CIVIL

Greece in 1982

Greece achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1830. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, it gradually added neighboring islands and territories, most with Greek-speaking populations. In World War II, Greece was first invaded by Italy (1940) and subsequently occupied by Germany (1941-44); fighting endured in a protracted civil war between supporters of the king and other anti-communist and communist rebels. Following the latter’s defeat in 1949, Greece joined NATO in 1952. In 1967, a group of military officers seized power, establishing a military dictatorship that suspended many political liberties and forced the king to flee the country. In 1974 following the collapse of the dictatorship, democratic elections and a referendum created a parliamentary republic and abolished the monarchy. In 1981, Greece joined the EC (now the EU); it became the 12th member of the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) in 2001.

ADMINISTRATIVE REGION: 13 regions (perifereies, singular – perifereia) and 1 autonomous monastic state* (aftonomi monastiki politeia); Agion Oros* (Mount Athos), Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki (East Macedonia and Thrace), Attiki (Attica), Dytiki Ellada (West Greece), Dytiki Makedonia (West Macedonia), Ionia Nisia (Ionian Islands), Ipeiros (Epirus), Kentriki Makedonia (Central Macedonia), Kriti (Crete), Notio Aigaio (South Aegean), Peloponnisos (Peloponnese), Sterea Ellada (Central Greece), Thessalia (Thessaly), Voreio Aigaio (North Aegean).

LAND

132,608 km²; 29% arable and land under permanent crops, 40% meadows and pastures, 20% forested, 11% wasteland, urban, other

Land boundaries: 1,191 km

WATER

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 6 nm

Coastline: 13,676 km

PEOPLE

Population: 9,743,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 0.7%

Nationality: noun—Greek(s); adjective—Greek

Ethnic divisions: 98.8% Greek, 0.2% Turkish, 1.0% other

Religion: 99% Greek Orthodox, 0.3% Muslim, 0.7% other

Language: Greek; English and French widely understood

Literacy: males about 94%; females about 79%; total about 86%

Labor force: 3.3 million (1979 est.); approximately 31% agriculture, 30% industry, 39% services; urban unemployment is under 3%, but substantial unreported unemployment exists in agriculture

Organized labor: 10-15% of total labor force, 20-25% of urban labor force

GOVERNMENT

Official name: Hellenic Republic

Type: presidential parliamentary government; monarchy rejected by referendum 8 December 1974

Capital: Athens

Political subdivisions: 52 departments (nomoi) constitute basic administrative units for country; each nomos headed by officials appointed by central government and policy and programs tend to be formulated by central ministries; degree of flexibility each nomos may have in altering or avoiding programs imposed by Athens depends upon tradition and influence which prominent local leaders and citizens may exercise vis-a-vis key figures in central government; the departments of Macedonia and Thrace exercise some degree of autonomy from Athens since they are governed through the Ministry of Northern Greece

Legal system: new constitution enacted in June 1975

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 March

Branches: executive consisting of a President, elected by the Vouli (parliament), a Prime Minister, and a Cabinet; legislative consisting of the 300-member Vouli; and an independent judiciary

Government leaders: President Constantine KARAMANLIS; Prime Minister Andreas PAPANDREOU

Suffrage: universal age 18 and over

Elections: every four years; Papandreou’s Panhellenic Socialist Movement defeated the incumbent New Democracy government of George Rallis in elections held on 18 October 1981

Political parties and leaders: Panhellenic Socialist Movement, Andreas Papandreou; New Democracy, Evangelos Averoff-Tossizza; Communist Party-Exterior, Kharilaos Florakis; Progressive Party, Spyros Markezinis; Communist Party-Interior, Kharalambos Drakopoulos; United Democratic Left, Ilias Iliou; Nationalist Camp, Stefanos Stefanopoulos; Party of Democratic Socialism, Ioannis Pesmatzoglou

Voting strength: Panhellenic Socialist Movement, 170 seats; New Democracy, 112 seats; Communists (Exterior), 13 seats; independents, 5 seats

Communists: an estimated 25,000-30,000 members and sympathizers

Member of: EC, EIB (associate), EMA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IOOC, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, NATO, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

ECONOMY:

GNP: $41.8 billion (1980), $4,370 per capita; 62% consumption, 24% investment, 16% government; 4% change in stocks; net foreign balance 6%; real growth rate 1.6% (1980) Agriculture: main crops — wheat, olives, tobacco, cotton; nearly self-sufficient; food shortages—livestock products

Major industries: food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products

Crude steel: 936,000 million metric tons produced (1978), 100 kg per capita

Electric power: 5,700,000 kW capacity (1981); 29.0 billion kWh produced (1981), 2,900 kWh per capita

Exports: 4,078 million (f.o.b., 1980); principal items—tobacco, minerals, fruits, textiles

Imports: $10,769 million (c.i.f., 1980); principal items—machinery and automotive equipment, petroleum and petroleum products, manufactured consumer goods, chemicals, meat and live animals

Major trade partners: (1980 est.) imports—15.2% West Germany, 9.3% Italy, 6.1% France, 8.8% Saudi Arabia, 5.9% Egypt; exports—7.9% West Germany, 9.7% Italy, 5.7% Netherlands, 7.4% France, 5.6% US, 5.5% Saudi Arabia, 4.1% UK

Aid: economic commitments—US, $436 million (FY70-80); other Western bilateral (ODA and OOF), $869 million (1970-79); military—US, $1,357 million (FY70-80)

Budget: (1980 est.) central government revenues $8.03 billion, expenditures $10.10 billion, $2.07 million deficit

Monetary conversion rate: US$1=42.6 Greek drachmas (1980 average)

Fiscal year: calendar year

COMMUNICATIONS

Railroads: 2,476 km total; 1,565 km standard gauge (1.435 m) of which 36 km electrified and 100 km double track, 889 km meter gauge (1.000 m), 22 km narrow gauge (0.750 m); all government owned

Highways: 38,938 km total; 16,090 km paved, 13,676 km crushed stone and gravel, 5,632 km improved earth, 3,540 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: system consists of three coastal canals and three unconnected rivers which provide navigable length of just less than 80 km

Pipelines: crude oil, 26 km, refined products, 547 km

Ports: 17 major, 37 minor

Civil air: 43 major transport aircraft

Airfields: 74 total, 70 unable; 52 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m, 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 19 with runways 1,220-2,439

Telecommunications: adequate, modern networks reach all areas on mainland and islands; 2.66 million telephones (28.1 per 100 popl); 31 AM, 37 FM, and 149 TV stations; 5 coaxial submarine cables; 1 satellite station with 1 Atlantic Ocean antenna and 1 Indian Ocean antenna

DEFENSE FORCES

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,298,000; 1,851,000 fit for military service; about 75,000 reach military age (21) annually

Military budget: proposed for fiscal year ending 31 December 1981, $1.7 billion; about 18% of central government budget


SOURCE: World Factbook (1982)

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