CIVIL

Israel between 1947-1974

HIGHLIGHTS OF MAIN EVENTS, 1947-1974

1947

2 April Britain requests special session of the General Assembly to consider future government of Palestine.
28 April General Assembly meets in special session.
15 May General Assembly establishes a Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP).
31 August UNSCOP issues majority report recommending partition of Palestine with an internationalised Jerusalem; minority report recommended federal scheme.
29 September Arab Higher Committee formally rejects UNSCOP plan.
2 October Jewish Agency formally accepts UNSCOP partition plan.
29 November General Assembly votes to partition Palestine and establish, by 1 October 1948, Jewish and Arab states, and internationalised Jerusalem. Arabs denounce the decision and say they will oppose its implementation by force.
30 November Arab mobs attack Jewish quarters in Jerusalem and Arab irregulars begin operations against Jewish cities and settlements.

1948

19 March US proposes suspension of partition plan and calls for a special session of the General Assembly to discuss trusteeship for Palestine.
1 April Security Council calls for truce in Palestine and special session of the General Assembly to reconsider future of Palestine.
14 May State of Israel proclaimed as British mandate over Palestine ends at midnight. US recognises Israel de facto.
15 May Armies of Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Trans-Jordan and Syria invade Israel.
17 May Soviet Union recognises Israel de facto.
20 May General Assembly Committee appoints Count Folke Bernadotte as mediator for Palestine.
29 May Jewish Quarter in the Old City of Jerusalem falls to Arab Legion. Security Council calls for a four week cease-fire within 72 hours.
11 June Four week truce commences.
8 July Arab League refuses to renew truce, fighting resumed and Israel gains on all fronts.
15 July Security Council orders another truce; Israel and Arabs accept.
18 July Second truce begins.
17 September Count Bernadotte assassinated in Jerusalem; succeeded by Dr. Bunche.
20 September Bernadotte Plan published by UN.
15 October Fighting breaks out in Negev; the Egyptian army driven south.
19 October Security Council orders an immediate cease-fire.
22 October Israel and Egypt agree to cease-fire.
16 November Security Council calls for armistice talks.
18 November Israel accepts call for armistice.
11 December General Assembly establishes Palestine Conciliation Commission, reaffirms decision on Jerusalem and calls for repatriation or resettlement of refugees.
22 December Fighting breaks out in Negev. Egyptian forces driven beyond mandatory borders, but retain the Gaza Strip.

1949

7 January Fighting ends in Sinai. Israeli forces withdraw from Sinai following British ultimatum and US pressure
13 January Israeli and Egyptian delegations meet in Rhodes for armistice talks, chaired by Dr. Bunche.
1 February Israel ends military governorship in Jerusalem.
24 February Israel and Egypt sign Armistice Agreement.
10 March Israel army reaches Eilat on Red Sea.
23 March Israel and Lebanon sign Armistice Agreement.
3 April Israel and Jordan sign Armistice Agreement.
25 April Trans-Jordan becomes Jordan.
April-June First round of Israel-Arab talks in Lausanne under auspices of Palestine Conciliation Commission.
11 May Israel admitted to UN membership.
20 July Israel and Syria sign Armistice Agreement.
August Second Round of Israel-Arab talks in Lausanne is deadlocked.
9 December General Assembly votes for internationalisation of Jerusalem under Trusteeship Council administration.
13 December Knesset decides to hold its sessions in Jerusalem, capital of Israel.

1950

4 April UN Trusteeship Council approves statute for the internationalisation of Jerusalem.
24 April Jordan annexes West Bank, including East Jerusalem.
25 May US, Britain and France issue Tripartite Declaration on Middle East.
17 June Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Lebanon and Yemen initial Collective Security Pact, calling on them to assist an Arab state under attack.

