“We now go on to third head of criticism viz. the learned Judge’s exposition of the law relating to the two charges on which Sunil was tried. These charges the learned Judge correctly explained with reference to the relevant provisions of the Indian Penal Code. But he made one error. Dealing with the word ‘voluntarily’ in S. 325, he said:”The […]

When a medical witness is called in as an expert he is not a witness of fact. Medical evidence of an expert is evidence of opinion, not of fact. Where there are alleged eye-witnesses of physical violence which is said to have caused the hurt, the value of medical evidence by prosecution is only corroborative. It proves that the injuries […]

State of Haryana Vs Ranbir alias Rana-An obiter dictum as distinguished from ratio decidendi is an observation of the court on a legal question suggested in a case before it but not arising in such manner as to require a decision. Such an obiter may not have binding precedent but it cannot be denied that it is of considerable weight

Self-consciousness is primarily simple existence for self, self-identity by exclusion of every other from itself. It takes its essential nature and absolute object to be Ego; and in this immediacy, in this bare fact of its self-existence, it is individual. That which for it is other stands as unessential object, as object with the impress and character of negation.

There is a quite generally held opinion that the Aristotelian and Platonic philosophies are directly opposed, the one being idealistic and the other realistic, and that, indeed, in the most trivial sense. For Plato is said to have made the ideal his principle, so that the inward idea creates from itself; according to Aristotle, on the contrary, we are told that the soul is made a tabula rasa, receiving all its determinations quite passively from the outer world; and his philosophy is thus mere empiricism – Locke’s philosophy at its worst. But we shall see how little this really is the case. In fact Aristotle excels Plato in speculative depth, for he was acquainted with the deepest kind of speculation – idealism – and in this upholds the most extreme empirical development.

Karl Raimund Popper, CH, MA, Ph.D., D.LITT, FBA, FRS (July 28, 1902 – September 17, 1994) Zur Methodenfrage der Denkpsychologie, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Vienna, unpublished, 1928. Logik der Forschung, Vienna: Julius Springer Verlag, 1935. The Open Society and Its Enemies (2 Volumes), London: Routledge, 1945. The Logic of Scientific Discovery, translation of Logik der Forschung, London: Hutchinson, 1959. Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge, […]

An Act to amend and consolidate the laws relating to social security with the goal to extend social security to all employees and workers either in the organised or unorganised or any other sectors and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto- social security” means the measures of protection afforded to employees, unorganised workers, gig workers and platform workers to ensure access to health care and to provide income security, particularly in cases of old age, unemployment, sickness, invalidity, work injury, maternity or loss of a breadwinner by means of rights conferred on them and schemes framed, under this Code;

“collateral” means- (i) money, in the form of cash, credited to an account in any currency, or a similar claim for repayment of money, such as a money market deposit; (ii) securities of any kind, including debt and equity securities; (iii) guarantees, letters of credit and obligations to reimburse; and (iv) any asset commonly used as collateral under any law […]

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