingdom

  • Act of Settlement 1701 - The Act of Settlement 1701 12 & 13 William III, c. 2 (England) An Act for the further Limitation of the Crown and better securing the Rights and Liberties of the Subject [Assented to 1701.] Recital of Bill of Rights…
  • Administration of Justice Act 1970 [United Kingdom] - An Act to make further provision about the courts (including assizes), their business, jurisdiction and procedure; to enable a High Court judge to accept appointment as arbitrator or umpire under an arbitration agreement; to amend the law respecting the enforcement of debt and other…
  • Agriculture Act 2020 - An Act to authorise expenditure for certain agricultural and other purposes; to make provision about direct payments following the United Kingdom's departure from the European Union and about payments in response to exceptional market conditions affecting agricultural markets; to confer power to modify retained direct EU legislation relating to agricultural and rural development payments and public market intervention and private storage aid; to make provision about reports on food security;
  • Appeal against a Crown Court decision before Court of Appeal Criminal Division - If permission granted for appeal-The appeal will be heard by the Court of Appeal Criminal Division. You’ll get a letter before the hearing to let you know when and where it’ll take place. Your legal representative ( your barrister) will present your case to the judges. If you’re appealing a conviction, representatives from the prosecution will present the case against you. This will not always happen if you appeal against a sentence.
  • Bail Act 1976 - An Act to make provision in relation to bail in or in connection with criminal proceedings in England and Wales, to make it an offence to agree to indemnify sureties in criminal proceedings, to make provision for legal aid limited to questions of bail in certain cases and for legal aid for persons kept in custody for inquiries or reports, to extend the powers of coroners to grant bail and for connected purposes.
  • Bar Standards Board (“BSB”) is the regulator of barristers in England and Wales - Although most barristers are self-employed, they don’t work in isolation, but tend to group together in offices known as ‘chambers’, to which they pay ‘rent’ to cover the cost of the building and its staff.
  • Bill of Rights 1689 - Whereas the Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons assembled at Westminster, lawfully, fully and freely representing all the estates of the people of this realm, did upon the thirteenth day of February in the year of our Lord one thousand six hundred eighty-eight present unto their Majesties, then called and known by the names and style of William and Mary, prince and princess of Orange, being present in their proper persons, a certain declaration in writing made by the said Lords and Commons in the words following
  • British Nationality Act 1948 - An Act to make provision for British nationality and for citizenship of the United Kingdom and Colonies and for purposes connected with the matters aforesaid. Be it enacted by the King's most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled
  • British Nationality law - The principle of the ius sanguinis was at all times reluctantly admitted in English or British nationality law and practice and imperfectly understood. The statute De Natis was never entirely forgotten[560], but frequently ignored[561]. Even after its replacement by the Act of Anne there was considerable doubt as to the situation of foreign-born children
  • Church of Scotland Act-1921 - Whereas certain articles declaratory of the constitution of the Church of Scotland in matters spiritual have been prepared with the authority of the General Assembly of the Church, with a view to facilitate the union of other Churches with the Church of Scotland, which articles are set out in the Schedule to this Act,
  • Commonwealth Countries - Africa Botswana Cameroon Gambia, The Ghana Kenya Kingdom of eSwatini Lesotho Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Nigeria Rwanda Seychelles Sierra Leone South Africa Uganda United Republic of Tanzania Zambia Asia Bangladesh Brunei Darussalam India Malaysia Pakistan Singapore Sri Lanka Caribbean and…
  • Constitution of England: Montesquieu - When the legislative and executive powers are united in the same person, or in the same body of magistrates, there can be no liberty; because apprehensions may arise, lest the same monarch or senate should enact tyrannical laws, to execute them in a tyrannical manner. Again, there is no liberty if the judiciary power be not separated from the legislative and executive. Were it joined with the legislative, the life and liberty of the subject would be exposed to arbitrary controul; for the judge would be then the legislator. Were it joined to the executive power, the judge might behave with violence and oppression.