1951

18 May Security Council calls on Israel to halt Huleh drainage project pending arrangements to be fixed by the Mixed Armistice Commission. Fighting erupts between Israel and Syria in demilitarised zone.
20 July King Abdullah of Jordan assassinated at the Al Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem.
1 September Security Council calls on Egypt to end its blockade of Suez Canal to shipping to and from Israel. Egypt refuses to comply.
13 September Palestine Conciliation Commission opens another round of talks in Paris with Israeli and Arab delegations.
28 September Israel offers non-aggression pacts to Arab states, calls for direct negotiations and offers compensation for Arab refugee’s property.
21 November Palestine Conciliation Commission announces failure of the talks.

1952

16 February Jordan adheres to Arab Collective Security Pact of 17 June 1950.
23 July Free Officers carry out Coup d’etat in Egypt; oust King Farouk.
28 July Egypt proclaimed republic.
11 August Hussein proclaimed Crown Prince following illness of King Talal. Council of regents appointed.
18 August Ben-Gurion welcomes Egyptian revolution in Knesset.
10 September Israel and West Germany sign Reparations Agreement in Luxembourg.
9 November Death of President Chaim Weizmann; succeeded by Yitzhak Ben-Zvi.
1 December Israel submits to General Assembly “Blue Print for Peace ill the Middle East.”

1953

11-29 May US Secretary of State Dulles visits Middle East.
2 September Israel starts work on Jordan River project. Syria complains to Security Council.
20 October US halts economic aid to Israel until it halts work on the Jordan River project. Israel complies and aid resumed 28 October.
15 October President Eisenhower appoints Ambassador Eric Johnston to help establish regional water development project based on Jordan River.
27 October Security Council asks Israel to suspend temporarily work on Jordan river project at B’not Ya’akov Bridge. Israel complies.
7 December Premier Ben-Gurion resigns and retires to Negev; he is succeeded by Moshe Sharett.

1954

22 January USSR vetoes Western draft resolution at Security Council permitting Israel to resume work on River Jordan project.
20 March USSR vetoes Western draft resolution at Security Council calling on Egypt to comply with 1951 resolution on Suez Canal.
17 April Colonel Nasser becomes Prime Minister of Egypt.
28 September Egypt seizes Israeli ship “Bat Galim” at Port Said.
6 October Israel offers at the UN non-aggression pact with Arab states.

1955

4-13 January Security Council discusses Israel’s complaint on “Bat Galim” seizure.
21 February Ben-Gurion returns to government as Defence Minister.
28 February Following intensified raids into Israel, IDF raids Egyptian military installations in Gaza.
April Israel excluded from participation in Bandung Conference of Asian and African nations.
26 August Secretary of State Dulles outlines new American plan for peace in the Middle East.
27 September Egyptian-Czechoslovak arms deal announced.
11 October Arab League rejects Eric Johnston’s Jordan River plan.
18 October Premier Sharett applies to US for permission to purchase arms.
20 October Egypt and Syria sign mutual defence treaty.
31 October Premier Sharett appeals to USSR not to encourage Arabs to launch war against Israel.
2 November Ben-Gurion again becomes Israel’s Prime Minister.
6 December Israel protests to Security Council, in note dated 22 November, continued Egyptian attacks from Gaza Strip.
26 December Cairo announces beginning of implementation of defence pacts with Syria and Saudi Arabia.

