Judicial Dictionary

Financial debt and operational debt

In Swiss Ribbons Pvt. Ltd. v. Union of India(2019) 4 SCC 17 A perusal of the definition of “financial creditor” and “financial debt” makes it clear that a financial debt is a debt together with interest, if any, which is disbursed against the consideration for time value of money. It may further be money that is borrowed or raised in any of the manners prescribed in Section 5(8) or otherwise, as Section 5(8) is an inclusive definition. On the other hand, an “operational debt” would include a claim in respect of the provision of goods or services, including employment, or a debt in respect of payment of dues arising under any law and payable to the Government or any local authority.”

In Pioneer Urban Land and Infrastructure Ltd vs. Union of India(2019) 8 SCC 416 in the following terms:

“70. The definition of “financial debt” in Section 5(8) then goes on to state that a “debt” must be “disbursed” against the consideration for time value of money. “Disbursement” is defined in Black’s Law Dictionary (10th Edn.) to mean:

“1. The act of paying out money, commonly from a fund or in settlement of a debt or account payable.

2. The money so paid; an amount of money given for a particular purpose.”

71. In the present context, it is clear that the expression “disburse” would refer to the payment of instalments by the allottee to the real estate developer for the particular purpose of funding the real estate project in which the allottee is to be allotted a flat/apartment. The expression “disbursed” refers to money which has been paid against consideration for the “time value of money”. In short, the “disbursal” must be money and must be against consideration for the “time value of money”, meaning thereby, the fact that such money is now no longer with the lender, but is with the borrower, who then utilises the money….”

The report of the Insolvency Law Committee dated 26 March 2018 has discussed the interpretation of the term “time value of money” and stated:

“The current definition of ‘financial debt‘ Under Section 5(8) of the Code uses the words “includes”, thus the kinds of financial debts illustrated are not exhaustive. The phrase “disbursed against the consideration for the time value of money” has been the subject of interpretation only in a handful of cases under the Code. The words “time value” have been interpreted to mean compensation or the price paid for the length of time for which the money has been disbursed. This may be in the form of interest paid on the money, or factoring of a discount in the payment.”


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