M. K. Gandhi
Sevagram, Via Wardha ( India )
1st July 1942
I twice missed coming to your great country. I have the privilege having numerous friends there both known and unknown to me. Many of my countrymen have received and are still receiving higher education in America. I know too that several have taken shelter there. I have profited greatly by the writings of Thoreau and Emerson. I say this to tell you how much I am connected with your country. Of Great Britain I need say nothing beyond mentioning that in spite of my intense dislike of British Rule, I have numerous personal friends in England whom I love as dearly as my own people. I had my legal education there. I have therefore nothing but good wishes for your country and Great Britain. You will therefore accept my word that my present proposal, that the British should unreservedly and without reference to the wishes of the people of India immediately withdraw their rule, is prompted by the friendliest intention. I would like to turn into good will the ill will which, whatever may be said to the contrary, exists in India towards Great Britain and thus enable the millions of India to play their part in the present war.
My personal position is clear. I hate all war. If therefore I could persuade my countrymen, they would make a most effective and decisive contribution in favour of an honourable peace. But I know that all of us have not a living faith in non-violence. Under foreign rule however we can make no effective contribution of any kind in this war, except as helots.
The policy of the Indian National Congress, largely guided by me, has been one of non-embarrassment to Britain, consistantly with the honourable working of the Congress, admittedly the largest political organisation, of the longest standing in India. The British policy as exposed by the Cripps mission and rejected by almost all parties has opened our eyes and has driven me to the proposal I have made. I hold that the full acceptance of my proposal and that alone can put the Allied cause on an unassailable basis. I venture to think that the Allied declaration, that the Allies are fighting to make the world safe for freedom of the individual and for democracy sounds hollow, so long as India and, for that matter, Africa are exploited by Great Britain, and America has the Negro problem in her own home. But in order to avoid all complications, in my proposal I have confined myserlf only to India. If India becomes free, the rest must follow, if it does not happen simultaneously.
In order to make my proposal fool-proof I have suggested that, if the Allies think it necessary, they may keep their troops, at their own expense, in India, not for keeping internal order but for preventing Japanese aggression and defending China. So far as India is concerned, she must become free even as America and Great Britain are. The Allied troops will remain in India during the war under treaty with the Free India Government that may be formed by the people of India without any outside interference, direct or indirect.
It is on behalf of this proposal that I write this to enlist your active sympathy.
I hope that it would commend itself to you.
Mr. Louis Fischer is carrying this letter to you.
If there is any obscurity in my letter, you have but to send me word and I shall try to clear it.
I hope finally that you will not resent this letter as an intrusion but take it as an approach from a friend and well wisher of the Allies.
M. K. Gandhi
President Franklin D. Roosevelt
August 1, 1942
My dear Mr. Gandhi;
I have received your letter of July 1, 1942, which you have thoughtfully sent me in order that I may better understand your plans, which I well know may have far-reaching effect upon developments important to your country and to mine.
I am sure that you will agree that the United States has consistently striven for and supported policies of fair dealing, of fair play, and of all related principles looking towards the creation of harmonious relations between nations. Nevertheless, now that war has come as a result of Axis dreams of world conquest, we, together with many other nations, are making a supreme effort to defeat those who would deny forever all hope of freedom throughout the world. I am enclosing a copy of an address of July 23 by the Secretary of State, made with my complete approval, which illustrates the attitude of this Government.
I shall hope that our common interest in democracy and righteousness will enable your countrymen and mine to make common cause against a common enemy.
Very sincerely yours,
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT
Copy of speech by
Secretary of State,
July 23, 1942.
Mr. M. K. Gandhi,
Sevagram Via Wardha,
Central Provinces, India.