  • Contempt of Court Act 1981 - Contempt of Court Act 1981 1981 CHAPTER 49 An Act to amend the law relating to contempt of court and related matters. [27th July 1981] Be it enacted by the Queen’s most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent…
  • Cremation Act 1902 [UK] - Edition: May 2019 [22nd July 1902] 1902 CHAPTER 8 2 Edw 7 An Act for the regulation of the burning of Human Remains, and to enable Burial Authorities to establish Crematoria. BE it enacted by the King’s most Excellent Majesty,…
  • Crime and Disorder Act 1998 [UK] - Crime and Disorder Act 1998 1998 CHAPTER 37 An Act to make provision for preventing crime and disorder; to create certain racially-aggravated offences; to abolish the rebuttable presumption that a child is doli incapax and to make provision as to…
  • Criminal Appeal Act 1968 [UK] - Court of Appeal has two divisions: Civil Division and Criminal division An Act to consolidate certain enactments relating to appeals in criminal cases to the criminal division of the Court of Appeal, and thence to the House of Lords[ Now…
  • Criminal Laws in UK - Accessories and Abettors Act 1861 Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 Bail Act 1976 Children and Young Persons Act 1933 Computer Misuse Act 1990 Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007 Courts Act 2003 Crime and Courts Act 2013 Crime…
  • Criminal Procedure Rules 2020-UK - The Criminal Procedure Rule Committee has made a new consolidation of the Criminal Procedure Rules. The 2020 Rules replace the Criminal Procedure Rules 2015 and the amendments made to those rules since then. The new rules come into force on Monday 5 October 2020.
  • Crown copyright - Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 163 Crown copyright. (1)Where a work is made by Her Majesty or by an officer or servant of the Crown in the course of his duties— (a)the work qualifies for copyright protection notwithstanding section…
  • Demise of the Crown Act 1702 - An Act for explaining a Clause in an Act made at the Parliament begun and holden at Westminster the Two and twentieth of November in the Seventh Year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord King William the Third intituled An Act for the better Security of His Majesties Royal Person and Government
  • Dialogus de Scaccario – Dialogue Concerning the Exchequer – 1178 - Dialogue concerning the Exchequer (c. 1178 CE) THE DIALOGUE CONCERNING THE EXCHEQUER. Reign of King Henry II (Stubbs’ ” Charters,” p. 168.) Preface It is necessary to subject one’s self in all fear to the powers ordained by God, and…
  • Due to COVID-19 the UK Supreme Court building has been closed- 3 weeks time limit extended for filing documents-23/03/2020 - The Registry will close at 4pm on Friday 20 March 2020. The situation will be kept under review and a further notification will be made whether the Registry can re-open at 10am on Monday 20 April 2020, as it had planned to do.
  • East India Company v. Autrobus-House of Lords 14/12/1812 - Respondent was entitled only to such less sums than 2 s. 9 d. in the pound as had been accustomed to be paid; or, at least, that an issue ought to be directed to try the question as to such customary payments: that where the last rents of houses formerly standing on the site of the present buildings were known, but no customary payments proved, the tithe ought to be calculated according to the last known rent, and not upon the improved value; and that, where no last rents were known, no tithe ought to be paid.
  • General principles of parliamentary privilege - In summary, if Parliament feels that the limits of its exclusive cognisance have been eroded to the extent that it can no longer effectively perform its core work, it can change the law. But this is a last resort, and such legislation carries the risk that statute law, and the judicial interpretation of that law will, over time, ossify privilege, taking away the possibility of evolution and adaptation to changing circumstances.
