The Natural History-Pliny the Elder-77CE



Book II. Contents (i-iii) The world is it finite? is it one? its shape; its motion; reason for its name. (iv) The elements. (v) God. (vi) The planetstheir nature. (vii) Eclipses, solar and lunar. Night. (viii-x) The starstheir magnitude; astronomical discoveries. (xi) The moon’s motion.(xii-xvi). Motions of the planets; theory of their light; causes of apparent recession and approach; general properties of planets; reason for changes of colour. (xvii) The sun’s motion; reason for inequality of days. (xviii) Thunderbolts, why attributed to Jove. (xix) The starstheir distances apart. (xx) Music from the stars. (xxi) Dimensions of the world. (xxii, xxiii) Shooting stars. Comets; their nature, position and kinds. (xxiv) Identification of stars–method of Hipparchus. (xxv-xxxv) Sky portentsrecorded instances torches, shafts, skybeams, sky-yawning, colours of the sky, sky-flame, sky-wreaths, sudden rings, prolonged solar eclipses, several suns, several moons, daylight at night, burning shield; an unique sky-portent. (xxxvi) Disruption of stars. (xxxvii) The `Castores.’ (xxxviii) The air. (xxxix-xli). Fixed seasons. Rise of dogstar. Regular effect of seasons. (xlii, iii) Irregular seasons. Rain storms. Showers of stones, their reason. Thunderbolts and lightnings. (xliv-viii) Echoits reason. Windstheir Winds, natures and behaviour. (xlix, i). Cloud-burst, typhoon, whirlwinds, presteres, tornadoes, other portentous kinds of storms. (li-vi) Thunderboltswhat countries immune from them and why; their kinds, their peculiarities; Tuscan and Roman observances connected with; method of calling down; general properties; what objects never struck. (lvii) Showers of milk, blood, flesh, iron, wool, bricks. (lviii) Portents.(lix) Stones falling from the skyAnaxagoras as to. (lx) Rainbow. (lxi). Nature of hail, snow, frost, cloud, dew. (lxii) Local peculiarities of the sky. (lxiii-v) Nature of the earth; its shape; antipodesdo they exist? (lxvi-viii) Waterhow linked with earth? Rivers–their reason. Is the earth surrounded by the ocean? What portion of the earth is inhabited? (lxix). The earth at the centre of the world. (lxx) Obliquity of zones. Inequality of climates. (lxxii) Eclipseswhere invisible, and why? (lxxiii) Reason for daylight on earth; gnomonics of daylight. (xxv-vii). Absence of shadowswhere and when? where twice yearly? where shadows travel in opposite direction? Where days are longest and shortest? (lxxviii) The first clock. (lxxix) How days are observed. (lxxx) Racial difference and latitude. (lxxxi-vi) Earthquakes. Chasms. Signs of impending earthquake. Precautions against impending earthquakes. Records of unique earth portents. Marvels of earthquake. (lxxxvii-xciv) treat of sea, where occurred? Emergence of islands reason for; instances and dates of. Disruption of straits. Junction of islands with mainland. Total inundation. Shrinkage of land areas. Cities engulfed by sea. (xcv) Air-holes. (xcvi) Continuous earth-tremors. Islands in constant agitation. (xcvii) Places where rain does not fall. (xcviii) Collection of earth marvels. (xcix f.) Rise and fall of tidesreason for. Where do irregular tides occur? (ci-cv) Marvels of the sea: influence of the moon on earth and sea; of the sun; why is the sea salt? where is it deepest? (cvi) Remarkable properties of springs and rivers. (cvii-cx) Combined marvels of fire and water: mineral pitch; naphtha; regions constantly glowing. (cxi) Marvels of fire alone. (cxii) Dimensions of entire earth. (cxiii) Harmonic principle of the world.Total: 417 facts, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Marcus Varro, Sulpicius Gallus, the Emperor Titus Caesar, Quintus Tubero, Tullius Tiro, Lucius Piso, Titus Livy, Cornelius Nepos, Sebosus, Caelius Antipater, Fabianus, Antias, Mucianus, Caecina On the Tuscan System, Tarquitius ditto, Julius Aquila ditto, Sergius Paullus. Foreign authorities; the Pythagorean writers, Hipparchus, Timaeus, Sosigenes, Petosiris, Nechepsus, Posidonius, Anaximander, Epigenes, Eudoxus, Democritus, Critodemus, Thrasyllus, Serapion On Sun-dials, Euclid, Coeranus the philosopher, Dicaearchus, Archimedes, Onesicritus, Eratosthenes, Pytheas, Herodotus, Aristotle, Ctesias, Artemidorus of Ephesus, Isidore of Charax, Theopompus.

Book III. Contents:  races, seas, towns, harbours, mountains, rivers, dimensions, present and past populations of (iii) Baetica, (iv) North-east Spain, (v) Province of Narbonne, (vi-x) Italy to the southernmost point, (ix the Tiber, Rome), (xi-xiv) 64 islands (including the Balearics, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily), (xv-xxii) Italy from the south to Ravenna (the Po), Transpadane Italy, (xxiii) Istria, (xxiv) the Alps and Alpine races, (xxv-xxx) Illyria, Liburnia, Dalmatia, Noricum, Pannouia, Moesia, Ionian and Adriatic islands.Totals: … famous rivers; famous mountains; … islands; … extinct towns or races; … facts, researches and observations.

Authorities: Turanius Gracilis, Cornelius Nepos, Livy, Cato the Censor, Marcus Agrippa, Marcus Varro, His Late Majesty Augustus, Varro of Atax, Antias, Hyginus, Lucius Vetus, Pomponius Mela, the elder Curio, Caelius, Arruntius, Sebosus, Licinius Mucianus, Fabricius Tuscus, Lucius Ateius, Ateius Capito, Verrius Flaccus, Lucius Piso, Gellianus, Valerian. Foreign authorities: Artemidorus, Alexander the Learned, Thucydides, Theophrastus, Isidorus, Theopompus, Metrodorus of Scepsis, Callicrates, Xenophon of Lampsacns, Diodorus of Syracuse, Nymphodorus, Calliphanes, Timagenes.

Book IV. Contents:  races, seas, towns, harbours, mountains, rivers, dimensions, present and past populations of (i-iv) Epirus, (v-x) Achaia, (xi-xiii) Greece, (xiv-xviii) Thessaly, Magnesia, Macedonia, Thrace, (xix-xxiii) islands off these coasts, including Crete, Euboea, the Cyclades, the Sporades, (xxiv) Dardanelles, Black Sea, Sea of Azoy, (xxv. f.) Dacia, Sarmatia, Seythia, (xxvii) Islands of black Sea, (xxviii f.) Germany, (xxx) North Sea Islands, 96 including Britain, (xxxi-xxxiii) Belgium, Lyonnaise, Aquitaine, (xxxiv) North-eastern Spain, (xxxv) Western Spain and Portugal. (xxxvi) Atlantic islands. (xxxvii) Dimensions of the whole of Europe.Totals … towns and races; … famous rivers; … famous mountains; … islands; extinct towns or races; … facts, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Cato the Censor, Marcus Varro, Marcus Agrippa, His Late Majesty Augustus, Varro of Atax, Cornelius Nepos, Hyginus, Lucius Vetus, Pomponius Mela, Licinius Mucianus, Fabricius Tuscus, Ateius Capito, Ateius the scholar. Foreign authorities: Polybius, Hecataeus, Hellanicus, Damastes, Eudoxus, Dicaearchus, Timosthenes, Eratosthenes, Ephorus, Crates the philologist, Serapion of Antioch, Callimachus, Artemidorus, Apollodorus, Agathocles, Timaeus of Sicily, Myrsilus, Alexander the Learned, Thucydides, Dosiades, Anaximander, Philistides of Mallus, Dionysius, Aristides, Callidemus, Menaechmus, Aglaosthenes, Anticides, Heraclides, Philemon, Xenophon, Pytheas, Isidore, Philonides, Xenagoras, Astynomos, Staphylus, Aristocritus, Metrodorus, Cleobulus, Posidonius.

Book V. Contents: races, seas, towns, harbours, mountains, rivers, dimensions, present and past populations of (i-viii) the Mauritanias, Numidia, Africa, the Syrtes, Cyrenaiea, African islands, remote parts of Africa, (ix-xi) EgyptChora, Thebaid, Nile, (xii) Arabian coast of Egyptian Sea, (xiii-xix) Idumea, Syria, Palestine, Samaria, Judaca, Phoenicia, Hollow Syria, Syria of Antioch, (xx-xxxiii) Euphrates, Cilicia and adjoining races, Isaurica, Omauads, Pisidia, Lycaonia, Pamphylia, Taurus Mountain, Lyci, Caria, Ionia, Aeolid, Troad and adjoining races, (xxxiv-ix) Islands on Asiatic coast (212) including Cyprus, Rhodes, Cos, Samos, Chios, Lesbos, (xl-xliii) Dardanelles, Mysia, Phrygia, Galatia and adjoining races, Bithynia.Totals: … towns and races; … famous dyers; … famous mountains; 118 islands; … extinct towns and races; facts, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Agrippa, Suetonius Paulinus, Marcus Varro, Varro of Atax, Cornelius Nepos, Hyginus, Lucius Vetus, Mela, Domitius Corbulo, Licinins Mucianus, Claudius Caesar, Arruntius, Livy junior, Sebosus, TriumphsOfficial records. Foreign authorities: King Juba, Hecataeus, Hellanicus, Damastes, Dicaearchus, Baeto, Timosthenes, Philonides, Xenagoras, Astynomus, Staphylus, Dionysius, Aristotle, Aristocritus, Ephorus, Eratosthenes, Hipparchus, Panaetius, Serapio of Antioch, Callimachus, Agathocles, Polybius, Timaeus the mathematician, Herodotus, Myrsilus, Alexander the Learned, Metrodorus, Posidonius’s Circumnavigation or Round Guide, Sotades, Pindar, Aristarchus of Sicyon, Eudoxus, Antigenes, Callicrates, Xenophon of Lampsacus, Diodorus of Syracuse, Hanno, Himilco, Nymphodorus, Calliphanes, Artemidorus, Megasthenes, Isidore, Cleobulus, Aristocreon.

Book VI. Contents: races, seas, towns, harbours, mountains, rivers, dimensions, present and past populations of (i) Pontus, Mariandyni, (ii) Paphlagonia, (iii, viii) Cappadocia, (iv) region of Themiscyra and its races, Heniochi, (v) Colic region and races, Achaean races, other races in the same area, (vi-xii) Cimmerian Bosphorus, Maeotis and adjacent races, Lesser Armenia, Greater Armenia, River Cyrus, River Araxes, Albania, Iberia and adjoining Gates of Caucasia, (xiii) Black Sea Islands, (xiv) races towards the Scythian Ocean, (xv-xix) Caspian and Hyrcanian Sea, Adiabene, Media, Caspian Gates, races round Hyrcanian Sea, Scythian races, (xx-xxxvi) regions towards the Eastern Sea, China, India (Ganges, Indus), Taprobane, Arians and adjoining races, voyages to India, Carmania, Persian Gulf, Parthian kingdoms, Mesopotamia, Tigris, Arabia, Gulf of Red Sea, Trogodyte country, Ethiopia, Islands of Ethiopian Sea. (xxxvii) The Fortunate Islands. (xxxviii f.) Lands compared by measurements, division of lands into parallels and equal shadows.Totals: 1195 towns; 576 races, 115 famous rivers, 38 famous mountains, 108 islands, 95 extinct towns and races; 2214 facts and investigations and observations.

Authorities: Marcus Agrippa, Marcus Varro, Varro of Atax, Cornelius Nepos, Hyginus, Lucius Vetus, Pomponius Mela, Domitius Corbulo, Licinius Mucianus, Claudius Caesar, Arruntius, Sebosus, Fabricius Tuscus, Titus Livy junior, Seneca, Nigidius. Foreign authorities: King Juba, Hecataeus, Hellanicus, Damastes, Eudoxus, Dicaearchus, Baeto, Timosthenes, Patrocles, Demodamas, Clitarchus, Eratosthenes, Alexander the Great, Ephorus, Hipparchus, Panaetius, Callimachus, Artemidorus, Apollodorus, Agathocles, Polybius, Timaeus of Sicily, Alexander the Learned, Isidore, Amometus, Metrodorus, Posidonius, Onesicritus, Nearchus, Megasthenes, Diognetus, Aristocreon, Bion, Dalion, the younger Simonides, Basilis, Xenophon of Lampsacus.

