Medical

Using antibiotics for viral infections increases antibiotic resistance or may trigger autoimmune diseases

Antibiotic resistance is an epidemic which we must know

As sore throats, cough and colds, flu, or acute sinusitis are viral in origin and do not need an antibiotic. Antibiotic or anti-infective belong to the class of drugs that cover a broad range of infections, including fungal, viral, bacterial, and even protozoal infections. Antibiotics treat infections caused by bacteria, having said so all antibiotics irrespective of the correct dose and physical assessment cause side effects running from minor vomiting tendency to life threat. We can have the following Common Infections to be treatable with Antibiotics:-

Acne
Bronchitis
Conjunctivitis
Otitis Media (Ear Infection)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD’s)
Skin or Soft Tissue Infection
Streptococcal Pharyngitis (Strep Throat)
Traveler’s diarrhea
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

As per need, we may use the following Antibiotics to treat the above infections such as:-

amoxicillin
doxycycline
cephalexin
ciprofloxacin
clindamycin
metronidazole
azithromycin
sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim
amoxicillin and clavulanate
levofloxacin

According to the structural formula, chemical and pharmacologic properties, we classify Antibiotics in the following ten classes:

Penicillins
Tetracyclines
Cephalosporins
Quinolones
Lincomycins
Macrolides
Sulfonamides
Glycopeptides
Aminoglycosides
Carbapenems

For better appreciation, we may say that amoxicillin, ampicillin and oxacillin belong to the Peneciline class.

Now, we may understand Antibiotic resistance, it happens when germs like bacteria and fungi develop the ability to defeat the drugs designed to kill them. Each year in the U.S. as per CDC, at least 2.8 million people are infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria or fungi, and more than 35,000 people die as a result. For example, Azithromycin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae was detected in 2011 which is responsible for causes the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea. For neutralizing resistant bacterium, FDA approved Xevera, Xepi in the recent past.

Antibiotics cannot kill viruses. Amplifying the same, sickness of coughs, colds, sinus infections, respiratory tract infections, and the flu (influenza virus), etc can not be treated by using Antibiotics drugs. The viruses either come from outside or permanently live in our body( or in a host cell) without creating any health condition. In asymptomatic situations along with fever, taking hot water(etc natural cure) and resting is enough to pass three to four days when the immune system could be triggered to cure the sickness. Now if somebody is primarily infected by the flu virus accompanied by secondary pneumonia bacteria, then antibiotics could be prescribed. A full course of Antibiotics must be taken.

Autoimmune disease is the sickness of our immunity system due to which our immune system attacks healthy cells due to the failure of identification signals, resultant from the disharmony between the Immune system and body cells. We can take rest by saying that there exist 80 types of autoimmune diseases and how they generate we do not know. Our immunity system can be divided into innate or adaptive immunity system. Under normal circumstances, bacterial clearance from the blood does not require antibody production. Again we have commensal bacteria, which play important roles in human immune development, immune tolerance, and defense of the human host from the invasion of pathogens. Even we know commensal bacteria protect against respiratory pathogens. What we do not know that resistant bacterium is able to destabilize commensal bacteria cause mutation in it, consequentially develop circumstances for the autoimmune disease a cogent hypothesis.

Resistance to ciprofloxacin( Due to misuse or overuse) used to treat more severe infections has increased in the USA from 13% in 1997 to 25% in 2011. The resistant bacterium may cause dysbiosis in the colony of commensal bacteria and triggered the autoimmune disease.


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