When sections 92, 94 and 95 of the Evidence Act are applied to a string of correspondence between parties, it is important to remember that each document must be taken to be part of a coherent whole, which happens only when the “plain” language of the document is first applied accurately to existing facts.

In the passing, we may also refer to the observations of a three-Judge Bench of the Supreme Court in Smt. Kamala Devi vs. Seth Takhatmal & Anr.: (1964) 2 SCR 152, in which the court observed as follows:- “8. … Sections 94 to 98 of the Indian Evidence. Act afford guidance in the construction of documents; they also indicate when […]

Defence Budget: 2021-22 Union Budget for the Financial Year 2021-22, presented by the Finance Minister Smt Nirmala Sitharaman in the Parliament on February 01, 2021, has given a historic push to defence modernisation by increasing defence capital outlay by 18.75 per cent. Defence allocation in the budget has been increased to Rs 4,78,195.62 crore for the Financial Year 2021-22. Excluding Defence Pension, the […]

The Report of the Fifteenth Finance Commission DATED: 01 FEB 2021 Finance Commission The Fifteenth Finance Commission (XVFC)’s ToR was unique and wide-ranging in many ways. The Commission was asked to recommend performance incentives for States in many areas like the power sector, adoption of DBT, solid waste management etc. Another unique ToR was to recommend a funding mechanism for […]

under Order 41, rule 1 of the CPC it is stated that a memorandum shall not be filed or presented unless it is accompanied etc.; in s. 17 of the Small Causes Courts Act, the expression is ‘at the time of presenting the application’. In section 6 of the Court Fees Act, the words are ‘file’ or ‘shall be reviewed. It would appear from this that the legislature was not at a loss for words if it had wanted to express itself in such forceful manner as is now suggested by counsel for the State.

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