Book VII. Contents: (ii f.) Remarkable racial bodily configurations; monstrous births. (iv-xi) Human generation: periods of pregnancy from 7 months to 13 shown by famous examples; significant prenatal indications of sex in the pregnant; monstrous births, cases of surgical delivery; meaning of vopiscus; human conception; human generation; cases of likeness; cases of very numerous progeny. (xii) Age-limit of procreation. (xiii) Exceptional periods of pregnancy. (xiv) Theory of generation. (xv) Investigation as to teeth; as to infants. (xvi f.) Instances of exceptional size. Premature births. (xviii-xxiii) Bodily distinctions, exceptional strength, remarkable speed, exceptional sight, marvellous hearing, bodily endurance. (xxiv-xxvi) Memory, mental rigour, clemency, magnanimity. (xxvii) Supremely distinguished exploits. (xxviii-xxxi) Three supreme virtues in the same person, supreme innocence, supreme bravery, exceptional talents. Who are the wisest men? (xxxii) The most useful rules of conduct. (xxxiii) Divination. (xxxiv-vi). The man deemed the best, the most chaste matrons; instances of extreme piety. (xxxvii-ix) Cases of eminence in the sciences and arts, astronomy, philology, medicine, geometry, architecture, painting, sculpture in bronze, in marble, in ivory; engraving. (xl-xlvi) Remarkable prizes of mankind; supreme happiness; rarity of its continuance in families; remarkable cases of change of fortune; twice proscribed; remarkable cases of honours; ten supremely happy things in the case of a single person; misfortunes of his late Majesty Augustus. (xlvii f.) Whom the gods have judged happiest; what man they have commanded to be worshipped as a god in his lifetime. A remarkable flash of lightning. (xlix) Cases of exceptional longevity. (l) Various modes of birth. (ii) Diseases in various cases. (lii-lvi) Death; cases of the dead coming to life again; instances of sudden death; burial; ghosts; the soul. (lvii-lx) Discoveries in life; matters on which there was the earliest agreement of the races; ancient literature; date of earliest barbers, earliest time-pieces.Total: 747 facts, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Verrius Flaccus, Gnaeus Gellius, Licinius Mucianus, Masurins Sabinus, Agrippina wife of Claudius, Marcus Cicero, Asinius Pollio, Marcus Varro, Messala Rufus, Cornelius Nepos, Virgil, Livy, Cordus, Melissus, Sebosus, Cornelius Celsus, Valerius Maximus, Trogus, Nigidius Figulus, Pomponius Atticus, Pedianus Asconius, Fabianus, Cato the Censor, Official Records, Fabius Vestalis. Foreign authorities: Herodotus, Aristeas, Baeton, Isigonus, Crates, Agatharchides, Calliphanes, Aristotle, Nymphodorus, Apollonides, Phylarchus, Damon, Megasthenes, Ctesias, Tauron, Eudoxus, Onesicritus, Clitarchus, Duris, Artemidorus, the medical authors Hippocrates and Asclepiades, Hesiod, Anacreon, Theopompus, Hellanicus, Damastes, Ephorus, Epigenes, Berosus, Petosiris, Nechepsus, Alexander the Learned, Xenophon, Callimachus, Democritus, the historian Diyllus, Strato’s Reply to Ephorus’s ‘Heuremata,’ Heraclides of Pontus, the Tragoedumena of Asclepiades, Phulostephanus, Hegesias, Archemachus, Thucydides, Mnesigiton, Xenagoras, Metrodorus of Scepsis, Anticides, Critodemus.

Book VIII. Contents: (i-xi) Elephants, their sense; when first harnessed; their docility; remarkable achievements of; instinctive sense of dangers in wild animals; elephants, when first seen in Italy; fights between elephants; modes of capture; modes of domestication; their propagation, and general physiology; native habitat; hostility between elephants and great snakes. (xii) Intelligence of animals. (xiii) Great snakes. (xiv) Serpents of remarkable size. (xv f.) Animals of Scythia; of the north; bisons, bears, the elk, the achlisf the varieties, their characteristics; with lions in the circus at Lionstheir mode of with the largest number first harnessed lions to a among the exploits of lions. (xxii) Man recognised and rescued by a great snake. (xxiii f.) Panthers, resolution of senate and laws as to African; who first showed African panthers at Rome, and when? who showed the largest number? (xxv) Tigers; when was a tiger first seen at Rome? nature of tigers; tiger-cubs. (xxvi-xxx) Camels; their kinds. The giraffe; when first seen at Rome. The spotted lynx. The cephi. The rhinoceros. The lynx and the sphynxes. The crocottae [hyena?]. The long-tailed monkeys. (xxxi-iv) Land animals of India; ditto of Ethiopia; a creature the sight of which brings death; basilisksnakes; wolves; source of the fabulous werewolf. (xzxv-xl) Snakes, species of; the ichneumon; the crocodile; the African lizard; the hippopotamus: who first showed this animal, and the crocodile at Rome. (xli-iii). Drugs obtained from animals; warnings of dangers from animals; races destroyed by animals. (xliv f.) Hyenas; corocottae; mantichorae. (xlvi) Wild asses. (xlvii-ix) Amphibious species: beavers, otters, the sea-calf, geckoes. (1) Stags. (ii f.) Chameleon; other species that change colour–reindeer, lycaon, jackal (liii) The porcupine, (liv) Bears; their reproduction. (lv-viii) Mice, Black Sea and Alpine; hedgehogs, lion-killer, lynxes, badgers, squirrels. (lix f.) Snails; lizards. (lx-lxiii). Dogs, nature of; instances of relation to masters; nations that have kept dogs of war; dog-breeding; cures for rabies. (lxiv-vii) Nature of horsesequine psychology; remarkable four-in-hands; horse-breeding; cases of conception by wind. (lxviii) Asses; breeding in their case. (lxix) Nature of mules and other draft-animals. (lxx f.) Oxen, breeding of. Apis in Egypt. (lxxii-v) Nature of sheeptheir breeding; kinds of wool and of colours; kinds of cloth. (lxxvi f.) Goats, their nature and breeding; swine, ditto. (lxxviii f.) Wild pigs. Who originated menageries? (lxxx-ii) Apes. Hares, their kinds. Half-wild animals. (lxxxiii) What animals do not occur in what places? which in what places harm only strangers? which in what places only natives?Total: 787 facts, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Mucianus, Procilius, Verrius Flaccus, Lucius Piso, Cornelius Valerianus, Cato the ex-Censor, Fenestella, Trogus, Official Records, Columella, Virgil, Varro, Lucilius, Metellus Scipio, Cornelius Celsus, Nigidius, Trebius Niger, Pomponius Mela, Mamilius Sura. Foreign authorities: King Juba, Polybius, Herodotus, Antipater, Aristotle, Demetrius’s Natural History, Democritus, Theophrastus, Euanthes, Scopas’s Olympic Victors, King Hiero, King Attalus, King Philometor, Ctesias, Doris, Philisto, Archytas, Phylarchus, Amphilochus of Athens, Anaxipolis of Thasos, Apollodorus of Lemnos, Aristophanes of Miletus, Antigonus of Cumae, Agathocles of Chios, Apollonius of Pergamum, Aristander of Athens, Bacchius of Miletus, Bio of Soil, Chaeareas of Athens, Diodorus of Priene, Dio of Colophon, Epigenes of Rhodes, Euagon of Thasos, Euphronius of Athens, Hegesias of Maronea, Menander of Priene and Menander of Heraclea, the poet Menecrates, Androtion On Agriculture, Aeschrion ditto, Lysinachus ditto, Dionysius’s translation of Mago, Diophanes’s summary of Dionysius, King Archelaus, Nicander.

Book IX. Subject the nature of aquatic animals. (i) Extreme size of marine animals, reason for. (ii) Monsters of the Indian Sea. (iii) Which are the largest in each Ocean? (iv) Tritons and Nereids, shapes of. Sea elephants, shapes of. (v) Whales, grampuses. (vi) Do fishes breathe? do they sleep? (vii-x) Dolphins, persons loved by; places where they fish in partnership with men; other curious facts as to. (xi) Porpoises. (xii f.) Tortoiseskinds of water-tortoise; mode of capture; who invented cutting tortoise-shells (xiv) Aquatic animals arranged by species. (xv) Sea-calves or sealswhich species are hairless? mode of reproduction. (xvi) How many kinds of fish? (xvii-xix). The largest fishes; tunny-fry, young tunny, full-grown tunny; tunny divided and pickled, salted tunny slices, chopped tunny; amia-tunny, mackerel-tunny. (xx) Fishes in the Black Seawhich species not found in it, which enter in from elsewhere, which leave it. (xxi) Why fishes leap out of the water. The sword-fish. (xxii) Augury from fishes a fact. (xxiii-v) Species of that have no males; that have a stone in the head; that hibernate in winter; that are only caught on certain days in winter; that hide in summer; that are liable to planet-stroke. (xxvi-xxx) Mullet, sturgeon, pike, cod, wrasse, lamprey; varieties of mullet; the sargus. (xxxi f.) Remarkable prices for fish. Different kinds popular in different places. (xxxiii) Gills in various species; scales ditto. (xxxiv f.) Fish with voice, fish without gills; fish that go ashore. Seasons for catching fish. (xxxvi) Classification of fish by shape. Difference between turbot and sparrow-turbot. Long fishes. (xxxvii) Fins and mode of swimming. (xxxviii) Eels. (xxxix) Lampreys. (xl) Kinds of flat-fish. (xli) The remora and how it operates. (xlii) What fish change colours. (xhii) Swallow-fish. The fish that shines by night. The homed fish. The weever. (xliv) The bloodless fishes. The so-called soft fishes. (xlv) The sepia fish. The cuttle-fish. The small scallops, flying fish. (xlvi-ix) The polyps, including the sailing polyp. The sailor-fish. (l-lii) Shell-fish: lobster, varieties of crab, the sea-pen’s guard, sea-urchins, snails, scallops. Varieties of shell. (liii) Quantity of delicacies supplied by the sea. (liv-lix) Pearlshow do they grow and where, how found; varieties of large pearltheir remarkable features, their nature, instances of their occurrence, when first used at Rome. (lx-lxv) Nature of varieties of purplethe purple-fish; kinds of purple-fish; how used to supply dye for woollens; date of use of purple at Borne, date of purple stripe and purple-bordered robe; purple dyed dresses; dying amethyst; Tyrian, vegetable-scarlet, kermes-scarlet. (lxvi) The sea-pen sea-pen’s guard. (lxvii) Perception of aquatic animals: the electric ray, stingray, scolopendrae, shad, ramming-fish. (lxviii f.) Species intermediate between animal and vegetable: sea-nettles; sponges, their kinds and habitat; sponges, living creatures. (lxx) Sea-bitches. (lxxi) Flint-shell fish; marine animals without senses; other low species. (lxxii) Venomous marine animals. (lxxiii) Diseases of fishes. (lxxiv-vii) Their reproduction curious, reproductive methods; species both oviparous and viviparous; delivery by rupture of the stomach, afterwards closing up; species possessing matrix; self-fertilizing species. (lxxviii) Longest life of fish. (lxxix-lxxxi) First inventor of fish-ponds; oysters; who invented lamprey-ponds. Notable fish-ponds; who first invented snail-ponds. (lxxxiii) Land fishes. (lxxxiv) Mouse-fish in the Nile. (lxxxv) Flower-fish, mode of catching. (lxxxvi) Starfish. (lxxxvii) Remarkable species of finger-fish. (lxxxviii) Instances of hostility and friendship between aquatic animals.Total: 650 facts, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Turranins Gracilis, Trogus, Maecenas, Alfius Flavus, Cornelius Nepos, the Mimes of Laberius, Fabianus, Fenestella, Mucianus, Aelius Stilo, Sebosus, Melissus, Seneca, Cicero, Aemilius Macer, Corvinus Messala, Trebius Niger, Nigidius. Foreign authorities: Aristotle, King Archelaus, Callimachus, Democritus, Theophrastus, Thrasyllus, Hegesidemus, Sudines, Alexander the Learned.

