Akbar and the Rise of the Mughal Empire
by Colonel G. B. Malleson, C.S.I.- 1896
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 – The Argument
Chapter 2 – The Family and Early Days of Babar
Chapter 3 – Babar Conquers Kabul
Chapter 4 – Babar’s Invasions of India
Chapter 5 – The Position of Babar in Hindustan
Chapter 6 – Humayun and the Early Days of Akbar
Chapter 7 – Humayun Invades India – His death
Chapter 8 – Akbar’s Fight for his Father’s Throne
Chapter 9 – General Condition of India in the Middle of the Sixteenth Century
Chapter 10 – The Tutelage under Bairam Khan
Chapter 11 – Chronicle of the reign
Chapter 12 – The Principles and Internal Administration of Akbar
Akbar and the Rise of the Mughal Empire
Abdul Maali, favourite of Humayun, is sent to occupy Dipalpur, 62: rebellion, and death of, 97.
Abulfazl, becomes the friend of Akbar, 151: character, studies, and influence of, 152–3, 170: murder of, 139.
Agra, the building of the fort of, 99.
Agriculture, measures taken by Akbar to benefit those addicted to, 121.
Akbar, birth of, 52: is abandoned at Shal, 53: is taken to Kandahar, and tended by his aunt, 54: is removed to Kabul, 54, 55: where his father rejoins him, 55: perils of, at Kabul, 55–9 joins his father in the invasion of India, and is present at the battle of Sirhind, 62: is sent by his father to the Punjab, 63: is there proclaimed Emperor, 63: choice of courses before, 65: turns to contest the empire with Hemu, 66: moves on Panipat, 68: wins the battle of Panipat, 70: refuses to slay the captured Herrin, 71: the problem he had to solve in India, 78–80: personal appearance of, 81: character and predispositions of, 82–4: secures the Punjab, 84, 85: feels the preponderating influence of Bairam, 85–7: assumes the administration and exiles Bairam to Mekka, 88: suppresses the rebellion of Bairam, 89: personal rule of, begins, 91: the aims of, 92, 93: begins to carry out his plan of bringing all India into his system, 93: design of, of welding together, 94: deals with the Gakkhars, 96, 97: reception of, in Manchu, 98: deals with the revolt of the Uzbek nobles, zoo: conquers Behar, Jo’, 102: suppresses rebellions in the Punjab and Kabul, 102: besieges Chitor, 105: founds Fatehpur-Sikri, 206: after securing Rajputana, marches on Gujarat, 108: incidents of the conquest of Gujarat by, 209–13: extent of the authority of, 115: reverses the principle of making war support war, 116: orders the invasion of Bengal, 118: and invades it himself, 118: captures Patna, 119: returns to Delhi, 120: and Fatehpur-Sikri, 121: takes measures to benefit the agriculturists, 121: completes conquest of Bengal, 122: builds the Ibadat-Khana at Fatehpur-Sikri, 123: abolishes inland tolls and the jizya, 126: proceeds to Kabul, 127: reasons of, for matrimonial alliances with Rajput families, 129–31: proceedings of, in the Punjab, 131–6: revisits Kabul, 134: proceeds to the Deccan, but returns to repress the rebellion of Prince Salim, 136–8: family of, 141: illness of, 142: dying words of, 144: character of, 144, 145: disposition, principles, and training of, 246: influence of Faizi over, 151: influence of Abulfazl over, 153- 5: creed promulgated by, 157: uses made by, of his power, 159: religious code of, 160: cults from many religions, 161: his own conception of Ins position, 263: discourages Sati, 164: discourages professors, but encourages men of real learning, 166; his affection for Faizi and Abulfazl, 170: how the principles of, affected his administration, 171: making difference of religion no distinction, 172: abolishing the tax on pilgrimages, 172: the jizya, 174: how they affected his dealings with the Hindus, 175: attachment of, to his relatives, 177: likings and peculiarities of, 179: fondness for field sports of, 179: daily habits of, 180: reasons of, for marriage with Rajput princesses, 181–4: wives of, 184: revenue system of, 185: rewards granted by, to the deserving, 189: wise caution displayed, by in disturbing ancient customs, 191: army of, 192: divisions of the empire of, 192: magnificence of, 194: a true seeker after truth, 197: character of the people he appealed to, 198 comparison of, with his European contemporaries, 200.