  • Glossary under the Criminal Procedure Rules 2020 - an appeal to the High Court against the decision of a magistrates’ court on the basis that the decision was wrong in law or in excess of the magistrates’ jurisdiction;
  • Government of India Act 1935 [UK] - UK Public General Acts Repealed  ON 19.11.1998 BY Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1998 26 Geo.5 & 1 Edw.8 c.2. Government of India Act 1935. The whole Act. 9 & 10 Geo.6 c.18. Statutory Orders (Special Procedure) Act 1945. Section 8(2) as…
  • Halsbury’s Laws of England-Index of the First Edition-1907 to 1917. - Halsbury’s Laws of England-Being A Complete Statement of the Whole Law of England. Editor in Chief THE RIGHT HONOURABLE THE EARL OF HALSBURY, LORD HIGH CHANCELLOR OF GREAT BRITAIN, 1SS5-S6, 1SS6-92, and 1S95— 1905 The law of England, as they…
  • Hearing and Orders of the Appeal before the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom - Under The Supreme Court Rules 2009 Hearing in open court 27.(1) Every contested appeal shall be heard in open court except where it is necessary in the interests of justice or in the public interest to sit in private for part…
  • History of the Court of Appeal - Original jurisdiction was primarily civil. It did not gain jurisdiction over criminal appeals until the Court of Criminal Appeal’s jurisdiction was transferred to it under the Criminal Appeal Act 1966.
  • Hong Kong residents got immigration right from UK - Hong Kong was under UK jurisdiction until Britain handed it to China in 1997 with a guarantee that Beijing would preserve the city’s judicial and legislative autonomy for 50 years.
  • India (Consequential Provision) Act 1949 [UK] - 1949 CHAPTER 92 12 13 and 14 Geo 6 An Act to make provision as to the operation of the law in relation to India, and persons and things in any way belonging to or connected with India, in view…
  • Introduction and background of Parliamentary Privilege in UK - The precise rights and immunities a parliament will have depend on the wider constitutional context, and different countries protect parliaments in different ways. But whatever the jurisdiction, it is normal for a democratic state to protect parliamentary independence. Indeed, as the Irish Government argued at the European Court of Human Rights, "parliamentary immunity has developed throughout the world not as a constraint upon the rights of the citizen, but as a fundamental liberty
  • Law of Remands into Custody in UK - In the magistrates' court, a defendant can only remand a person in custody for a maximum of eight days, except where it has previously remanded him in custody and it has a set a date for the next stage of those proceedings. In those circumstances, having heard representations from the defendant's representatives, he can be remanded in custody for a period ending in that date or for a period of 28 days, whichever is the less - s. 128A of the Magistrates Courts Act 1980.
  • LAWS OF ENGLAND by WILLIAM BLACKSTONE [Selective reading] - PARLIAMENT There is also no doubt but these great councils were held regularly under the first princes of the Norman line. Glanvil, who wrote in the reign of Henry the second, speaking of the particular amount of an amercement in…
  • LAWS OF ENGLAND: WILLIAM BLACKSTONE-1765 - THE municipal law of England, or the rule of civil conduct prescribed to the inhabitants of this kingdom, may with sufficient propriety be divided into two kinds; the lex non scripta, the unwritten, or common law; and the lex scripta, the written, or statute law. The lex non scripta, or unwritten law, includes not only general customs, or the common law properly so called; but also the particular customs of certain parts of the kingdom; and likewise those particular laws, that are by custom observed only in certain courts and jurisdictions.
  • Legal professionals and their privileges in UK - 190.Legal professional privilege (1)Subsection (2) applies where an individual who[P] is not a barrister or solicitor— (a)provides advocacy services as an authorised person in relation to the exercise of rights of audience, (b)provides litigation services as an authorised person in…
  • List of Bills before the British Parliament 2019-2021 - Abortion (Cleft Lip, Cleft Palate and Clubfoot) Bill-Age of Criminal Responsibility Bill [HL]-Armed Forces (Posthumous Pardons) Bill [HL]-Asylum Seekers (Accommodation Eviction Procedures) Bill
  • Magistrates’ Courts Act 1980 - INDEX-An Act to consolidate certain enactments relating to the jurisdiction of, and the practice and procedure before, magistrates’ courts and the functions of justices’ clerks, and to matters connected therewith, with amendments to give effect to recommendations of the Law Commission.