Book X. Subjectthe nature of birds. (i f.) The ostrich, the phoenix. (iii-vi) Eagles, their species; their nature; when adopted as regimental badges; self-immolation of eagle on maiden’s funeral pyre. (vii) The vulture. (viii) Lmmergeier, sea-eagle (1) (ix-xi) Hawks: the buzzard; use of hawks by fowlers where practised; the only bird that is killed by its own kind; what bird produces one egg at a time. (xii) Kites. (xiii) Classification of birds by species. (xiv-xvi) Birds of ill-omen; in what months crows are not a bad omen; ravens; the horned owl. (xvii) Extinct birds; birds no longer known. (xviii) Birds hatched tail first. (xix) Night-owls. (xx) Mars’s woodpecker. (xxi) Birds with hooked talons. (xxii-v) Birds with toes: peacocks; who first killed the peacock for food; who invented fattening peacocks; poultrymode of castrating; a talking cock. (xxvi-xxxii) The goose who first introduced goose-liver (foie gras); Commagene goose; fox-goose, love-goose, heath-cock, bustard; cranes; storks; rest of reflexed-claw genus; swans. (xxxiii-v) Foreign migrant birds: quails, tongue-birds, ortolan, horned owl; native migrant birds and their destinationsswallows, thrushes, blackbirds, starlings; birds that moult in retirement: turtle-dove, ring-dove. (xxxvi) Non-migrant birds: half-yearly and quarter-yearly visitors: wit.walls, hoopoes. (xxxvii-xl) Mernnon’s hens, Meleager’s sisters (guinea-hens), Seleucid hens, ibis. (xli) Where particular species not known. (xlii-v) Species that change colour and voice: the divination-bird class; nightingale, black-cap, robin, red-start, chat, golden oriole. (xlvi) The breeding season. (xlvii) Kingfishers: sign of fine weather for sailing. (xlviii) Remainder of aquatic class. (xlix-li) Craftsmanship of birds in nest-making; remarkable structures of swallows; sand-martins; thistle-finch; bee-eater; partridges. (lii f.) Pigeonsremarkable structures of, and prices paid for; (liv f.) Varieties of birds’ flight and walk; footless martins or swifts. (lvi) Food of birds. Goat-suckers, spoon-bill. (lvii) Intelligence of birds; gold-finch, bull-bittern, yellow wagtail. (lviii-lxl) Talking birds: parrots, acorn-pies; riot at Rome caused by talking crow. (lxi) Diomede’s birds. (lxii) What animals learn nothing. (lxiii) Birds, mode of drinking; the sultana hen. (lxiv) The long-legs. (lxv f.) Food of birds. Pelicans. (lxvii f.) Foreign birds: coots, pheasants, Numidian fowl, flamingos, heath-cock, bald crow or cormorant, Ted-beaked or Alpine crow, bare-footed crow or ptarmigan. (lxix) New species: small cranes. (lxx) Fabulous birds. (lxxi) Who invented fattening of chickens, and which consuls first prohibited? who first invented aviaries? Aesop’s stewpan. (lxxiii-lxxx) Reproduction of birds: oviparous creatures other than birds; kinds and properties of eggs; defective hatching and its cures; Augusta’s augury from eggs; what sort of hens the best? their diseases and remedies; kinds of small heron; nature of puff-eggs, addled eggs, wind-eggs; best way of preserving eggs. (lxxxi f.) The only species of bird that is viviparous and suckles its young. Oviparous species of land animals. Reproduction of snakes. (lxxxui-vii) Reproduction of all land animals; posture of animals in the uterus; animal species whose mode of birth is still uncertain; salamanders; species not reproduced by generation; species whose generated offspring is unfertile; sexless species. (lxxxviii-xc) Senses of animals: all have sense of touch, also taste; species with exceptional sight, smell, hearing; moles; have oysters hearing? which fishes hear most clearly? which fishes have keenest sense of smell? (xci-iii) Difference of food in animals: which live on poisonous things? which on earth? which do not die of hunger of thirst? (xciv) Variety of drink. (xcv f.) Species mutually hostile; facts as to friendship and affection between animals; instances of affection between snakes. (xcvii f.) Sleep of animals; which species sleep?Total: 794 facts, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Manilius, Cornelius Valerian, Records, Umbricius Melior, Masurius Sabinus, Antistins Labeo, Trogus, Cremutius, Marcus Varro, Aemilius Macer, Melissus, Mucianus, Nepos, Fabius Pictor, Titus Lucretius, Cornelius Celsus, Horace, Deculo, Hyginus, the Sasernae, Nigidius, Mamilius Sura. Foreign authorities: Homer, Phemonoe, Philemon, Boethus’s Ornithogonia, Hylas’s Auguries, Aristotle, Theophrastus, Callimachus, Aeschylus, King Hiero, King Philometor, Archytas of Tarentum, Amphilochus of Athens, Anaxipolis of Thasos, Apollodorus of Lemnos, Aristophanes of Miletus, Antigonus of Cumae, Agathocles of Chios, Apollonius of Peruamum Aristander of Athens, Bacchius of Miletus, Bion of Soli, Chaereas of Athens, Diodorus of Priene, Dion of Colophon, Democritus, Diophanes of Nicaea, Epigenes of Rhodes, Evagon of Thasos, Euphronius of Athens, Juba, Androtion On Agriculture, Aeschrio ditto, Lysimachus ditto, Dionysius’s translation of Mago, Diophanes’s epitome of Dionysius, Nicander, Onesicritus, Phylarchus, Hesiod.

Book XI. Subject the kinds of insects. (i) Nature’s subtlety in this department. (ii) Do insects breathe? have they blood? (iii) Their bodies. (iv-xxiii) Beesstructure of their comb; its materials, gum, pitch-wax, bee-glue, bee-bread (sandarack, serintkus); flowers from which materials derived; instances of bee-lovers; drones; nature of honey; the best honey; unique local varieties of honey; test of varieties; heather (heath, sisyrus); reproduction of bees; their system of royalty; swarming sometimes actually a good omen; kinds of bees; diseases of bees; enemies of bees; beekeeping; replenishment of stock. (xxiv) Wasps and hornets. What animals reproduce from another species? (xxv-viii) Assyrian silkworm: chrysalis, larva; inventor of silk fabric; silkworm of Cos; manufacture of Coan silk. (xxviii f.) Spiderswhich varieties make webs; material used in webs; mode of reproduction. (xxx ff.) Scorpions; geckoes; grasshopperstheir lack of mouth and vent. (xxxiii) Insects’ wings. (xxxiv-vi) Beetles; glow-worms; other kinds of beetle; locusts; ants. (xxxvii-ix) Chrysalises, gadflies, butterflies; animals born from wood or in wood; animals of human refuse; which is the smallest animal? summer animals. (xl) Ventless animal. (xli-iii) Moths, beetles, gnats; snow-animal; fire-animal (pyrallis or pyrotos); mayflies. (xliv-xcviii) Nature and account of all animals arranged according to the parts of the body: species possessing caps; crested species. (xlv-li) Varieties of hornwhich species can move the horns; heads, headless species; hair; bones of head; brain; earswhich species have none, which hear without ears or apertures; face, brow, eyebrow. (lii-lvii) Eyes: what animals without eyes, what with only one eye; varieties of eyes; method of sight; species that see by night; structure of pupil; species that do not close the eyes; species whose eyes after being destroyed grow again; eyelashesspecies that lack, species with lashes on only one lid; species with no eyelids. (lviii-lx) Cheekbones; nostrils; cheeks, lips, chin, jaws. (lxi-iv) Teethkinds of; species with teeth in one jaw only; with hollow teeth; snakes’ teeth, snakes’ poison; which bird has teeth; remarkable facts as to teeth; age of ruminants indicated by teeth. (lxv) Tonguetongueless species; croaking of frogs; palate. (lxvi-viii) Tonsils; uvula, epiglottis, windpipe, gullet, nape, neck, backbone, throat, jaws, stomach. (lxix-lxxi) Heart, blood, life; which species has largest heart, which smallest, which two hearts; when inspection of heart of victims began; (lxxii) Lungswhich species has largest, which smallest, which no internal organ besides lungs; cause of speed in animals. (lxxiii-vi) Liverhead of internal organs; its inspection by augurs; species with two livers, and their habitats; gallwhat species have two, and where; what animals have none, which have gall elsewhere than in liver; its function; species whose gall grows and shrinks in size with moon; observation of these species by augurs, and marvellous portents. (lxxvii) Diaphragm; nature of laughter. (lxxviii) Stomach; species that have none; the only species that vomit. (lxxix) Smaller intestines, entrails, stomach, great gut; why some animals have voracious appetites. (lxxx-iii) Caul, spleenspecies without spleen. Kidneys; habitat of species with four kidneyswith none; chest; ribs; bladderanimals without bladder; entrails; membranes. (lxxxiv-viii) Bellythe ‘parts,’ the womb, sows’ womb, paps; what species have suet, what tallow; nature of each; what species have no fat; marrow; species that have none; bones; prickles; species that have neither hones nor prickles; cartilages; sinews; species without sinews. (lxxxix-xcii) Arteries, veins; species with neither veins nor arteries; blood; sweat; species whose blood thickens most quickly, whose blood does not coagulate; which species has the thickest blood, the thinnest, none at all, none at certain seasons of the year; whether blood is dominant factor in body. (xciii f.) Back; hair and integument of back; species having hair inside mouth and under feet. (xcv-xcvii) Paps; which birds have paps; noteworthy points about animals’ udders; milk; which the only animal that gives suck while in motion; biestings; cheese; species whose milk does not form cheese; curdled milk; kinds of food obtained from milk; kinds of cheese. (xcviii-cxiii) Differences in limbs between man and other animals; the fingers; arms; resemblance to monkeys; nails; knees and thighs; which parts of human body associated with ritual; dilated veins; gait, feet and legs; hooves; feet of birds; feet of animals, between 2 and 100 ; dwarfs ; genital organs; hermaphrodites; testicles; three kinds of half-man; tails; voices of animals; limbs of subsequent growth. (cxiv) Marks of vitality and character derived from conformation of limbs in man. (cxv) Respiration; nutrition; animals that from eating poison do not die, but kill those who taste them. (cxvii-ix) Causes of indigestion in man; remedies for indigestion; cause of corpulence, and mode of reduction; things whose taste allays hunger and thirst.Total: 2700 facts, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Marcus Varro, Hyginus, Scrofa, Saserna, Cornelius Celsus, Aemilius Macer, Virgil, Columella, Julius Aquila’s Eiruscan System, Tarquitius ditto, Umbricius Meior ditto, Cato the ex-Censor, Calvinus, Trogus, Melissus, Fabianus, Mucianus, Nigidius, Mamilius, Oppius. Foreign authorities: Aristotle, Democritus, Neoptolemus’s Production of Honey, Aristomachus ditto, Philiscus ditto, Nicander, Menecrates, Dionysins’s translation of Mago, Empedocles, Callimachus, King Attaius, Venomous Animals by Apollodorus, Hippocrates, Herophilus, Erasistratus, Asclepiades, Themiso, Posidonius the Stoic, Menander of Priene, Menander of Heraclea, Euphronius of Athens, Theophrastus, Hesiod, King Philometor.

Book XII. Contents: trees their various qualities. (i, ii) In praise of trees. (iii-lxiii) Foreign trees. (iii-vi) Planewhen and whence first introduced into Italy; their nature; remarkable products; dwarf planes; who first introduced the pruning of garden trees. (vii) Assyrian apple, instructions for planting. (viii-xvii) Indian trees; ebony, when first seen at Rome; its kinds; Indian thorn; Indian fig; beautiful unnamed Indian trees; Indians’ flax-trees; plantain tree, its fruit bananas; pepper trees, kinds of pepper, defective pepper, ginger, nut-leaf, wolf-plant or Chiron’s box-thorn, macir, sugarcane. (xviii f.) Trees of the Arian race, ditto of Gedrosia, ditto of Ilyrcania, ditto of Bactria; myrrh plant or gain-plant (malacha, maldacum); germander. Modes of adulteration, tests and prices specified for all scents or spices. (xx f.) Trees of Persia; trees of islands in Persian Gulf; cotton-tree. (xxii-iv) Cynas tree; trees used in East for making linen; locality with no deciduous trees; modes in which trees form fruits. (xxv-xxix) Costus; nard, its 12 varieties; hazelwort; amomum, amomis, cardamon. (xxx-xxxii) The incense-producing district, incense-bearing trees; nature and kinds of incense. (xxxiii-v) Myrrh: trees that produce it; nature and kinds of myrrh. (xxxvi-xl) Mastic; ladanum, scorbus, styptic, bratus tree; stobrum tree. (xli) Arabia, why happy. (xlvi-xlvii) Cinnamon, cinnamomum, cinnamon-shrub; wild cinnamon, cancamum, aloe-wood; serichatuxn, gabalium; behennut; Egyptian date. (xlviii-lxi) Scented reed, scented rush; Hammonian gum-tree; fragrant moss; cyprus; calycotome or erysisceptrum; cat-thyme; balsam, balsam-juice, balsam-wood sigma; galbannm; all-heal; bear’s-foot: cinnamon-leaf; grape-plant; moss, vine-flower, wild vine; fir or larch; cinnamon comacton.Total: 468 facts, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Marcus Varro, Mucianus, Virgil, Fabianus, Sebosus, Pomponius Mela, Flavius Procilius, Hyginus, Trogus, Claudius Caesar, Cornelius Nepos, Greek Treatise on Medicine by Sextius Niger, Cassius Hemina, Lucius Piso, Tuditanus, Antias. Foreign authorities: Theophrastus, Herodotus, Callisthenes, Isogonus, Clitarchus, Anaximenes, Duris, Nearchus, Onesicritus, Polycritus, Olympiodorus, Diognetus, Nicobulus, Anticlides, Chares of Mitylene, Menaechmus, Dorotheus of Athens, Lycus, Antaeus, Ephippus, Dinon, Adimantus, Ptolemy son of Lagus, Marsyas of Macedon, Zoilus of Macedon, Democritus, Amphilochus, Aristomachus, Alexander the Learned, Juba, Apollodorus On Scents; the physicians Heraclides, Botrys, Archedemus, Dionysius, Democedes, Euphron, Mnesides, Diagoras and Jollas; Heraclides of Tarentum, Xenocrates of Ephesus.

Book XIII. Contents: On foreign trees. (i-v) Perfumeswhen invented; 12 kinds and combinations; ointments, salves, testing of perfumes; perfume as promoting luxury; when first in use at Rome. (vi-ix) Palmstheir nature; how planted; 18 kinds of fruit and noteworthy facts. (x-xii) Trees of Syria: pistachio, small fig, damson, Syrian plum; cedar; what trees carry three years’ fruit at once; terebinth; sumac. (xiv-xvi) Trees of Egypt: Alexandrian fig; Cyprian fig; Carob.(xvii-xx) Persian tree; what trees produce a succession of fruit; cuci palm; Egyptian thorn; gum tree, 8 kinds; Persian gum. (xxi-vii) Papyrus; employment of paper; when begun; how manufactured; 9 kinds; mode of testing papers; defects of papers; paper-glue; Books of Numa. (xxviii) Trees of Ethiopia. (nix) Atlantic tree; citrus-tree ; citrus-wood tables, their merits and defects; citrus-fruit. (xxxii-iv) Lotus; trees of Cyrenaica, Christ’s-thorn; pomegranate, 9 kinds, wild pomegranate. (xxxv-xlvii) Trees of Asia and Greece; helleborine, heath, seed of Cnidus or altar-plant or canine thistle or fire-foam or cnestor or mezereon; goat-plant, goat-thorn goat or scorpion, tamarisk or brya, hop-hornbeam; euonymus; lion-tree; purslane; cuckoo-plant, tare; fennel; Thapsas-shrub; caper-bush or dog’s bush or snake-vine; sari ha; king’s thorn; tree-medick. (xlviii-lvii) Trees and bushes of the Mediterranean; of the Red Sea; of the Indian Ocean; of Cavedwellers’ Seasea-weed, grasson or girdle-plant, sea-lettuce, plait of Isis, Graces’ eyelid.Total 468 facts, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Marcus Varro, Mucianus, Virgil, Fabianus, Sebosus, Pomponius Mela, Flavius Procilius, Hyginus, Trogus, Ciaudius Caesar, Cornelius Nepos, Sextus Niger’s Greek treatise On Medicine, Cassius Hemina, Lucius Piso, Tuditanus, Antias. Foreign authorities: Theophrastus, Herodotus, Callisthenes, Isogonus, Clitarchus, Anaxitnenes, Duris, Nearchus, Onesicritus, Polycritus, Olympiodorus, Diognetus, Nicobulus, Anticlides, Chares of Mitylene, Menaechmus, Dorotheus of Athens, Lycus, Antaeus, Ephippus, Dinon, Adimantus, Ptolemy son of Lagus, Marsyas of Macedon, Zoilus ditto, Democritus, Amphilochus, Aristomachus, Alexander the Learned, Juba, Apollodorus On Scents; the following medical writersHeraclides, Botrys, Archedemus, Dionysius, Democedes, Euphron, Mnesides, Diagoras, Iollas; Heraclides of Tarentnm, Xenophon of Ephesus.