Ali Kuli Khan-i-Shaibani, brilliantly captures Hemu’s artillery, 68.
Argument, the, of the work, 5.
Attock, on the Indus, built by Akbar, 127–31.
Babar, family from which, was descended, 12: age of, at time of father’s death, 13: loses Ferghana, 14: surprises Samarkand, 15: is defeated by the Uzbeks, 15: and flees to the deserts, 16: crosses the Oxus, and conquers Kabul, 18: impressions on the mind of, by first glance at the Punjab, 18: resolves to conquer Kandahar, 19: visits Herat, 19: terrible march of, from Herat to Kabul, 20: marches for Kandahar, 21: defeats his enemy and takes it, 22: vicissitudes of the fortunes of, against the Uzbeks, 23: is proclaimed ruler of Sind, 24: first, second, and third invasions of India by, 31: fourth invasion of India by, 32: fifth invasion of India by, 33: reaches Panipat, 33: fights and wins the battle of Panipat, 34: the position of, in India, 35: difficulties of, with his army, 37: generous and noble nature of, 39: methods of, to conquer the country, 39: defeats Sanga Rana, 41: conquers large portions of Central India and of Oudh, 42: invades Behar, 43: health of, declines, 45: devotion of, to Humayun, 46: dies, 46: character of, 47, 48: last words of, 48.
Bairam Khan, the best general of Humayun, invades Jalandhar, 62; defeats the generals of Sikandar Shah on the Sutlej, and marches to Sirhind, 62; is joined by Humayun and Akbar, and helps to defeat Sikandar Shah, 62: goes with Akbar to the Punjab as his Atalik, 63; murders Tardi Beg, 67, 68; urges Akbar to slay the captured Hemu, 70, 71; virtually rules the new conquest, 85; is exiled to Mekka by order of Akbar, 88; rebels, is defeated, and assassinated, 89, 90.
Bengal, king of, in the time of Akbar, 117: is invaded by Akbar, 118: submits to Akbar, 122 Man Singh appointed Governor of, 133.
Bhagwan Das, of Jaipur, Raja, connection of, with Akbar, 111: gallantry of, 111: is governor of the Punjab, 128: death of, 134
Birbal, Raja, is killed by the Yusufzais, 131, and note.
Danyal, Prince, the one failing of, causes death of, 141, 142.
Daud Khan, king of Bengal, vide BENGAL.
Deccan, the, campaigns in, and partial conquest of, 136.
Faizi, Shaikh, story of, 150: how he influenced the actions of Akbar, 151, 170.
Fatehpur-Sikri, founded by Akbar, 106, 107: discussions in the Ibadat-khana at, 123: memorable scenes at, 156, 157, 161.
Ferghana, kingdom of, 13, 14.
Gakkhars, the, are subdued by Akbar, 96, 97.
Gujarat, story of the conquest of, by Akbar, 108–15.
Hemu, rise to power of, 61: wins two victories and threatens Delhi, 62, 63: defeats Tardi Beg and occupies Delhi, 66: moves towards Panipat, 68: is attacked, and defeated by Akbar, 70: is slain, 71.
Herat, position of, in the time of Babar, 17: route between, and Kabul, 20: is conquered by the Uzbeks, 21.
Humayun, eldest son of Babar and father of Akbar, assists his father in the conquest of India, 40: is sent for at the time of his father’s illness, 45: sickness, and recovery of, 46: succeeds Babar, 50: character of, 50: after a reign of eight years is driven from India by Sher Shah, 50, 51: spends two and a half years in Sind, 51: woos, wins, and marries Hamida Begam, 52, 53: flight of, to Amarkot, 52: action of, on learning of the birth of Akbar, 53: sets out for Kandahar, 53; is forced to abandon Akbar at Shal, 53: conquers Kandahar and Kabul, 55: vicissitudes of fortune between, and Kamran, at Kabul, 55–9: resolves to recover India, 59: invades India, 61: defeats Sikandar Shah at Sirhind, 62; death of, 63, 64.