1956

I8 January Nasser announces new constitution for Egypt and pledges to re-conquer Palestine.
Jan.-April Continued Egyptian raids on Israeli patrols and border settlements.
25 January Ambassador Eban requests Secretary Dulles permission to acquire arms in the US
6 February Secretary Dulles suggests to Israel to seek security in UN and 1950 Tripartite declaration.
12 March Egypt, Syria anSaudi Arabia announce plans to co-ordinate their defence.
April UN Secretary General tours Middle East in an effort to re-establish armistice. Cease-fire achieved between Israel and Egypt on 19 April and with Jordan on 26 April.
6 May Jordan and Egypt announce plans to unify their forces.
9 May Dulles tells NATO in Paris that the US would not sell arms to Israel directly in order to avoid US-USSR confrontation in the Middle East.
May-October France delivers arms to Israel under secret agreement with tacit US approval.
31 May Syria and Jordan sign military agreement.
24 June Nasser elected President of Egypt.
20 July US refuses aid and credits for Egypt Aswan High Dam, Britain adopts similar position.
26 July Nasser announces nationalisation of Suez Canal.
16 August 22 nations meet in London on Suez Canal crisis; delegation sent to Cairo.
11 September Negotiations to solve Suez Canal crisis fail.
8 October Egypt and USSR reject proposals for international supervision of Suez Canal.
25 October Egypt, Syria and Jordan announce establishment of unified military command for “war of destruction against Israel.”
29 October Israeli forces enter Sinai to destroy Egyptian army and fedayeen bases and break naval blockade of Straits of Tiran. British and French forces invade Suez Canal zone.
2 November General Assembly calls for cease-fire in Egypt, withdrawal of foreign troops, restoration of freedom of navigation
5 November General Assembly establishes United Nations Emergency Force.
5 November USSR threatens use of force, including rockets, if Britain, France and Israel do not cease operations in Egypt.
6 November Israel completes occupation of Sinai save for strip along Suez Canal.
7 November General Assembly calls on Britain, France and Israel to withdraw from Sinai and Suez Canal zone. President Eisenhower demands Israeli compliance. Premier Bulganin threatens Israel.
21 December Last British and French troops leave Egypt.
24 December Beginning of Israeli forces withdrawal from Sinai.

1957

6 January President Eisenhower announces new US policy in Middle East.
15 January Israel evacuates El-Arish.
22 January Israel withdraws to mandatory border with Egypt, holds land strip to Sharm el-Sheikh and Gaza Strip.
February US pressure on Israel to withdraw from Gaza and Sharm el-Sheikh. General Assembly considers sanctions against Israel.
28 February US-Israel understanding on freedom of navigation and UN administration for Gaza Strip.
1 March Foreign Minister Meir announces to General Assembly Israel’s readiness to withdraw from all Egyptian territories.
10 March IDF withdraws to armistice lines.
11 March Egypt re-appoints military governor for Gaza.
15 March Egypt announces Israel not permitted to navigate through newly reopened Suez Canal.
14 April Eilat-Beersheba oil pipeline inaugurated.
3 June Ben-Gurion announces in Knesset Israel’s acceptance of “Eisenhower’s Doctrine.”
June Serious border clashes on Israel-Syria border.
November Israel completes Huleh reclamation project.

1958

30 January Dulles tells Baghdad Pact meeting that US is committed to defend allies under “Eisenhower Doctrine.”
1 February Egypt and Syria merge and form United Arab Republic.
14 February Jordan and Iraq form Arab Federation.
February More border incidents along Israel-Syria border.
8 March Yemen joins United Arab Republic.
20 March Syria fires at Israeli workers engaged in widening Jordan River bed.
April-May Clashes along Israel-Jordan line.
26 May .Jordanians kill UN officer and four Israeli policemen on Mount Scopus demilitarised zone.
June UN Secretary General Hammarskjold visits Middle East for talks on Israel-Jordan tension.
14 July Iraqi monarchy is overthrown, King killed. Civil war in Lebanon Jordan and Lebanon appeal for US military aid.
15 July US marines land in Beirut; British paratroopers land in Jordan.
2 August Arab Federation dissolved by Hussein.
August Foreign Minister Meir holds talks with Prime Minister De Gaulle and Foreign Ministers of France, Britain and Italy.
25 October US ends its military intervention in Lebanon.
7 November Syrian artillery shell Israeli settlements in Huleh Valley. 17 November Ambassador Eban again proclaims Israel’s readiness to compensate Arab refugees even before peace settlement.

1959

26 February Egypt detains Liberian Ship “Captain Manolis” in Suez Canal with cargo from Israel to Ceylon and Malaya.
13 March Egypt detains German ship “Lialot” in Suez Canal with Israeli cargo to Malaya and Philippines.
24 March Iraq withdraws from Baghdad Pact. Pact is re-named CENTO on 18 August.
21 May Egypt detain s Danish ship “Inge Toft”, confiscates cargo destined from Israel to Hong Kong and Japan.
5 October Egypt tells UN Israel will be permitted to use Suez Canal after Palestine refugee problem is settled.
18 October President Ben-Zvi starts a ten-day visit to Burma.
19 December Egypt detains Greek ship “Astypalea” in Suez Canal. Nasser disavows previous promises to UN Secretary General to allow passage of Israeli cargo on non-Israeli ships.