Book XIV. Contents: fruit-trees. (i-v) Vines, their nature; their ways of bearing; grapes, their nature and tending; 91 kinds of vines and grapes; viticulture and vineyards, noteworthy facts as to (vi-xi) Mead, its discovery; 50 wines of quality; 38 foreign vintages; Opimian wine; wine-cellars, notable facts as to; nature of wine; salt wine, 7 kinds; raisin-wine, must, sweet wine, 17 kinds. (xii) Inferior wines, 3 kinds. (xiii-xvii) Wines of quality, how recently begun to be made in Italy; remarks as to wine from reign of Romulus onwards; wines used in early periods; four kinds of wine, when first established. (xviii-xxi) Wild vine, 5 uses of; what juice by nature the coldest; artificial wine, 66 kinds; mead or honey-wine or water-mead; vinegar-honey. (xxii-v) Remarkable wines, 12 kinds; wines not permissible to use at sacrifices; substances used to flavour mustpitch, resins. (xxvi f.) Wine-jars, vinegar, lees, cellars. (xxviii f.) Intoxication; drinks made from water and fruit can be as potent as wine.Total: 510 facts, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Cornelius Valerian, Virgil, Celsus, Cato the Censor, Saserna senior, Saserna junior, Scrofa, Marcus Varro, Decius Silanus, Fabius Pietor, Trogus, Hyginus, Verrius Flaccus, Graecinus, Julius Atticus, Columella, Masurius Sabinus, Fenestella, Tergilla, Maccius Plautus, Fabius Dossennus, Scaevala, Lucius Aelius, Ateius Capito, Cotta Messalinus, Lucius Piso, Pompeius Lenaens, Fabianus, Sextius Niger, Vibius Rufinus. Foreign authorities: Hesiod, Theophrastus, Aristotle, Democritus, King Hiero, King Attalus, King Philometor, Archytas, Xenophon, Amphilochus of Athens, Anaxipolis of Thasos, Apollodorus of Lemnos, Aristophanes of Miletus, Antigonus of Cumae, Agathocles of Chios, Apollonius of Pergamum, Aristander of Athens, Bacchius of Miletus, Bion of Soli, Chaereas of Athens, Chaeristus ditto, Diodorus of Priene, Dinon of Colophon, Epigenes of Rhodes, Evagon of Thasos, Euphronius of Athens, Androtion On Agriculture, Aeschrion ditto, Lysimachus ditto, Dionvsius’s translation of Mago, Diophanes’s Epitome of Dionysius, the medical writers Asclepiades and Erasistratus, treatises on The Making of Wine by Commiades, Aristomachus and Hicesius, Themiso on medicine, Onesicritus, King Juba.

Book XV. Contents: Fruit-bearing trees, their various natures. (i-viii) The olive treehow long was it grown only in Greece; when first introduced into Italy, Spain, Africa; olive-oil, its kinds and valuable properties; nature of the olive and olive-oil when forming; 15 kinds of olives; nature of olive-oil; cultivation of olive-trees; storing of olives; manufacture of olive-oil; 48 kinds of artificial olive-oil; the kiki-tree or croto or sill or sesamum (castor-oil tree); olive-lees. (ix-xxxiv) The varieties of fruit, their kinds and nature: pine-cones, 4 kinds; quinces, 4 kinds; sparrow-apples, 4 kinds; pomegranate, 9 kinds; peach, 7 kinds; plum, 12 kinds; the persca-trea; apple, 30 kinds; foreign applesdates and sources of introduction into Italy: most recent introduction; pears, 41 kinds; grafting of varieties, and expiation when struck by lightning; storage of fruit and grapes; figs, 29 kinds; researches as to; artificial ripening of; medlars, 3 kinds; service-berry, 4 kinds; nuts, 8 kinds; chestnuts, 18 kinds; carobs; fleshy fruits; mulberries; the arbutus; berries, varieties of; hard fruit, varieties; cherry, 9 kinds; cornel-cherries; mastic-trees; juices, 13 different sorts; (xxxv-viii) the myrtle, researches as to; 11 kinds. (xxxix f.) The bay-tree, 13 kinds.Total: 520 facts, researches and observations.

Authorities: Fenestella, Fabianus, Virgil, Comelius Valerian, Celsus, Cato the Censor, the Sasernae, senior and junior, Scrofa, Marcus Varro, Decimus Silanus, Fabius Pictor, Trogus, Hyginus, Verrius Flaccus, Graecinus, Julius Atticus, Columella, Masurius Sabinns, Tergilla, Messalinus Cotta, Lucius Piso, Pompeius Lenaeus, Maccins Platens, Fabius Dossennus, Scaevola, Lucius Aelius, Ateius Capito, Sextius Niger, Vibius Rufinus. Foreign authorities: Hesiod, Theophrastus, Aristotle, Democritus, King Hiero, King Philometor, King Attalus, Archytas, Xenophon, Ampbuloehus of Athens, Anaxipolis of Thasos, Apollodorus of Lemnos, Aristophanes of Miletus, Antigonus of Cumae, Agathocles of Chios, Apollonius of Pergamum, Aristander of Athens, Eaechius of Miletus, Bion of Soli, Chaereas of Athens, Chaeristus ditto, Diodorus of Priene, Dinon of Colophon, Epigenes of Rhodes, Evagon of Thasos, Euphronius of Athens, Androtion On Agriculture, Aeschrion ditto, Dionysius’s translation of Mago, Diophanes’s summary of Dionysius, Asclepiades the physician, Erasistratus ditto, Commiades On Making Wine, Aristomachus ditto, Hicesius ditto, Onesieritus, King Juba.

Book XVI. Contents: forest trees, their various natures. (i f.) Races that have no trees; remarkable trees in the North. (iii-xiii) Acorn-bearing trees: the civic wreath; origin of wreaths; wreath of foliage, on whom bestowed; 13 kinds of acorns; the beech; the other acorn-bearing trees; charcoal; the oak-apple; how many fruits beside the acorn borne by the same trees; catkin, cochineal-berry, larch-fungus. (xiv) Trees whose bark is utilized. (xv-xx) Roof-shingles: stone-pine, wild pine, spruce, silver, larch, pitch-pine, yew. (xxi-iii) Liquid pitch, methods of making; cedar-oil, methods of making; wax-pitch, methods of making; resin, methods of boiling; thick-pitch. (xxiv-ix) Trees of value for timber: ash, 4 kinds; lime, 2 kinds; maple, 10 kinds; growth on the maple, maple-fungus; pistachio tree; box, 3 kinds; elm, 4 kinds. (xxx f.) Nature of trees classified by habitat those that grow on mountains, on plains, on dry soils, in water, in several habitats. (xxxii) Classification. (xxxiii-viii) Non-deciduous trees: rhododendron; partially deciduous trees; regions where all trees evergreen; nature of deciduous foliage; trees whose foliage changes colour: poplars, 3 kinds; foliage that changes shape of leaf; foliage that yearly turns round; palm-leaves, cultivation and use of; remarkable foliage. (xxxix) Process of growth in trees grown from seed. (xl) Non-flowering trees: the junipers. (xli-l) Conception, germination and parturition of trees; order of flowering; the husk; date of bearing of the various kinds, trees that bear yearly, three-yearly; trees that do not bear fruit; trees believed unlucky; trees that lose fruit or flower most easily; which kinds do not bear in which places; method of bearing of the various kinds; kinds that bear fruit before foliage; kinds that bear twice a year, thrice a year. (li) Which age most rapidly, which least rapidly; early ripening and late ripening fruits. (lii) Which kinds have products of more than one sort: the kernel of the box. (liii-vi) Differences of trees in trunks and boughs the lotus or date plum; boughs, bark, roots. (lvii f.) Instances of trees rising again of their own accord; spontaneous generation of trees, modes of. (lix-lxi) Differences of nature not generating all kinds everywhere; places where particular kinds do not grow; cypresses; growth from the earth of entirely novel kinds a frequent occurrence. (lxii) Ivy, its 20 kinds. (lxiii) Bindweed. (lxiv-lxxi) Water plants: canes; reeds, 25 kinds; reed arrows, reed pens, reed pipes; the bird-catcher’s and fisherman’s reed of Orchomenus; the vine-prop reed; the alder; the willow, its kinds; other plants useful for ties; bulrushes, rush-lights, canes, thatch; elders, brambles. (lxxi f.) Sap of trees. (lxxiv-vii) Nature of timbers; wood-cutting; sizes of trees; the pine; charcoal. (lxxvii-lxxxi) Trees exempt from rotfrom splitting; researches as to durability of timbers; kinds of woodworms; wooden architecture. (lxxxii-iv) Wooden tools; gluing timber; sawn sheets of wood. (lxxxv-xc) Age of long-lived trees: tree planted by the elder Africanus; tree in Rome 500 years old; trees dating from the foundation of the city; trees in the suburbs older than the city; trees planted by Agamemnon; frees dating from first year of the Trojan War; trees at Troy shown from designation ‘Ilion’ to be older than the Trojan War; ditto at Argos; trees planted by Hercules; trees planted by Apollo; a tree older than Athens; what kinds of trees are least long-lived. (xci-iv) Trees celebrated for some occurrence; parasitic plants; plants parasitic on trees and able to grow in earth9 kinds of these; cadytas, hyphear, stelis, hippophaestum; nature of mistletoe and similar plants; manufacture of bird-lime.Total: 1135 facts, researches and observations.

Authorities: Marcus Varro, Fetialis, Nigidius, Cornelius Nepos, Hyginus, Masurius, Cato, Mucianus, Lucius Piso, Trogus, Calpurnius Bassus, Cremutius, Sextius Niger, Cornelius Bocchus, Vitruvius, Graccinus. Foreign authorities: Alexander the Learned, Hesiod, Theophrastus, Democritus, Homer, Timaeus the mathematician.

Book XVII. Contents: the natures of cultivated trees. (i) Remarkable prices for trees. (ii-iv) Effect of climate on trees; proper aspect for vines; best soil; soil enjoyed by Greece and the Gallic provinces8 kinds. (v-viii) The use of ashes; dung; what crops enrich the soil, which impoverish it; methods of using manure. (ix-xxi) Methods of growing trees; kinds springing from seed; that never degenerate; kinds springing from settings, from a cutting, from a layer; seed-beds, transference of seed-beds; growing elms from seed; trenching; distances between trees; shade; droppings from leaves; slow-growing and quick growing kinds; kinds springing from layers. (xxii-viii) Graftinghow discovered; kinds of grafts; eye-grafting; budding; grafting of vines; grafts growing from boughs; kinds grafted by cuttings, and method. (xxix-xxi) Olive-growing; seasonal arrangement of propagating; trenching round and banking up vines. (xxxii-iv) The willow thicket; reed bed; other plants cut for poles and stakes. (xxxv f.) Arrangement of vineyards and plantations; prevention of injury to vines from animals. (xxxvii f.) Diseases of trees; remarkable products from trees. (xxxix-xlvii) Remedies for diseases of trees; method of watering; remarkable facts as to water-meadows; use of dung; method of hoeing round trunk; lopping of trees; how to dig round trees; pruning of trees; effect of gall-insect; mistakes in pruning; medicaments for trees. Total: 1380 facts, researches and observations.

Authorities: Cornelius Nepos, Cato the censor, Marcus Varro, Celsus, Virgil, Hyginus, the Sasernae, senior and junior, Scrofa, Calpurnius Bassus, Trogus, Aemilius Macer, Graecinus, Columella, Julius Atticus, Fabianus, Mamilius Sura, Dessius Mundus, Gaius Epidius, Lucius Piso. Foreign authorities: Hesiod, Theophrastus, Aristotle, Democritus, Theopompus, King Hiero, King Philometer, King Attalus, Arehytas, Xenophon, Amphilochus of Athens, Anaxipolis of Thasos, Apollodorus of Lemnos, Aristophanes of Miletus, Antigonus of Cumae, Agathocles of Chios, Apollonius of Pergamum, Bacchius of Miletus, Bion of Soli, Chaereas of Athens, Chaeristus ditto, Diodorus of Priene, Dinon of Colophon, Epigenes of Rhodes, Evagon of Thasos, Euphronius of Athens, Androtion On Agriculture, Aeschrion ditto, Lysimachus ditto, Dionysius’s translation of Mago, Diophanes’s summary of Dionysius, Aristander On Portents.