India, sketch of history of, before the Mughal invasion, 26: character of the rule of dynasties prior to that of the Mughal, 27, 30; Babar’s position in, after Panipat, 35: internal condition of, at the time, 36: position of, at the time of the death of Babar, 48: general condition of, in the middle of the 16th century, 72–80.
Kabul, kingdom of, in the time of Babar, 17: Akbar is removed to, 54, 55: vicissitudes of fortune between Humayun and Kamran at, 55–9: Akbar appeases troubles at, 102: Akbar restores order at, 127.
Kamran, Mirza, vicissitudes of fortune in contest of with Humayun, 54–9: finally succumbs, 59.
Kandahar, important position Of, recognised by Babar, 19: taken by Babar, 22: is captured by the Uzbeks, 23: is secured by Babar, 31: Akbar is taken to, 53, 54: is conquered by Humayun, 55.
Kashmir, conquest of, by Akbar, 131–5.
Khusru, Prince, chances of, to succeed Akbar, 141–3.
Learned Men, who flourished in the time of Akbar, notice of some of the, 166–9.
Library, the, of Akbar, 169.
Man Singh, of Jaipur, gallantry of, in Gujarat, 111: appointed Governor of Kabul, 132: on the remonstrance of the Kabulis is transferred to Bengal, 133: conduct of, during Akbar’s illness, 143.
Mewar, Rana of, refuses to come into Akbar’s system, 124: is defeated at Huldighat, 125: still fights for his own hand, 140.
Murad, Prince, son of Akbar, death of, 136.
Orchha, the Raja of, is prompted by Prince Salim to murder Abulfazl, 139, and note.
Orissa, conquest of, by Akbar, 118–22.
Panipat, the first battle of, 33,34: second battle of, 68–71.
Patna, taken by Akbar, 119.
Punjab, the Babar’s first impressions of, 18: renews his acquaintance with, 32: again, 33: Akbar enters, and pursues his enemy into the Siwaliks 63–6: sojourn of Akbar in, 131–6.
Rajputana, matrimonial alliances of Akbar with the royal families of, 128, 181: dealings with the several princes of, 91–143
Salim, Prince (afterwards the Emperor Jahangir), character of, 137: rebels, 138: causes the murder of Abulfazl, 139: vicious conduct of, 140–42: apparent repentance of, 144: is girt with his dying father’s sword, 144.
Samarkand, city of, surprised by Briber, 15: taken by the Uzbeks, 15: is reconquered by, and captured from, Babar, 23.
Sanga, Rand, position of, in Rajputana, 40: is defeated by Babar, 41.
Shaibani Khan, vide Uzbek.
Sher Khan, afterwards Sher Shah, revolts from Babar, 43: drives Humayun from India, 50, 51: reign of, 60: defects of rule of, and predecessors of, 73–8.
Sikandar Shah, claims the rule over Muhammadan India, 61: is defeated by Humayun at Sirhind, and flees to the Siwaliks, 62: again shows signs of life, 63: retreats into Mankot, 65: pursued by Akbar, surrenders on terms, 84,85.
Sind, Babar is proclaimed ruler of, 24: completion of the conquest of, under Akbar, 134, 135.
Tardi Beg, prudent conduct of, on the death of Humayun, 64: is defeated by Hemu, 66: joins Akbar at Sirhind. 67: where he is murdered by Bairam, 68.
Todar Mall, Raja, is sent by Akbar to repair the defeat of his troops by the Yusufzais, 132: death of, 134: influence of, with Akbar, 192.
Umershaikh, father of Babar; 13.
Uzbeks, the, defeat Mbar before Samarkand 15: conquer Herat, 21: take Kandahar, 23: contests of, with Babar, 23: the, nobles, revolt against Akbar, 100: are forgiven, 101.
Yusufzais, the, repulse the troops of Akbar, 131: are defeated by Todar Mall, 132.