1960

18 January Egypt announces USSR will finance second stage of Aswan High Dam.
2 February Israel calls on Security Council to have Syria withdraw its troops from demilitarised zones.
20 February Jordan opposes in Arab League creation of a Palestinian entity.
10 March Ben-Gurion meets with President Eisenhower at White House.
14 March Ben-Gurion meets with Chancellor Adenauer in New York.
8 April Hammarskjold protests Egyptian seizure of ships carrying Israeli goods through Suez Canal.
23 May Ben-Gurion announces in Knesset capture of Eichmann.
June Ben-Gurion visits France, Belgium and Holland.
23 July Shali declares that Iran recognises Israel de facto. Egypt breaks its ties with Iran on 25 July.

1961

11 April Eichmann trial opens in Jerusalem.
23 May Ben-Gurion visits Canada and the US, meets with President Kennedy in New York.
6 June Ben-Gurion meets with De Gaulle in Paris.
29 September Syria dissolves union with Egypt.
26 December Egypt dissolves union with Yemen.

1962

16 March IDF raids Syrian positions east of Sea of Galilee, following Syrian shelling.
March-July State visits to Israel of Presidents of Costa-Rica, Gabon, Central African Republic, Liberia and Ivory Coast.
9 April Security Council condemns Israel for Galilee raid.
10 April Ben-Gurion rejects in Knesset Security Council condemnation.
July President Ben-Zvi visits Congo (Brazzaville), Central African Republic, Liberia, and Congo (Kinshasa).
September Civil war in Yemen. Egypt and Saudi Arabia intervene.

1963

8 February Pro-Egyptian Colonel Arif overthrows Qassim regime in Iraq.
8 March Officers group connected with Ba’ath party takes over power in Syria.
20 March Knesset calls on West Germany to forbid its scientists to aid Egyptian missiles and arms development.
17 April Egypt, Syria and Iraq agree on new federation; also call for liberation of Palestine.
6 May Ben-Gurion expresses Israel’s concern at new federation plans.
21 May Zalman Shazar elected third President of Israel following death of Yitzhak Ben-Zvi.
16 June Ben-Gurion resigns as Prime Minister and Minister of Defence.
24 June Levi Eshkol presents his government to Knesset.
22 July Nasser renounces Egypt’s federation agreement with Syria and Iraq, and denounces Syria’s Ba’ath party.
21 August Arab League meets to consider unified Arab support for Syria following serious clashes with Israel.
18 November Military coup in Iraq; Arif becomes President.

1964

15-17 January Arab Summit conference in Cairo discusses Jordan River diversion, establishment of a joint military command and establishment of Palestine Liberation Organisation.
29 May Palestine Liberation Organisation established in East Jerusalem.
2 June Eshkol ends two days of talks with President Johnson in White House.
June Israel’s National Water Carrier begins operations.
July Eshkol visits France, has talks with De Gaulle.
5-11 Septemb Arab Summit conference in Alexandria agrees on measures to divert Jordan River headwaters.

1965

12 February West Germany announces suspension of arms sales to Israel.
22 March Shooting incidents along Israel-Syria line.
25 March Eshkol meets Prime Minister Wilson in London.
12 May Israel and West Germany establish diplomatic relations.
26-30 May Arab summit conference in Cairo devises unified political and military policy against Israel, calls for liberation of Palestine.
27 May IDF raids targets in West Bank following series of incursions into Israel.
1 June Syria declares: Only solution for Palestine – elimination of Israel.
15 July Chief of Staff Rabin says Israel has effectively deterred Arab States from diverting Jordan River headwaters.
13-17 September Arab summit conference in Casablanca again calls for diversion of Jordan headwaters.
29 December U.S. confirms sale of tanks to Jordan.