Book XVIII. Contents: crops, their natures. (i) Devotion to agriculture in early times. (ii) The earliest wreath at Rome; the wreath of ears of corn; (iii) The acre. (iv) Number and dates of lowest falls; price of corn. (v) Distinguished authorities on agriculture. (vi) Rules for preparing the ground. (vii) Location of homesteads. (viii) Old authorities on methods of agriculture. (ix) Kinds of grain. (x-xxix) Properties of corn according to kinds; emmer, wheat, barley, pearl-barley; barley-groats porridge, starch, common wheat, wheat-flour, two grain wheat, seed; the remaining kinds in the east modes of grinding; sesame, erysimum or irio, clary, species of millet; yeasts; bread, methods of making and kinds of; when bakers began at Rome. (xxx-xxxvi) Leguminous plants: beans, kinds of chickpea, calavance, pea; turnips, navews, lupin. (xxxvii-xliii) Fodder: vetch, pulse, fenugreek, secale or rye, mixed fodder, besil, bitter vetch; lucerne. (xliv f.) Oats; corn diseases, remedies. (xlvi) Proper crops to sow in various kinds of soil. (xliii) National differences in methods of sowing. (xlviii-l) Kinds of plough; method of ploughing; harrowing, weeding, hoeing; cross-harrowing. (li-liii) Greatest fertility of soil; method of cropping same field more than once a year; manuring. (liv-lxi) Seed-testing; amount of seed of different varieties of corn required per acre; seasons for sowing; position of stars from day to day and earthly signs as to agricultural operations. (lxii-xxiv) Agricultural operations proper to the several months; poppies; hay; causes of various kinds of Infertility; remedies; harvests, storage of corn, vintage and autumn operations. (lxxv f.) Conditions of the moon, of the winds. (lxxvii) Fixing of rounds of estates. (lxxviii-xc) Weather-forecasts: from the sun, moon, stars, thunderclouds, mists, earth-fires, waters; from the seasons themselves; from aquatic animals, from birds, from quadrupeds. Total 2060 facts, researches and observations.

Authorities: Masurius Sabinus, Cassius Hemma, Verrius Flaccus, Lucius Piso, Cornelius Celsus, Turranius Gracilis, Decimus Silanus, Marcus Varro, Cato the ex-Censor, Scrofa, the Sasernae senior and junior, Domitius Calvinus, Hyginus, Virgil, Trogus, Ovid, Graecinus, Columella, Tubero, Lucius Tarutius’s Greek treatise On the Stars, Caesar the Dictator ditto, Sergius Pauilus, Sabinus Fabianus, Marcus Cicero, Calpurnius Bassus, Ateius Capito, Mamilius Sura, Accius’s Praxidica. Foreign authorities: Hesiod, Theophrastus, Aristotle, Democritus, King Hiero, King Philometer, King Attains, King Archelana, Archytas, Xenophon, Amphilochus of Athens, Anaxipolis of Thasos, Apollodorus of Lemnos, Aristophanes of Miletus, Antigonus of Cumae, Agathocles of Chios, Apollonius of Pergamos, Aristander of Athens, Bacchius of Miletus, Bion of Soli, Chaereas of Athens, Chaeristus ditto, Diodorus of Priene, Dinon of Colophon, Epigenes of Rhodes, Evagon of Thasos, Euphronius of Athens, Androtion On Agriculture, Aeschrio ditto, Lysimachus ditto, Dionysius’s translation of Mago, Diophanes’s summary of Dionysius, Thales, Eudoxus, Philip, Calippus, Dositheus, Parmeniscus, Meto, Crito, Oenopides, Conon, Euctemon, Harpalus, Hecataeus, Anaximander, Sosigenes, Hipparchus, Aratus, Zoroaster, Archibius.

Book XIX. Contents: (i-vi) Flax, nature and remarkable properties of; 27 specially good kinds of; how grown and how made up; earliest employment of awnings in the theatre. (vii-ix) Esparto grass, nature of; how made up; when first used. (x) The wool-bearing bulb. (xi-xviii) Plants that spring up and live without root; plants that spring up and cannot be grown from seed: mushroom, iton, stork’s bill; truffles, stalkless mushrooms; silphium plant, and its juice, leaf and stalk; madder; dyers’ rocket, (xix-xxi) The charm of gardens; description of plants other than cereals and shrubs. (xxi-xxxvii) Nature and kinds and descriptions of 20 garden plants: roots, flowers, leaves of all these; deciduous garden plants; various periods of sprouting; nature of seeds; various modes of sowing; which of a single kind and which of several kinds. (xxxviii-lv) Nature and kinds and descriptions of 23 garden plants cultivated for condiments. (xlviii) Plants springing from an exudation; (lvi) Fennel-giant, 4 kinds; hemp. (lvii-lix) Diseases of garden plants; cures; modes of killing ants; modes of protecting against caterpillars, against green-fly what plants benefited by salt water. (lx) Method of watering gardens. (lxi f.) Juices and flavours of garden plants; pepperwort, rosemary, mint.Total: 1144 facts, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Maccius Plautus, Marcus Varro, Decimus Silanus, Cato the Censor, Hyginus, Virgil, Mucianus, Celsus, Columella, Calpurnius Bassus, Mamilius Sura, Sabinus Tiro, Licinius Macer, Quintus Birrius, Vibius Rufinus, Caesennius On gardening, Castritius ditto, Firmus ditto, Potitus ditto. Foreign authorities: Herodotus, Theophrastus, Democritus, Aristomachus, Menander’s Things serviceable for life, Anaxilaus.

Book XX. Subject: medicines obtained from garden plants: (ii) from the wood-encumber 26, (iii) wild encumber 27; (iv) snake cucumber or wild cucumber 5, (v) garden encumber 9, (vi) pumpkin 11, (vii) gourd or somphus 1, (viii) eoloeynth 10, (ix) turnips 9, (x) wild turnip 1, (xi) navews or swede of two varieties 5, (xii C) garden radish 43, horseradish 1, (xiv) parsnip 5, marsh mallow or plistolochia or wild mallow 11, (xv) staphyhnus or wild parsnip 22, (xvi) French carrot 1, (xvii) skirwort 11, (xviii) hartwort 12, (xix) elecarnpane 11, (xx) onion 27, (xxi) cut leek (chives) 32, (xxii) headed leek 39, (xxiii) garlic 61, (xxiv) lettuce 42, goat-lettuce 4, (xxv) caesapum lettuce 1, isatis 1, wild lettuce 7, (xxvi) hawk-weed 17, (xxvii) beet 24, (xxviii) wild beet or neurois 3, (xxix) endive or wild succory 4, (xxx) chicory or worthy or championship 12, (xxxi) scented succory 4, (xxxii) endive 2 kinds, 7 medicines, (xxxiii) cabbage 87, (xxxv) sprouts, (xxxvi) wild cabbage 27, (xxxvii) charloek 1, (xxxviii) sea-cabbage 1. (xxxix) squill 23, (xl) onions 30, (xli) bulbine 1, emetic onion, (xlii f.) garden asparagus 17, wild asparagus or orminus or Libyan asparagus 24, (xliv) parsley 17, (xlv) wild parsley or bee-plant ; (xlvi) olusatrum or horse-parsley 11, mountain parsley 2, beg parsley 1, (xlvii) rock parsley 1, cow-parsley 1, (xlviii) basil 35, (xlix) colewort 12, (l) cress 42, (li) rue 84, (lii) wild mint 20 (liii) mint 41, (liv) fleabane 25, (lv) wild-bane 17, (lvi) cat-mint 9, (lvii) cumin 48, wild cumin 27, (lviii) ammi 10, (lix) caper-bush 18, (lx) lovage or all-heal 4, (lxi) ox-cunila 5, (lxii) cock-cunila or marjoram 5, (lxiii) cunilago 8, (lxiv) soft cunila 3, libanotis 3, (lxv) garden cunila 3, mountain cunila 7, (lxvi) pepperwort or Indian pepper 5, (vii-ix) wild marjoram or horehound 6, goat’s-thyme 9, Heraclean marjoram, 3 kinds, 30 drugs; (lxx) pepperwort 3, (lxxi) git or cultivated fennel 23, (xii-iv) anise or anicetum 61,dill 9, (lxxv) sacopeniuxn sagapenum 13, (lxxvi-lxxx) white poppy 3, black poppy 8 (narcotic effect, opium, prophylactics called anodynes, peptic drugs, febrifuges and purges); poppy-juice 1, wild poppy 2, wild horned poppy or glaucous or shore poppy 6, Heracles poppy or foam poppy 4 (medicinal poppy-juice), spurge poppy or a poppy 3, (lxxxi) purslane, also called peplis, 25, (lxxxii-iv) coriander 21, orache 14, varieties of mallowmalope 13, malache 1, althaea or plistolochia 54, (lxxxv f.) wood-sorrel or oxalis or horse-sorrel or dock 1, water sorrel 2, horse-sorrel 6, bitter sorrel 4, cultivated sorrel 21, cow-sorrel 1, (lxxxvii-ix) mustard 3 kinds, 44 drugs, sedge-froth 48, horehound or prasiurn or flax-twist or lads-love or bilochares 29, (xc-xcix) wild thyme 18, wild mint or Thrynibraeum 23, flax-seed 30, blite 6, bear wort or Athanxas 7, fennel 22, horse-fennel or bay-fennel 5, hemp 9, fennel giant 8, edible thistle or cardoon 6. (c) Snakebite antidote, recipe for.Total 1606 drugs, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Cato the Censor, Marcus Varro, Pompeius Lenaeus, Gaius Valgius, Hyginus, Sextius Niger’s Greek writings, Julius Bassus ditto, Celsus, Antonius Castor. Foreign authorities: Democritus, Theophrastus, Orpheus, Menander’s Things serviceable for life, Pythagoras, Nicander. Medical writers: Hippocrates, Chrysippus, Diodes, Ophion, Heraclides, Hicesius, Dionysius, Apollodorus of Citium, Apollodorus of Tarentum, Praxagoras, Pleistonicus, Medius, Dieuches, Cleophantus, Philistion, Asclepias, Crateuas, Petronius Diodotus, Iollas, Erasistratus, Diagoras, Andreas, Mnesides, Epicharmus, Damion, Dalion, Sosimenes, Tlepolemus, Metrodorus, Solon, Lycus, Olympias of Thebes, Philinus, Petrichus, Miccio, Glancias, Xenocrates.