  • Nineteen Propositions 1642 - hat the Lords and others of your Majesty’s Privy Council, and such great officers and Ministers of State, either at home or beyond the seas, may be put from your Privy Council, and from those offices and employments, excepting such as shall be approved of by both Houses of Parliament; and that the persons put into the places and employments of those that are removed may be approved of by both Houses of Parliament; and that the Privy Councillors shall take an oath for the due execution of their places, in such form as shall be agreed upon by both Houses of Parliament.
  • Open Parliament Licence under UK Law - ‘Information’ means information protected by copyright or by database right (for example, literary and artistic works, content, data and source code) offered for use under the terms of this licence.
  • Parliament (Qualification of Women) Act 1918 - A woman shall not be disqualified by sex or marriage for being elected to or sitting or voting as a Member of the Commons House of Parliament.
  • Parliament Act 1911 [UK] - 1 & 2 George V, c. 13 (U.K.) An Act to make provision with respect to the powers of the House of Lords in relation to those of the House of Commons, and to limit the duration of Parliament [Assented…
  • PM press statement at European Council: 14 December 2018 - Prime Minister’s press conference statement at the European Council. At this Council meeting, I have held a series of discussions with my fellow leaders on the Brexit deal and I was crystal clear about the assurances which are needed on…
  • POPULAR LAW-MAKING BY FREDERIC JESUP STIMSON [Selective reading] - THE ENGLISH IDEA OF LAW [1911] How many of us have ever formulated in our minds what law means? I am inclined to think that the most would give a meaning that was never the meaning of the word law,…
  • Preserving Court Records in the UK - Court records under Public Records Act 1958 (1)The Lord Chancellor shall be responsible for the public records of every court of record or magistrates’ court which are not in the Public Record Office or a place of deposit appointed by…
  • Promotions of unhealthy foods restricted from October 2022 in U.K - Measures form a key part of the government’s strategy to tackle obesity and get the nation fit and healthy Promotions on food and drinks high in fat salt or sugar (HFSS) in retailers will be restricted from October 2022,
  • Public General Acts of the United Kingdom - 1801 to 1809  Title Years and Numbers Legislation type Crown Debts Act 1801 1801 c. 90 UK Public General Acts Public Notaries Act 1801 1801 c. 79 UK Public General Acts House of Commons (Clergy Disqualification) Act 1801 (repealed) 1801 c. 63 UK…
  • Punishment for disobedience to witness order or witness summons in United Kingdom - Criminal Procedure (Attendance of Witnesses) Act 1965 1 Order by examining justices for attendance of witness at court of trial (1)A magistrates’ court acting as examining justices shall in respect of each witness examined by the court, other than the accused…
  • Queen Victoria’s Proclamation as Empress of India-1876 - We have thought fit, by and with the advice of Our Privy Council, to appoint and declare, and We hereby, by and with the said advice, appoint and declare that henceforth, so far as conveniently may be, on all occasions and in all instruments wherein Our Style and Titles are used, save and except all Charters, Commissions, Letters Patent, Grants, Writs, Appointments, and other like instruments, not extending in their operation beyond the United Kingdom, the following addition shall be made to the Style and Titles at present appertaining to the Imperial Crown of the United Kingdom and its Dependencies; that is to say, in the Latin tongue in these words: “Indiæ Imperatrix.” And in the English tongue in these words: “Empress of India.”
  • Remedies available in county courts [UK] - “38Remedies available in county courts. (1)Subject to what follows, in any proceedings in a county court the court may make any order which could be made by the High Court if the proceedings were in the High Court. (2)Any order…
  • Review of U.K National policy statement for national networks-Written statement to Parliament - In 2019, U.K roads handled 88% of all passenger travel by distance, the vast majority of it by car or van. Even doubling rail use across the country would only reduce this proportion to 75%, assuming that overall demand did not rise. The roads also carry more than three-quarters of freight traffic, and of course nearly all pedestrian, cycling, bus and coach journeys.