1966

23 February Officers linked to extreme left Ba’ath faction seize power in Syria.
13-23 March President Shazar visits Nepal.
18 May Eshkol declares in Knesset Israel will not be first to introduce nuclear weapons to Middle East; calls for limitations on regional arms build-up.
19 May U.S. confirms sale of jet fighters to Israel.
May Eshkol visits Liberia, Senegal, Congo (Kinshasa), Malgash, Uganda and Kenya.
June President Shazar visits Uruguay, Argentina, Chile and Brazil.
25 July Serious clashes between Israel and Syria, followed by inconclusive Security Council debate.
4 November Syria and Egypt sign mutual defence treaty providing for joint command.
14 November Israel raids Samu village following incursions from Jordan.

1967

January Heavy fighting along Israel-Syria borders.
17 January Eshkol pledges, Israel will not allow Syria to drag it to war.
7 April Israeli aircraft shoot down 7 Syrian Migs.
11 April Security Council deplores Arab attacks on Israel.
14 May Nasser declares alert in Egypt and bolsters his forces in Sinai.
15 May Egyptian forces continue pouring into Sinai.
19 May UN Emergency Force withdrawn at Egypt’s request. Israel declares partial mobilization.
22 May Egypt re-imposes naval blockade on Straits of Tiran.
23 May Eshkol warns Egypt of gravity of blockade.
26 May Foreign Minister Eban meets President Johnson after talks with De Gaulle and Wilson.
30 May Egypt and Jordan sign mutual defence pact in Cairo.
23 May Security Council adjourns, having failed to take any action on Middle East crisis.
1 June Government of national unity formed in Jerusalem.
5 June Israel air-force strikes at Egyptian and Syrian air bases. IDF advances into Sinai. Eshkol conveys message to Hussein through UN Chief of Staff in Jerusalem Israel has no intentions of attacking Jordan. At 1020 Jordan launches attack on Israel.
6 June IDF advances in Sinai, West Bank and Jerusalem.
7 June IDF liberates Jerusalem, completes occupation of West Bank and Gaza Strip. Jordan accepts Security Council call for cease-fire.
8 June IDF reaches Suez Canal, completing occupation of entire Sinai peninsula. Egypt accepts cease-fire.
9 June President Nasser resigns, withdraws resignation some hours later.
10 June Israel occupies Golan Heights. Syria accepts cease-fire. USSR and other East European nations, except Rumania, sever diplomatic relations with Israel.
12 June Israel announces it will not withdraw to 1949 armistice lines before peace is achieved by direct negotiations.
June-July Draft resolutions denouncing Israel as aggressor, calling for total evacuation of occupied areas are rejected by General Assembly.
19 June President Johnson Outlines 5 point US peace plan.
28 June Israel proclaims unification of Jerusalem.
1 September Arab summit conference in Khartum proclaims policy of no peace, no recognition and no negotiations with Israel.
21 October Israeli destroyer “Eilat” sunk off Sinai coast.
25 October Israeli artillery destroys Egyptian oil refineries in Suez.
22 November Security Council adopts resolution 242; Gunnar Jarring appointed special representative of the Secretary General.

1968

7 February Eshkol ends two days of talks with President Johnson in Texas.
February Constant clashes with terrorist gangs along Israel-Jordan cease-fire lines.
12 March Nasser proclaims three stage doctrine of struggle against Israel.
21 March IDF raids village of Kararneli in Jordan to prevent massing of terrorists.
5 July Egypt suggests UN force in Sinai instead of direct talks. Israel rejects plan.
8 October Foreign Minister Eban offers nine point peace plan at UN General Assembly. Egypt rejects plan and demands that Ambassador Jarring work out a timetable for Israeli withdrawal from Occupied areas.
27 October Fighting breaks out again along Suez Canal, Suez oil refineries again hit.
19 November Israel allows return to occupied areas of thousands of refugees who fled to Jordan in Six Day War.
2 December Heavy fighting erupts on Israel-Jordan borders.
4 December Israel aircraft attack Iraqi artillery units in Jordan.
9 December President-elect Nixon’s special envoy Governor Scranton promises a more “even-handed” US policy.
26 December Arab terrorists attack Israeli airliner in Athens.
27 December US announces sale of Phantom jets to Israel.
28 December IDF raids Beirut airport, destroying 13 airliners without loss of life.