Book XXI. Contents: the natures of flowers and of flowers for garlands. (ii-ix). Of wreaths; garlands; inventors of blending flowers; when first called ‘floral crowns,’ and why; who first bestowed crowns with silver and gold foliage; why called ‘garland-gratuities’; of ribbonswho first reproduced them in carving; high value placed on crowns of honour among the ancients; simplicity of crowns among the ancients; who received a crown bestowed by the nation at Rome; plaited crowns; stitched crowns, nard-crowns, silk crowns; Queen Cleopatra’s action with regard to crowns. (x-xil, lxxiii-v). Rose, 12 kinds, 32 drugs; lily, 3 kinds, 23 drugs; plant from an exudation; narcissus, 3 kinds, 16 drugs. (xiii) Flowers grown of special colours by dyeing the seed. (xiv-xxxvii) Mode of growing from cuttings, from seed, mode of cultivating various flowers, arranged under various kinds; the violet 3 colours (lxxvi, 17 drugs); yellow herb, 5 kinds (lxxvi, 10 drugs); marsh marigold; king flower; cyclamen (17 drugs); rush (1 drug); crocus (lxxxi, 20 drugs); where the best flowers are; what flowers were in vogue in Trojan times; nature of scents; the iris (41 drugs); wild nard (3 drugs); the hulwort or teuthrium (19 drugs); flowers with different colours in the morning, at midday, and at sunset; floral patterns in dress; amaranth; the cornflower (2 drugs); the all-gold (3 drugs); the petiliuin or ox-eye daisy; the goldy-locks or gilt lady (6 drugs); which plants’ flowers provide wreaths, which plants’ leaves; white byrony, privet, wild marjoram, mezereum or casia, 2 kinds, bee-leaf or balm (21 drugs), melilot, garland of Campama or honey-lotus (12 drugs); trefoil, 3 kinds (4 drugs) mouse bane; thyme, 3 kinds (28 drugs); plants springing from flower, not seed; elecampane; flower of Jupiter; martagon-lily (4 drugs) calamint (5 drugs); phlox; plant with scented stalk and leaves: southern-wood (22 drugs); flower of Adonis, 2 kinds; self-fertilizers; leucanthemum (1 drug); marjoram, 2 kinds (60 drugs); wake-by-night or chenamyche or see-by-night. (xxxviii f.) Time-series of birth of flowers; garland anemone or phrenion (xciv-ix 10 drugs); wine-flower grass (6 drugs); cultivated fennel (11 drugs), marigold (11 drugs), gladiolus, hyacinth (8 drugs), lychnis (7 drugs), narcissus, pothos, 2 kinds, crocus, 2 kinds, periwinkle or dwarf laurel (xl, 4 drugs); evergreen grass. (xli-ix) Length of life of various flowers; what kinds among flowers should be cultivated to attract bees; waxflower; diet of bees; their diseases and remedies; poisonous honey and its remedies; honey that causes madness; honey that flies will not touch; apiaries, hives and care of hives; do bees feel hunger? manufacture of wax; the best kinds of wax; Carthaginian wax. (l-cviii) Self-grown vegetation, its use among certain races, its kinds, remarkable cases of; strawberries, wild grapes, butcher’s broom (c, 4 drugs); samphire, 2 kinds (ci. 11 drugs), meadow parsnip, willow-hop, culcas (cii, 2 drugs) Oretan pitch plant, anthalium or anticellium or anthyllium (ciii, 6 drugs); oetum; roots with no growth above the surface of the earth; chickling vetch, aracos; candryala, hypochoeris, caucalis, anthriscum, chervil (also called goat’s beard), maiden-flower or white blossom or marjoram or partridge-plant or wall-plant (civ, 8 drugs), nightshade or strychnos or halicacabus or calitha or dorycnion or mad-plant or surplus or sinew-plant or lack-wit or moly (cv, 8 drugs), wild pulse (cvi, 6 drugs), chick-pea, acynopus, rock-plant; non-flowering plants, plants perpetually in flower; safflower, 4 kinds (cvii, 3 drugs). (liv-viii) Plants of the prickly kind (erynge thistle, licorice root, land caltrop, rest-harrow, pheos or stoebe, horse-beam, nettle, 4 kinds, dead-nettle, scorpion-grass, acorna or murder-thistle, whitethorn, copper-wort, safflower, many-thorn, donkey-box, helxine, edible thistle, carline thistle, tetralix heath (thorny mastix, cactus, pternica, pappum, artichoke). (lix) Plants classed by stalks: hartshorn, alkanet, chamomile, phyllanthes, crepis, lotus. (lx) Plants distinguished by leaves: evergreens; plants flowering in sections; heliotrope, whose use for drugs will be stated in the Book. (lxi-v) Ear-bearing classes: stanyops, fox-tail, stelephuros, or quail-plant or plantain, thryallis, partridge-wort, bird’s milk; plants of twelve-month growth, plants flowering from top, ditto from bottom; internal-sprouting burdock, Opus-plant making root from leaf; iasione, chondrilla, year-long flowering bitter-plant. (lxvi) Plants producing flower before stalk, stalk before flowers, thrice-flowering. (ixvii-lxxi) Gladiolus, 8 drugs; eorydalis; aspbodel or royal spear-grass (asphodel-stalk or bulb); rush, 6 kinds, 4 drugs; cyperus, 4 drugs, cyperis, cypira, holoschoenos. (lxxii) Drugs from scented rush or teuehites 10. (lxxviii-lxxxii) Drugs from hazelwort 8, drugs from Gallic nard 8, drugs from ‘phu’ grass 4; Syrian saffron-leas, 2 drugs, (cviii) pesoluta, 1 drug. (cix) Translation of Greek terms for weights and measures.Total, 730 drugs, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Cato the ex-Censor, Marcus Varro, Masurius, Antias, Caepio, Vestinus, Vibius Rufinus, Hyginus, Pomponius Mela, Pompeius Lenaeus, Cornelius Celsus, Calpurnius Bassus, Gaius Valgius, Licinius Macer, Sextius Niger’s Greek treatise, Julius Bassus’s ditto, Antonius Castor. Foreign authorities: Theophrastus, Democritus, Orpheus, Pythagoras, Mago, Menander’s Things serviceable for life, Nicander, Homer, Hesiod, Musaeus, Sophocles, Anaxilaus. Medical writers: Mnesitheus On Wreaths, Callimachus ditto, Phardas the natural scientist, Simus, Timaristus, Hippocrates, Chrysippus, Diodes, Ophion, Heradides, Hicesius, Dionysius, Apollodorus of Citium, Apollodorus of Tarentum, Praxagoras, Plistonicus, Medius, Dieuches, Cleophantus, Phllistio, Asclepias, Crateuas, Petronius Diodotus, Iollas, Frasistratus, Diagoras Andreas, Mnesides, Epicharmus, Damio, Dalio, Sosimenes, Tlepolemus, Mctrodorus, Solon, Lycus, Olympias of Thebes, Philinus, Petrichus, Miecio, Glaueias, Xenocrates.

Book XXII. Contents: the importance of herbs. (i-vi) That nations use herbs because of their beauty; herbs used to dye clothes; dye made of vegetable oil, ditto; tufts of sacred grass, sacred branches and the ritual of demanding redress; wreath of grass, its rarity, its only recipients, the only centurion recipient. (vii) Drugs made from the remaining sorts of wreaths. (viii-xlv) Erynge or eryngion or hundred-heads, 30; acanos thistle, 1 sweet-root or licorice, 15; mouth-heal, 1.: caltrop, 2 kinds, 12 drugs; stoebe or pheos; horse-beam, 2 kinds, 2 drugs; nettle, 61; dead-nettle 7; scorpion-plant, 2 kinds, 1 drug; pellitory or phyllos or sciatia-plant or polygonaton, 4; helxine, 12; pellitory or maiden-herb or iron-wort (the same as pitcher-polish or astericum) 11; chamaeleon-plant or canine thistle or ulophytum or cynozo]on, 2 kinds, 12 drugs (gum mastic); hartshorn, alkanet, 14; bastard-bugloss or echis or doris, 3; donkey-lip or archebius or donkey-hoof or rhexia or euchrysa, 30; the plant whose roots make dye; chamomile or white anthemis or earth-apple. or fennel-flower, 3 kinds, 11 drugs; lotus grass, 4; lotometra, 2; heliotrope or turnsole or wartwort, 12; heliotrope or three-berry or scorpion’s tail, 14; adiantum or maiden-hair or tnichomanes or many-hair or saxifrage, 2 kinds, 28 drugs, rootless stem; bitter lettuce 1, corydalis 1; asphodel 51; orach 14; bear’s breech or lad’s love or black-leaf 5; hare’s ear 5, cow-nettle 1; wild parsnip 9; chervil 9; southern chevnil 2; bind-weed 4; caucalis 12; bur-parsley 11; sillybus thistle; cardoon or meadow thistle 5; sow-thistle, 2 kinds, 15 drugs; chondrilla 3. (xlvi) Mushrooms: peculiarity in their mode of reproduction. (xlvii-ix) Toadstools: signs of poisonous kinds; 9 drugs obtained from these; silphium 7; assafoetida plant 39. (l-lv) Bee-glue 5, honey 16, hydromel 18; reason for influence of diet on character; mead 6 honey-must, 3; wax, 8. (lvi) Warning against doctors’ mixtures. (lvii-lxxvi). Drugs from various grains: common wheat 1, wheat 11, chaff 2, emmer 1, bran 1, arinca, rye-water 2; corresponding varieties of flour; 29 drugs; pearl-barley 8; fine flour, pulse 1, paper flour 1; alica 6; millet 6; Italian millet 4; sesame 7; near-sesame 3, hellebore 3; barley 9, wild barley (Greek ‘Phoenician barley’) 1; pearl-barley 4; starch 8; oats 1; bread 21; bean 16; lentil 17; marsh-bean 3; elelisphacon or fragrant moss (sage) 13; chick-pea and small chickpea 23; bitter vetch 20; lupine 35; winter-cress or erysimum (Gallic ‘vela’) 15; clary 6. (lxxvii-lxxx) Darnel 5, millet grass 1, oats 1, choke-weed or broom-rape 1. (lxxxi f.) Protection against maggots in vegetables. Foam from beer.Total 906 drugs, investigations and observations.

Authoritiesas in preceding book, also Chrysermus, Bratosthenes, Alcaeus.

Book XXIII. Contents: drugs obtained from cultivated trees: (ii-xxii) from vines 20; vine-leaves 7; tendrils 7; juice of unripe grape 14; wild vine 21; fresh grapes; varieties of stored grapes, 11 drugs; vine-shoots 1; grape-stones 6; grape-skins 8; treacle-grape 4; dried grape or raisin 14; wild raisin or staves-acre or taminia or phlegm-heal 12; claret-vine or wild vine 12; salicastrum wild vine 12; white grape or ampelos leuke or staphyle or white bryony or psilothrum or archezostis or cedrostis or madon 31; black grape or bryony or Chiron’s plant or gynacanthe or apronia 35; must 15; Falernian 6, Alban 2, Surrentine 3; Setine 1, Statane 1, Signine 1; other wines 64. (xxiii-vi) observations about wines 61; what invalids to be given them, and when and how; observations on these points 91. (xxvii-xxxiii) Vinegar 28, squillvinegar 17, vinegar-honey 7, must 7, wine lees 12, vinegar lees 17, must lees 4. (xxxiv-xxxix) Olive leaves 23; olive flowers 4, olive berries 6, white olives 4, black olives 3; olive lees 21, wild olive leaves 16, oil of unripe olives 3. (xl-l) Wild olive oil 8; castor oil 16; almond oil 16; bay oil 9; myrtle oil 20; oil of dwarf myrtle or prickly myrtle (butcher’s room), of cypress, of citrus, nut-oil, Cnidian oil, mastic oil, oil of behen-nut, cyprus oil and cyprus flower 6; oil of must 1; of balsam 5; of betel 5, of henbane 2, of lupine 1, of narcissus 1, of radish 5, of sesame 3, of lily-seed 1, oil of Selga 1, of Iguvium 1; of olive-honey 2, of pitch 2. (li-liii) Palm-oil 9, palm-oil of behen-nut 3, of fir 17. (liv-lxxxiii) Drugs from flower, leaves, fruit, branches, bark, sap, wood, root, ash, of the different sorts of tree; observations as to apple-trees 6, as to quinces 22, as to soapworts 1, sweet apples 6, crab apples 4, citron apples 5, pomegranates 26; lip-salve 14; pomegranate blossom 8, wild pomegranate blossom 12. (lxii-lxix) Observations on pear trees, 13, on figs 111, on wild figs 42; erineus grass 3, plums 4, peaches 2, wild plums 2; tree lichen (lxx-lxxv) Mulberries 39; lip-salve or windpipe salve or all-heal 4; cherries 5, medlars 2, serviceberries 2, pine-cones 13, almonds 29. (lxvi-lxxix) Greek nuts 1, walnuts 24 (antidote); filberts 3, pistachios 8, chestnuts 5, caroes 5, cornel-cherry 1, arbutuses. (lxxx-lxxxiii) Bay-trees 69. myrtles 60, myrtle-berry wine 13, Prickly myrtle or ground-myrtle or butcher’s broom 6.Total 1418 drugs, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Gaius Valgius, Pompeius Lenaeus, Sextins Niger’s Greek writings, Julius Bassus’s ditto, Antonius Castor, Marcus Varro, Cornelius Celsus, Fabianus. Foreign authorities: Theophrastus, Democritus, Orpheus, Pythagoras, Mago, Menander’s Things serviceable for life, Nicander, Homer, Hesiod, Musaeus, Sophocles, Anaxilaus. Medical writers: Mnesitheus, Callimachus, Phanias’s Natural Science, Timaristus, Simus, Hippocrates, Chrysippus, Diodes, Ophion, Heracides, Hicesius, Dionysius, Apollodorus of Citium, Apollodorus of Tarentum, Praxagoras, Plistonicus, Medius, Dieuches, Cleophantes, Philistion, Asclepiades, Crateuas, Petronius Diodotus, Iollas, Erasistratus, Diagoras, Andreas, Mnesides, Epieharmus, Damion, Dalion, Sosimenes, Tlepolemus, Metrodorus, Solon, Lyeus, Olympias of Thebes, Philinus, Petrichus, Miccio, Glaucias, Xenocrates.