  • Rose Muirhead v. James Muirhead of Bradisholm-House of Lords-16/12/1708 - It is a rule of the law of Scotland, that the mind and intention of the grantor at the time of making a deed are principally to be considered. The disposition in question was merely gratuitous, and for no antecedent onerous cause.
  • Royal Marriages Act 1772 - That no descendant of the body of his late majesty King George the Second, male or female, (other than the issue of princesses who have married, or may hereafter marry, into foreign families) shall be capable of contracting matrimony without the previous consent of his Majesty, his heirs, or successors, signified under the great seal, and declared in council, (which consent, to preserve the memory thereof is hereby directed to be set out in the licence and register of marriage, and to be entered in the books of the privy council);
  • Royal Titles Act 1953 - 1953 CHAPTER 9 1 and 2 Eliz 2 An Act to provide for an alteration of the Royal Style and Titles. [26th March 1953] Whereas it is expedient that the style and titles at present appertaining to the Crown should…
  • Scotch Whisky Regulations 2009 - A whisky or whisky-based drink must not be labelled, packaged, advertised or promoted in a way that includes any reference to a name that is similar to the name of a protected locality or protected region if, having regard to the presentation of the product as a whole, the reference may create a likelihood of confusion on the part of the public as to where the whisky or whisky-based drink was distilled.
  • Sri Lanka Independence Act 1947  - UK Legislation  10 December 1947 The Ceylon Independence Act, 1947 (title changed after Act was passed) (11 Geo. VI, c. 7) An Act to make provision for, and in connexion with, the attainment by Ceylon of fully responsible status within…
  • Statute of Labourers – Edward III – 1349 CE - Let no one, moreover, pay or permit to be paid to anyone more wages, livery, meed or salary than was customary as has been said; nor let any one in any other manner exact or receive them, under penalty of paying to him who feels himself aggrieved from this, double the sum that has thus been paid or promised, exacted or received; and if such person be not willing to prosecute, then it (the sum) is to be given to any one of the people who shall prosecute in this matter
  • Statute of Mortmain-1279 - no person, religious or other, whatsoever lie be, shall presume to buy or sell any lands or tenements, or under colour of gift or lease, or of any other term or title whatever to receive them from any one, or in any other way, by craft or by wile to appropriate them to himself, whereby such lands and tenements may come into mortmain; under pain of forfeiture of the same
  • Statute Quia Emptores – Buying and selling of Land- 1290 - henceforth it shall be lawful for any free man to sell at will his lands or tenements or a part of them; in such manner, however, that the infeudated person shall hold that land or tenement from the same lord in chief and by the same services and customs by which his infeudator previously held them.
  • Supervision orders on finding of insanity or unfitness to plead in United Kingdom - Under Domestic Violence, Crime and Victims Act 2004 Supervision orders on finding of insanity or unfitness to plead etc The following is the Schedule inserted before Schedule 2 to the Criminal Procedure (Insanity) Act 1964 (c. 84)— Section 5A A Supervision…
  • Supreme Court of the United Kingdom - Supreme Court [created by the Constitutional Reform Act 2005] of the United Kingdom is the final court of appeal in the UK for civil cases and criminal cases from England, Wales and Northern Ireland. It hears cases of the greatest…
  • THE BRITISH MONARCHY - ‎1867 PT I. The use of the Queen, in a dignified capacity, is incalculable. Without her in England, the present English Government would fail and pass away. Most people when they read that the Queen walked on the slopes at…
  • The Commonwealth Charter - We the people of the Commonwealth: Recognising that in an era of changing economic circumstances and uncertainty, new trade and economic patterns, unprecedented threats to peace and security, and a surge in popular demands for democracy, human rights and broadened…
  • The Copyright and Rights in Databases Regulations 1997 - In relation to database right, the Directive provides a right for the maker of a database in which there has been a substantial investment in the obtaining, verification or presentation of the contents of the database to prevent extraction and/or re-utilisation of the whole or a substantial part of the contents of the database.