1969

18 February Israeli airliner attacked in Zurich.
26 February Premier Eshkol dies in Jerusalem; Succeeded on 7 March by Golda Meir.
14 March Foreign Minister Eban meets President Nixon. Israel denounces attempts of the four powers to reach Middle East settlement.
19 April Soviet missiles installed in Egypt, following announcement by Nasser that Egypt has completed rehabilitation of its army and is moving to stage of active defence.
23 April Egypt repudiates cease-fire along Suez Canal.
5 May Premier Meir says in Knesset only signed peace treaties can replace present cease-fire arrangements.
11 May Jordan forbids terrorist raids against Israel from its territory, following Israel warning and raids.
25 May Coup d’etat in Sudan.
7 July UN Secretary General U Thant proclaims that war of attrition taking place along Suez Canal.
20 July Israel airforce begins bombing targets inside Egypt.
31 July Israel repels Syrian attack in Golan Heights.
23 August Nasser calls for all out war against Israel.
29 August American airliner hijacked to Damascus; two Israeli passengers detained.
1 September Coup d’etat in Libya overthrows monarchy. Moammer Qaddafi heads Revolutionary Command Council.
October Secret US-USSR talks on Middle East peace. Talks fail when Nasser rejects plan.
13 October Israel proposes home rule for West Bank, retaining responsibility for security.
9 December Secretary of State Rogers announces peace plan based on Israeli withdrawal in exchange for binding peace treaty with Arabs.
12 December Israel rejects Rogers plan.

1970

22 January Israel occupies for one day island of Shadwan at entrance of Gulf of Suez.
2 February Heavy fighting on Golan Heights.
22 February Palestinian terrorists blow up Swissair jet in mid air.
March USSR steps up missile shipment to Egypt.
April Israel announces Soviet pilots are flying operational missions for Egyptian airforce.
9 May Israel warns against installation of Soviet missiles close to Suez Canal.
25 June Secretary Rogers discloses US initiative to end war of attrition along Suez Canal for 90 days and resumption of stalled Jarring mission.
23 July Egypt, after Nasser visit to Moscow, accepts US initiative.
26 July Jordan accepts US initiative.
4 August Israel accepts US initiative, is assured of continued military and economic aid from the US
7 August Cease-fire goes into effect on Suez Canal.
7 August Egypt violates cease-fire by moving missiles into “stand-still” zone. Israel protests to US
September Heavy fighting between Jordanian army and Palestinian terrorists. Syria invades Jordan. US moves Sixth Fleet to Eastern Mediterranean.
16 September Hussein proclaims martial law in Jordan and installs military government to fight terrorists.
18 September Premier Meir meets President Nixon. Israel refuses to return to Jarring talks until Egyptian missiles are withdrawn.
27 September Arab heads of state agree on formula to end hostilities in Jordan.
28 September President Nasser dies, succeeded by Anwar Sadat.
5 November UN General Assembly calls for 90 days extension of cease-fire and resumption of Jarring talks.

1971

8 February Jarring stymies his mission by demanding prior Israeli and Egyptian commitments before entering into talks.
9 February Israel and Egypt accept in principle idea of interim agreement for re-opening of Suez Canal.
15 February Sadat formally informs Jarring Egypt willing to envisage peace arrangement with Israel – on his conditions.
26 February Israel informs Jarring it is keen to negotiate peace arrangements with Arab states but cannot give prior commitments on borders and other items to be negotiated. Jarring mission deadlocked.
12 March In interview to London Times Mrs. Meir declares Israel wants to retain Sharm el-Sheikh, Jerusalem and to demilitarise Sinai.
April Fighting erupts again in Jordan between the King’s forces and Palestinian terrorists.
17 April Egypt, Syria and Libya sign agreement to form Federation of Arab Republics.
1 May US Secretary of State Rogers visits Middle East for talks on interim agreement.
27 May Egypt and USSR sign 15-year treaty of friendship and co-operation.
23 July Sadat is granted full powers by Arab Socialist Union to take action to recover Arab lands from Israel.
12 August Syria breaks off diplomatic ties with Jordan following border clashes.
4 October US presents its views on interim agreement in UN General Assembly speech by Secretary Rogers.
6 October Israel and Egypt reject Rogers proposals.
28 November Jordanian Premier Wasfi Tal assassinated in Cairo by Palestinian terrorists.
2 December Premier Meir meets President Nixon in Washington.