Book XXIV. Contents: Drugs obtained from forest trees: (ii-ix) Egyptian water-lily 6, acorns 13, holm-oak berry 3, oak-apple 23, mistletoe 11, acorns of glandiferous trees 1, Turkey oak 8, cork 2, beech 4. (x-xix) Cypress 23, cedar 13, cedar-berry 10, galbanum 23, gum-tree 24, styrax gum-tree 10, bear’s-foot 17, sphagnus or sphaeus or moss 5, turpentine 6, pitch-pine 8. (xx-xxix) Ground-pine 10, pityusa 6, resin 22, pitch 34, cedar-resin oil or twice-boiled pitch 16, earth-pitch 2, wax-pitch 1, pitch-pine 1, mastic-tree 22, plane 25. (xxx-xxxix) Beech 5, maple 1, poplar 8, elm 16, lime 5, elder 15, juniper 21, willow 14, Amerian apple 1, chaste-tree 33, heath 1. (xl-xlix) Broom 5, myrice, also called tamarisk 3, golden-rod 1, brya 29, brook-willow 3, privet 8, alder 1, ivies 39, cisthus 5, reddish-ivy 2, ground-ivy 2, yew 3, clematis 3. (l-lix) Reed 18, papyrus reed 3, ebony 5, rhododendron 1, sumach 2 kinds, 8 drugs (mouth-heal), red sumach 9, madder 11, madwort 2, radicula or soapwort 13, dog’s-bane 2, rosemary 18. (lx-lxix) Rosemary capsule 6, sabine grass 7, savin-tree 2, brookweed 2, cummin 11, Arabian thorn 4, white-thorn 2, bear’s-foot 1, acacia 18, rosewood or erysisceptrum or adipsatheum or diaxylon 8. (lxx-lxxix) Barberry-bush 2, pyracanthus 1, Christ’s-thorn 10, holly 10, yew 1, blackberries 51 (mouth-heal), dog-rose 3, Ida bramble 1; buckthorn 2 kinds, 5 drugs; Lycium thorn 18, Persian gum 2, oporice 2. (lxxx-lxxxix) Germander or dwarf oak or chamaerops or Teucrian plant 16; dwarf laurel 5, dwarf olive 6, dwarf fig 8, ground ivy 1, chamaeleuce or colt’s-foot or farfugium 1, ground larch 5, ground cypress 2. field-garlic 6, horsemint 1, wild basil or cleopicetum or zopyrontium or ocimoides 3, knotweed clematis 3. clematis or aetis or cimoides. (xl-xlviii) Egyptian clematis or laurel clematis or polygonoides 2, wake-robin 13, tarragon 2, dragon-root 3, milfoil or varrow 7, bastard-bunion 4, sweet-cicely or myrra or myriza 7, oenobreche 3. (xcix-cii) Sorcery from herbs: coracesia and calicia; Minyad or Corinthian herb 1, aproxis (Pythagorean teachings as to recurrent diseases), aglaophotis or marble-quarry plant. Achaemenis or horse’s-mane, theombrotion or semnion, uncrushable herb, Ariana plant, theronarca. Ethiopian plant or herb of Meroe, ophiusa, sea-ray or river-flash, theangelis, gelotophyllis, hestiateris or protomedia or casignetes or Dionysonymphas, helianthis or heliocallis, hermesiades, aeschynomenes, erocis, oenetheris, anacampseros. (ciii-cix) Eriphia, wool grass 1, milk-wort 1, soldier-grass 1, stratiotes 5, statue’s head grass 1, river grass 1, tongue grass 1, sieve grass 1. (cx-cxx) Dung-hill grass 1, dog’s water grass 1, rodarum 3, French everlasting 2, Venus’s comb 1, exedum, southern-wood 2, goose-grass 1, dog-bur 2, hart-wort or syreon 3, couch-grass 17, lady’s finger 5, Greek hay or fenugreek, our silicia, 31.Total: 1176 drugs, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Gaius Valgius, Pompeius Lenaeus, Sextius Niger’s Greek writings, Julius Bassos’s, ditto, Antonius Castor, Cornelius Celsus. Foreign authorities: Theophrastus, Apollodorus, Democritus, Orpheus, Pythagoras, Mago, Menander’s Things serviceable for life, Nicander, Homer, Hesiod, Musaeus, Sophocles, Anaxilaus. Medical writers: Mnesitheus, Callimachus, Phanias the scientific writer, Timaristus, Simus, Hippocrates, Chrysippus, Diodes, Ophion, Heradides, Hicesius, Dionysius, Apollodorus of Citium, Apollodorus of Tarentuxn, Praxagoras, Plistonicus, Mcdius, Dieuches, Cleophantus, Philistio, Asclepiades, Cratcuas, Petronius Diodotus, Iollas, Erasistratus, Diagoras, Andreas, Mnesides, Epicharmus, Damion, Sosimenes, Tlepolemus, Metrodorus, Solon, Lycus, Olympias of Thebes, Phulinus, Petrichus, Miccio, Glaucias, Xenocrates.

Book XXV. Contents: the natures of self-grown plants; value of plants. (i-vi) Origin of their use; Latin writers on uses of plants; when this knowledge reached the Romans; first Greek writers on the subject; herbal remedies, why comparatively little used; remarkable discoveries of plants. Dog-rose, 2 drugs, tarragon 1, water-clock 5. (vii-ix) The greatest pain. Discoverers of famous plants. Moly 3, shooting star 1, peony or pentorobus or glycysides 1, varieties of all-healAsclepion 2, Heraclion 3, Chironion 4, Centaurion or Pharnacion 3, iron-wort Heraclion 4, hyoscyamos or Apollo-plant or henbane, 2 kinds, 3 drugs; linozostis or maiden-hair or grass of Hermes or grass of Mercury, 2 kinds, 22 drugs; Achilles star-wort or all-heal of Heracles, our milfoil or king’s-broom, 6 kinds, 3 drugs. (xx-xxix) Teucer’s grass or hermione or spleenwort 2; Melampodium or hellebore, our veratrum 3 kinds, method of gathering, method of testing; drugs from black hellebore 24, how taken; ditto with white hellebore; drugs from the latter 23; to what patients not to be given: observations in regard to each kind 88. Grass of Mithridates 2, scordotis or water-germander 4, Polemonia or Philetaeria or thousand-virtues 6, Eupatoria 1. (xxx-xlii) Centaury or grass of Chiron 20, lesser centaury or libadion, our earth-gall (fumitory) 22, triorchis centaury 2, Clymenos 2, gentian 13, Lysimachia 8, Artemisia or maiden-herb or magwort or ambrosia 5, water-lily or rod of Heracles or rhopalon or mallos, 2 kinds, 14 drugs; Euphorbia .2 kinds, 4 drugs; plantain 2 kinds, 46 drugs; bugloss 3; hound’s-tongue 3; ox-eye or cachla 1. (xliii-ix) Plants discovered by various races: Scythian grass 3, mare’s-grass 3, styptic plant 2, cestros or psychotrophon, our Vettonica or betony, 48; Cantabrian bindweed 2, lung-wort 1, candy-tuft 7. (l-liii) Plants found from animals: swallow-wort 6, dog’s-grass 1, dittany 8, sham-dittany or horehound. Localities where herbs most potent. Milk drunk for herbal contents in Arcady. (liv-lix) Aristolochia or clematis or Cretan plant or plistolochia or many-rooted lochia, our earth-bane, 22; agrimony 4, tinder-fungus 33; viper’s-bugloss 3 kinds, 2 drugs; holy-wort or dove-wort, our vervain, 2 kinds 10 drugs; moth-mullein 11, molemony 1; pentapetes or pentaphyllon or chamaezelon, our cinquefoil, 33 drugs; bur-weed 1; wild carrot, 4 kinds, 18 drugs; theronarca 2; brown mullein or arcion 8; cyclamen, our mole-hill plant, 12; ivy-flower cyclamen 4; ground-ivy cyclamen 3. (lxx-xc) Sulphurwort 28, dwarf elder 6; phlomos, our mullein 15; phlornides 2, phlomis or wild lychnis or thryallis; thelyphonon or scorpion-grass (aconite) 1; phrynion or neuras or poterion 1; water-plantain or damnsoniurn or lyron 17; vervain 6; antirrhinum or anarrhinum or wild lychnis 3; euplia 1; pericarpum, 2 kinds; 2 drugs; Hercules water-lily 2; marsh crowfoot 1; colt’s-foot or lion-wort 3; hair-dye plant 1; hyssop 10; satyrion 4; gladiolus or sword-lily 4; flea-bane or dog-wort or gold garlic or Sicilian grass or dog-fly 16; thryselinon 1. (xci-cv) Eye-salves: pimpernel or chickweed, our cat’s-eye, 2 kinds, 3 drugs; aegilops 2, mandragora or Circe’s herb or nightshade or white mandrake, 2 kinds, 24 drugs; hemlock 13; wild seafennel 1, leadwort 1; ‘dwarfed smoke,’ our chickenfeet (fumitory) 1; bush-smoke 3; acoron or sweetflag 14; navelwort, 2 kinds 61 drugs; greater livefor-ever or ox-eye or zoophthalmon or love-charm or gutter-leek or immortal or care-free, our great houseleek or eye or little finger, 31 drugs; lesser live-for-ever or erithales or trithales or erysithales, our aye-green or stonecrop, 32 drugs; wild purslane, our decoy-bird 32. (cvi-x) Erigeron or pappos or groundsel, our old-man, 8; ephemeron 2; Venus’s-lip 1, frog-weed, our ranunculus or buttercup, 4 kinds, 14 drugs; mouth-heal, 2 kinds. Total 1292 drugs, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Gaius Valgius, Pompeius Lenaens, Sextius Niger’s Greek writings, Julius Bassus’s ditto, Antonius Castor, Cornelius Celsus, Fabianus. Foreign authorities: Theophrastus, Apollodorus, Democritus, Juba, Orpheus, Pythagoras, Mago, Menander’s Things serviceable for life, Nicander, Homer, Hesiod, Musaeus, Sophocles, Xanthus, Anaxilaus. Medical writers: Mnesitheus, Callimachns, Phanias the natural scientist, Timaristus, Simus, Hippocrates, Chrysippus, Diodes, Ophion, Heraclides, Hicesins, Dionysius, Apollodorus of Citium, Apollodorus of Tarentum, Praxagoras, Plistonicus, Medius, Dieuches, Cleophantus, Philistion, Asclepias, Crateuas, Petronius Diodotus, Iollas, Erasistratus, Diagoras, Andreas, Mnesides, Epicharmus, Damion, Sosimenes, Tlepolemus, Metrodorus, Solon, Lycus, Olympias of Thebes, Philinus, Petrichus, Miccio, Glaucias, Xenocrates.

Book XXVI. Contents: the remaining drugs by classes. (i) New diseases. (ii-vi) Ringwormwhen first occurring in Italy; carbuncle ditto; elephantiasis ditto; colic ditto. (vii-ix) The new medicine; the physician Asclepias; reason for alteration of the old medicine; refutation of Magi. (x-xix) Lichen, 2 kinds, 5 drugs, Proserpinaca 1, ox-eye daisy 2, condurdum 1, bechfon or arcion or chamaeleuce, our white colt’s-foot, 3; bechion, our sage, 4; molon or syron, balsam-shrub 3. (xx-xxix) Horse-tail or anabasis 3, geum 3, tripolion 3, amaranth. malundrum 2, chalcetum 2, molemonium 1; comfrey or black bryony 5, wall germander 1, French lavender 1, Spanish tragacanth 6. (xxx-xxxix) Ladanum 8; horehound or bastard dittany 1, cisthus-parasite or orobethron, 2 kinds, 8 drugs; layer or sion 2; pond-weed 8, statice 3; horn-weed 2, lentopodion or leuceoron or doribethron or thorybethron; hare’s foot 3; thyme-flower or hippopheos 8; devil’s-bit 4; polypody 3; scanimony 8; stake-spurge. (xl-xlvi) Myrtle-spurge or nut-spurge 21, sea-spurge or thymalis 4, heliotrope spurge 18, cyparissias-spurge 18, broadleaved spurge or corymbites or almond-spurge 3; tree-spurge or cobius or small-leaved spurge 18; sciatica-spurge or wild radish 2. (l-lix) Sea-fennel 11, sea-fennel kernel, pitch-plant 2, musk-ivy 2, portulaca 1, hypericon or ground-pine or corisson 9, ground-pine seed or hypericon 10, hair-dye plant 1, perpressa 1, marigold 1, chamomile 1, smallage 1, Fulvius-grass, groin-grass or argemo. (lx-lxix) Clirvsippus-grass 1, orchis or Serapia 5, ragwort 3, red ragwort 4, lappagobin or mollugo 1, prickly bur 1, phvcos, our seaweed, 3 kinds, 5 drugs; cattle-bur; crane’s bill or geranium or myrtis, 3 kinds, 6 drugs; donkey-hunt or refreshment-plant 3, (lxxiii) Danewort or dwarf-elder, ground Dane-wort. (lxxxiii-xciii) Horsetail or ephedron or anabasis, our horse-hair, 3 kinds, 18 drugs; stephanomeis; erysithales l, polycnemon 1, arsenogonon 1, thelygonon 1, mastos 1, ophrys. Total, 1019 drugs, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Marcus Varro, Gaius Valgius, Pornpeius Lenaeus, Sextius Niger’s Greek writings, Julius Bassus’s ditto, Antonius Castor, Cornelius Celsus. Foreign Authorities: Theophrastus, Apollodorus, Democritus, Juba, Orpheus, Pythagoras, Mago, Menander’s Things serviceable for life, Nicander, Homer, Hesiod, Musaeus, Sophocles, Xanthus, Anaxilaus. Medical writers: Mnesitheus, Callimachus, Phanias the natural philosopher, Timaristus, Simus, Hippocrates, Chrysippus, Diodes, Ophion, Heraclides, Hicesius, Dionysius, Apollodorus of Citium, Apollodorus of Tarentum, Praxagoras, Plistonicus, Medius, Dieuches, Cleophantus, Philistion, Asclepiades, Crateuas, Petronius Diodotus, Iollas, Erasistratus, Diagoras, Andreas, Mnesides, Epicharmus, Damion, Sosimenes, Tlepolemus, Metrodorus, Solon, Lycus, Olympias of Thebes, Philinus, Petrichus, Miccio, Glaucias, Xenocrates.