  • The Crown Estate Act 1961 [UK] - This Act extends to Northern Ireland An Act to make new provision in place of the Crown Lands Acts 1829 to 1936 as to the powers exercisable by the Crown Estate Commissioners for the management of the Crown Estate, to…
  • The English Constitution - There is a great difficulty in the way of a writer who attempts to sketch a living Constitution—a Constitution that is in actual work and power. The difficulty is that the object is in constant change. An historical writer does not feel this difficulty: he deals only with the past; he can say definitely, the Constitution worked in such and such a manner in the year at which he begins, and in a manner in such and such respects different in the year at which he ends; he begins with a definite point of time and ends with one also.
  • THE ENGLISH CONSTITUTION By Walter Bagehot [Selective reading] - The second period of the British Constitution begins with the accession of the House of Tudor, and goes down to 1688; it is in substance the history of the growth, development, and gradually acquired supremacy of the new great council.…
  • The Family Procedure Rules 2010- UK - The Family Procedure Rules 2010 (‘the FPR 2010’) come into force on 6th April 2011.The purpose of this practice direction is to inform court users of the practice directions relating (only) to family proceedings which date from before 6th April…
  • THE LAWS OF WAR, AFFECTING COMMERCE AND SHIPPING by H. Byerley Thomson - THE LAWS OF WAR [1854] In the first instance, then, we are to ascertain what were the principles of right and justice, from any materials handed down to us; and if those principles agree with, or support the practical rules…
  • Types of prison sentences in UK - Concurrent and consecutive sentences Suspended prison sentences Determinate prison sentences - fixed length of time Indeterminate prison sentences - no fixed length of time Life sentences Sentences for young people
  • UK Law Commission seek views on corporate criminal liability-09/07/2021 - The Law Commission is seeking views on whether, and how, the law relating to corporate criminal liability can be improved so that they appropriately capture and punish criminal offences committed by corporations, and their directors or senior management.
  • UK’s sanctions regime relating to cyber activity - As required by section 43 of the Sanctions and Anti-Money Laundering Act 2018 (‘the Sanctions Act’), the Secretary of State for Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Affairs has provided this guidance to assist in the implementation of, and compliance with, the Cyber (Sanctions) (EU Exit) Regulations 2020 (the ‘Regulations’), as amended from time to time.
  • United Kingdom Cabinet Manual-2011 - On entering government I set out, with the Deputy Prime Minister, our shared desire for a political system that is looked at with admiration around the world and is more transparent and accountable. The Cabinet Manual sets out the internal rules and procedures under which the Government operates. For the first time the conventions determining how the Government operates are transparently set out in one place.
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland- Nature of the ‘Union’ - The composite nature of the United Kingdom created by the union of the Crowns of England, Scotland, and Ireland, presents interesting points of comparison and contrast with the form of a federal union of the USA or unitary union of India. The United Kingdom is ruled by a single sovereign Parliament; but the identity of the component parts is by no means wholly lost, as will appear from a brief reference to the Acts of Union.
  • Victim Personal Statements and VPS process for Police, Investigator, Prosecution, and Cort in UK - A VPS is a statement given by victims of crime1 to the police (or any agency or organisation assigned to take the VPS on their behalf). It is important as it gives victims a voice in the criminal justice process by helping others to understand how the crime has affected them.
  • Wills Act 1837 -   Wills Act 1837 Original Version 1837 CHAPTER 26 An Act for the Amendment of the Laws with respect to Wills. [3d July 1887] BE it enacted by the Queen’s most Excellent Majesty, by and with the Advice and Consent…
  • Wills Act 1963 - An Act to repeal the Wills Act 1861 and make new provision in lieu thereof; and to provide that certain testamentary instruments shall be probative for the purpose of the conveyance of heritable property in Scotland.
  • Youth Justice System in the United Kingdom - Under Crime and Disorder Act 1998 Part III Criminal justice system Youth justice 37. Aim of the youth justice system. 38. Local provision of youth justice services. 39. Youth offending teams. 39A.Detention of child or young person: local authorities to…

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