जनगणमन-अधिनायक जय हे भारतभाग्यविधाता! पंजाब सिन्धु गुजरात मराठा द्राविड़ उत्कल बंग विन्ध्य हिमाचल यमुना गंगा उच्छलजलधितरंग तव शुभ नामे जागे, तव शुभ आशिष मागे, गाहे तव जयगाथा। जनगणमंगलदायक जय हे भारतभाग्यविधाता! जय हे, जय हे, जय हे, जय जय जय जय हे।। अहरह तव आह्वान प्रचारित, शुनि तव उदार बाणी हिन्दु बौद्ध शिख जैन पारसिक मुसलमान खृष्टानी पूरब पश्चिम आसे […]

The Aims of Yiddish Philology (1913) by Ber Borochov Of all the sciences, philology plays the greatest role in the national revival of oppressed peoples. Philology is not a hollow theory for scholars and sedentary academics but a practical guide for the people. It does encompass certain theoretical and historical components such as the history of the language and culture […]

Speech by Léon Gambetta The peasantry is intellectually several centuries behind the enlightened and educated classes in this country. The distance between them and us is immense. We have received a classical or scientific education—even the imperfect one of our day. We have learned to read our history, to speak our language, while (a cruel thing to say) so many […]

Napoleon Bonaparte-Speech to the Directory Delivered on December 10, 1797 CITIZENS, the French people, in order to be free, had kings to combat. To obtain a Constitution founded on reason, it had the prejudices of eighteen centuries to overcome, The Constitution of the year 3 and you have triumphed over all obstacles. Religion, feudalism, royalty have successively for twenty centuries […]

Letter to the Emperor of Austria October 1808. Sire, my Brother: I thank your Royal and Imperial Majesty for the letter you have been so good as to write me, and which Baron Vincent delivered. I never doubted your Majesty, but I nevertheless feared for a moment that hostilities would be renewed between us. There is, at Vienna, a faction […]

Letter to the American Minister, Armstrong, 1809. “The seas belong to all nations. Any vessel, sailing under whatsoever flag, recognized and avowed by her, should be as much at home in the midst of the seas as if she were in her own ports. The flag floating from the mast of a merchant vessel should be respected as much as […]

NAPOLEON, EMPEROR OF FRANCE. Letter to the Pope, 1804. Most Holy Father: The happy effect produced upon the character and morality of my people by the reëstablishment of religion induces me to beg your Holiness to give me a new proof of your interest in my destiny, and in that of this great nation, in one of the most important […]

“Napoleon. “This 15th April, 1821, at Longwood, Island of St. Helena. This is my Testament or act of my last will. “1. I die in the Apostolical Roman religion, in the bosom of which I was born, more than fifty years since. “2. It is my wish that my ashes may repose on the banks of the Seine, in the […]

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