1972

15 March Hussein announces plan to make Jordan federal state. Israel, Egypt, Syria, Libya reject the plan.
6 April Egypt breaks off diplomatic relations with Jordan because of Hussein’s federal plan.
18 July Sadat terminates services of Soviet military advisers.
5 September 11 Israeli athletes murdered by Black September terrorists in Munich’s Olympic Village.
September Stepped up Soviet military shipments to Syria, including missiles for the defence of Damascus.
18 September Sadat and Qameet in Cairo to discuss merger of Egypt and Libya.
15 October Israel strikes at terrorist bases in Syria and Lebanon.
29 October West Germany releases Munich killers after German airliner is hijacked. Terrorists by Libya.
1 November USSR agrees to restore missiles to Egypt’s air defence system.

1973

1 March Premier Meir meets President Nixon in Washington.
1 March Palestinian terrorists kill US Ambassador, his deputy head of mission, and Belgian diplomat in Khartum.
28 March Sadat proclaims himself military governor of Egypt, and declares martial law.
6 October Egyptian forces cross Suez Canal, Syrian forces attack Golan Heights.
7 October Syrian attack contained.
8 October Israeli counter-offensive in Sinai fails.
10 October Syrian forces driven back in Golan. Israel stabilises new line in Sinai.
12 October IDF advances to within 28 miles from Damascus.
13 October IDF repels Jordanian and Iraqi forces fighting with Syrians in the Golan Heights.
15 October Countering massive sea and air lift of Soviet arms to Egypt and Syria, US starts air lift to Israel.
15 October Israeli forces cross Suez Canal and establish bridgehead.
16 October Premier Kosygin arrives in Cairo.
17 October Sadat proposes a cease-fire.
17 October Arab oil producing states announce 10 percent reduction in oil production and impose total embargo on US and Netherlands.
19 October President Nixon asks Congress to appropriate $2.2 billion for emergency aid to Israel.
19 October Libya halts oil exports.
20 October Saudi Arabia halts oil export to US
20 October Israel expands its bridgehead on West Bank of Suez Canal, besieging Third Egyptian Army.
20 October Secretary Kissinger arrives in Moscow for talks.
22 October US and USSR propose to Security Council cease-fire resolution, which is adopted on that day. Fighting continues until
25 October President Nixon orders world-wide alert as fear of Soviet military intervention on Egypt’s behalf mounts.
25 October Security Council establishes UNEF to supervise cease-fire.
31 October Premier Meir arrives in Washington for talks with President Nixon and Secretary Kissinger.
11 November Israel and Egypt sign 6 point agreement for the stabilisation of the cease-fire.
21 December Geneva Peace Conference on Middle East is held.

1974

January Shuttle diplomacy by Dr. Kissinger to bring about Israel-Egyptian separation of forces agreement.
18 January Israel-Egypt separation of forces agreement is signed in kilometre 101 on the Cairo-Suez road.
27 February Dr. Kissinger brings to Israel list of Israeli prisoners held in Syria. Israel talks with Syria through Dr. Kissinger.
4 March Israeli army deployed along new lines in Sinai in accordance with disengagement agreement.
March Continued war of attrition along the Israel-Syria cease-fire line.
18 March Arab states lift oil embargo on the US
10 April Mrs. Meir’s government resigns.
15 May 22 Israeli children are slain by Palestinian terrorists in Ma’alot.
31 May Israel and Syria sign separation of forces agreement.
3 June Yitzhak Rabin presents his government to Knesset.

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