Book XXVII. Contents: the remaining kinds of plants, drugs derived from them. (ii-x) Monk’s-hood or lady-killer or cammoron or choke-leopard or scorpion, 4 drugs; Aetbiopic sage 4; never-grow-old 4; aloe 29; alcea-mallow 1; herb terrible 1; chickweed for the same uses as helxine 5; androsaces 6; man’s-blood or St. John’s-wort 6. (xi-xx) Ambrosia or mug-wort or Artemisia 3, rest-harrow or ononis 5, bean-trefoil or pain-killer 3, no-name 2, cleavers or grape-fruit or goose-grass 4, bear-weed or bear-ward 5, miltwort or spleenwort 2, swallowwort 2, aster or star-wort 3, St. John’s wort and ascyroides 3. (xxi-xxx) Chick-pea 3, alcibium 1, alectoros Iophos, our cock’s-comb 2, comfrey, our rock wallwort 14, red seaweed 1, herb Christopher 1, wild vine 4; wormwood, 4 kinds, 48 drugs; sea-wormwood or seriphum; horehound or black chives 3. (xxxi-xl) Mugwort or ambrosia or Artemisia 1, brabyla 1; sea bryon 5, hare’s-ear 1, catanance 1, cemos 1, calyx 3, calyx or strangle-plant or rhinoclia 2, herb of Circe 3, cirsion thistle 1; crataegonon, 3 kinds, 8 drugs; (xli-l) crocodile plant 2, hound’s-cod or orchis 4, garden orach, 2 kinds, 3 drugs, earth-bond 2, nightshade or strumus or strychnos 6, salve-herb 2, Cnidus berry 2, teasel 3, oak-wing 2, drabe 1, elatine 2. (li-lx) Harts-tongue, called in Latin break-stone, 4; epicactis or belleborine 2, epimedion 3, nine-leaf 3, fern. 2 kinds called by the Greeks ‘feather-fern’ or blachnon, also female feather or bride’s-feather, 11; ox-thigh; dead-nettle or galeobdoIon or galion 6; owl-plant 1; celandine 3 (pillar-plant, 2 drugs) glycysis or peony or pentorobon 20. (lxi-lxx) Cotton-grass or cudweed 6, hairy teasel 1, mouse-barley or aristis, black centaury, white plantain 3, hippophaeston 8, butcher’s broom 1, humble-plant, grass of Ida 4, isopvron or phasiolon 2. (lxxi-Ixxx) Wolf’s-milk 2, lion’s-leaf (others call it ‘rhapeion’) 2, alkanet 2, lithospermon or exonychon or diospyron or grass of Hercules 2, stone-crop 1, arrow-poison 1, spotted dead-nettle or mesoleucium or leucas 3, St. Mary’s thistle 5; medion 3, mouse-ear or forget-me-not 3. (lxxxi-xc) Mouse-hunter 1, nyma 1. water-snake 1, toothwort 1, othonna 1, onosma 1, St. Mary’s thistle 5, goose-foot 4, wood sorrel 2, many-flowered crowfoot or frogwort 3. (xci-c) Knot-grass or polygonatum or sea-grass or carcinothron or clema or bayleaf (the same as bloodweed or orbs) 4 kinds, 40 drugs; succory 12, peplis or syce or meconion or foam-poppy 3, honeysuckle 5, hatchet-vetch 1, milkwort 1, tragacanth or frog-cup or tendon-plant 4; anthericum or spider-root or whitethorn 4; groundsel 1; phyllon 1. (ci-cx) Phellandrion 2, canary-grass 2, many-root 5, Proserpinaca 5, rhecoma 36, reseda 2, French lavender 3, nightshade, Greek strychnon, 2; common alexanders 32, sinon 2, purslane 4. (cxi-cxvii) Mad-locks 5, meadow-rue 1, thlaspi or Persian mustard 4, herb of Trachis 1, tragonis or goatwort 1, goat-grass or scorpion-grass 4, goat’s-beard or come 1. (cxviii-cxx) Length of life of herbs; means of increasing the potency of each kind. Different national maladies. Total, 602 drugs, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Gaius Valgius, Pompeius Lenaeus, Greek works of Sextius Niger, ditto of Julius Bassus, Antonius Castor, Cornelius Cclsus. Foreign authorities: Theophrastus, Apollodorus, Democritus, Aristogiton, Orpheus, Pythagoras, Mago, Menander’s Things serviceable for life, Nicander. Medical writers: Mnesitheus, Callimachus, Timaristus, Simus, Hippocrates, Chrysippus, Diodes, Ophion, Heraclides, Hicesius, Dionysius, Apollodorus of Citium, Apollodorus of Tarcntum, Praxagoras, Plistonicus, Medius, Dieuches, Cleophantus, Philistiou, Asclepiades, Crateuas, Petronius Diodotus, Iollas, Erasistratus, Diagoras, Andreas, Mnesides, Epicharmus, Damion, Sosimenes, Tlcpolemus, Metrodorus, Solon, Lycus, Olympias of Thebes, Philinus, Petrichus, Miccio, Glaucia, Xenocrates.

Book XXVIII. Contents: drugs obtained from animals. (iii) Whether there is any healing power in spoken charms. (iv-v) Portents ratified and rejected. (vi-xix) Remedies obtained from the human body; against magicians; 226 drugs and observations derived from an adult male, 8 from a boy; (xx-xxiii) 61 from a woman; (xxiv-xxxi) from foreign animals,elephant 8, lion 10, camel 10, hyena 79, crocodile 19, crocodile’s excrement 11, chameleon 15, lizard 4, hippopotamus 7, lynx 5. (xxxiii-xli) Drugs obtained: 1 equally from wild animals and tame animals of the same kind; milk, modes of using and remarks as to, 54; cheeses 12; butter 25; sour milk 1; fat, modes of using and observations as to, 52; suet; marrow; gall; blood. (xlii-lxxx) Special drugs derived from particular animals arranged according to diseases; from the boar 12, pig 60, stag 3, wolf 27, bear 24, wild ass 12, ass 76, ass’s foal 3, wild horse 11, foal’s rennet 1, horse 42, mare’s milk cheese 1, wild oxen 2, ox 81, bull 53, calf 59, hare 64, fox 20, badger 2, cat 5, she-goat 116, he-goat 31, kid 21. (lxxi) On testing bull-glue, and 7 drugs from it. Total 1682 drugs, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Marcus Varro, Lucius Piso, Antias, Verrius, Fabianus, Cato the ex-Censor, Servius Sulpicius, Licinius, Macer, Celsus, Masurius, Greek works of Sextius Niger, Bythus of Durazzo, medical works of Rabirius, Ofilius and Granius. Foreign authorities: Democritus, Apollonius alias the Mouse, Meletus, Artemon, Sextilius Antaeus, Homer, Theophrastus, Lysimachus, Attalus, Xenocrates, Orpheus writer of ldiopkye, Archelaus ditto, Demetrius, Sotira, Lais, Elephantis, Salpe, Olympias of Thebes, Diotimus of Thebes, Jollas, Audreas, Marcio of Smyrna, medical works of Aeseliines, Hippocrates, Aristotle, medical works of Hicetidas and Apelles, Hesiod, Bialcon, Caecilius, Bion’s On Potencies, Anaxilaus, King Juba.

Book XXIX. Contents: drugs obtained from animals. (i-viii) Origin of medicine; Hippocrates; first employment of clinic medicine, first employment of embrocations; Chrysippus the physician, Erasistratus; experimental medicine; Hierophulus; remaining famous physicians; how often the system of medicine has altered; the first physician at Rome, name and date; judgement of Romans as to ancient physicians; defects of medicine. (ix-xiii) Cures from wools 35 and in the next book 25, making 60; from wool-washings 32, next book 20, making 52; from eggs 22, next book 43, making 65; meaning of ‘fattened’ eggs; how to make eggs all yoke; snakes’ eggs; how to make Commagene-cure; drugs from it 4, and in next book 5, making 9. (xiv-xl) Remedies from roaming or wild animals; ram 5 and next book 7 = 12, sheep 2 and next book 15 = 17, mules 1 and next book 5 = 6, horses 1 and next book 3 = 4, dog 16 and next book 41 = 57, mad dog 3 and next book 5 = 7, ichneumon 1, mouse 14 and next book 28 = 42, pygmymouse 4 and next book 1 = 5, dormouse 2 and next book 6 = 8, shrewmouse 1 and next book 2 = 3, weasel 19 and next book 25 = 44, gecko 4 and next book 12 = 16, hedgehog 5 and next book 13 = 18, porcupine 1 and next book 2 = 3, lizard 13 and next book 30 = 43, salamander 1 and next book 3 = 4, snail 27 and next book 19 = 46, asp 1 and next book 3 = 4, basilisk 4, serpent 4 and next book 6 10, viper 14 and next book 21 = 35 (xxi, salt antidote for viper-bite; xxxviii, adder-ash drug) snake 8 and next book 27 = 35, water-serpent 1, ox-snake 4 and next book 3 = 7, water-snake 1 and next book 2 = 3, the other serpents Sand next book 7 = 15, scorpion 4 and next book 2 = 6, spiders and poison-spiders, 12 kinds, drugs from these 9 and next book 27 = 36, cricket or bull-beetle 1 and next book 7 = 8, scolopendra or multipede or millepede or centipede or woodlouse or catkin 1 and next book 20 = 21 (xvii, admiration of nature who produces nothing useless), slug 1 and next book 3 = 4, caterpillar 1 and next book 2 = 3, earth-worm 2 and next book 20 = 22, tree-worm I and next book 4 = 5; from birdseagle 4 and next book 3 = 7, vulture 9 and next book 7 = 16, cock 21 and next book 35 = 56, hen 10 and next book 22 = 32, goose 7 and next book 15 = 22, swan 1 and next book 5 = 6 (xiii manufacture of bird’s lard); raven 2 and next book 4 = 6, crow 1 and next book 2 = 3, hawk 2 and next book 2 = 4, kite 2 and next book 6 = 8, goshawk 2, stork 2 and next book 1 = 3, duck 2 and next book 4 = 6, partridge 6 and next book 11 = 17, dove 7 and next book 25 = 32, pigeon 2 and next hook 14 = 16, Mars’s woodpecker 1, turtle-dove 4 and next book 5 = 9, swallow 9 and next book 24 = 33, night-owl 4 and next book 5 = 9, screech-owl 1 and next book 1 = 2, horned owl 2 and next book 5 = 7, bat 4 and next book 9 = 13, bees 5 and next book 7 = 12, cow-fly 3 and next book 3 = 6, pine-grub 2 and next book 4 = 6, (xvii that the beneficence of nature has placed powerful remedies even in disgusting animals), hectic 1 and next book 7 = 8, cockroach 4 and next book 13 =17. (xxx) The genus Spanish flydrugs from these 5 and next book 11 = 16, bug 9 and next book 5 = 14, house-fly 7 and next book 5 = 12, locusts 4 and next book 3 = 7, wingless locust 1, ants 3 and next book 5 = 8.Total 621 drugs, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Marcus Varro, Lucius Piso, Verrius Flaccus, Antias, Nigidius, Cassius Hemina, Cicero, Plautus, Celsus, Sextius Niger (Greek works of), Caecilius the medical writer, Metellus Scipio, the poet Ovid, Liciuius Macer. Foreign authorities: Palaephatus, Homer, Aristotle, Orpheus, Democritus, Anaxilaus. Medical writers: Botrys, Apollodorus, Archedemus, Aristogencs, Xenocrates, Democrates, Diodorus, Chrysippus, Philip, Orus, Nicander, Apollonius of Pitane.

Book XXX. Contents: drugs obtained from animals (concluded). (i-vii) Origin of magicdate and place of its commencement, by whom practised; whether carried on in Italy. Human sacrifice, when first prohibited by the senate; the Druids of the Gauls; kinds of magic; magicians’ view as to moles; 5 drugs. (viii-liii) Remaining drugs, arranged according to diseases, found in animals not classed as tame or wild: cattle 2 and in last book 15 = 17, ram 7 and in last book 5 = 12, wool 25 and in last book 35 = 60, wool-washings 20 and in last book 32 = 52, mules 5 and in last book 1 = 6, horses 3 and in last book 1 = 4; dog 41 and in last book 16 = 57, mad dog 2 and in last book 3 = 5, ferret 1, mouse 28 and in last book 14 = 62, shrewmouse 1 and in last book 4 = 5, dormouse 6 and in last book 2 = 8, shrewmouse 2 and in last book 1 = 3, weasel 25 and in last book 19 = 44, newt 12 and in last book 4 = 16, hedgehog 13 and in last book 5 = 18, porcupine 2 and in last book 1 = 3, lizard 30 and in last book 13 = 43, salamander 3 and in last book 1 4, snail 19 and in last book 27 = 46 (xliii the drug everlasting), viper 3 and in last book 1 = 4, snake 6 and in last book 4 = 10, viper 21 and in last book 14 = 35, serpent 27 and in last book 8 = 35, bova 3 and in last book 4 = 7, water snake 2 and in last book 1 = 3, Libyan snake 3, remaining serpents 7 and in last book 8 = 15, scorpion 2 and in last book 9 = 36, cricket 3, phryganion 1, scolopendra or multipede or millepede or centipede or woodlouse or catkin 20 and in last book 1 = 21 (admiration for nature who produces nothing useless), slug 3 and in last book 1 = 4, caterpillar 2 and in last book 1 = 3, earthworm 20 and in last book 2 = 22, tree-worm 4 and in last book 1 = 5, grass-worm 8, herpes 1, tick 3; from birds, eagle 3 and in last book 4 = 7, vulture 7 and eggs 43 and in last book 22 = 65, Syrian cock 5 and in last book 4 = 9, swan 5 and in last book 1 = 6, otis 2, raven 4 and in last book 2 = 6, crow 2 and in last book 1 = 3, hawk 2 and in last book 2 = 4, kite 6 in last book 2 = 8, crane 1, stork 1 and in last book 2 = 3, ibis 3, little heron 1, duck 4 and in last book 2 = 6, diver 2, partridge 11 and in last book 6 = 17, dove 14 and in last book 2 16, crested lark 4, cuckoo 1, Mars’s woodpecker 1, turtledove 5 and in last book 4 = 9, thrush 3, blackbird 1, swallow 24 and in last book 9 = 33, night-owl 5 and in last book 4 = 9, screech-owl 1 and in last book 1 2, hoopoe 1, horned owl 5 and in last book 2 = 7, sparrow 5, galgulus 2, bat 9 and in last hook 4 13, tree cricket 1, bees 7 and in last book 5 = 12, wasps 2, cow-fly 3 and in last book 3 = 6, pine-grub 4 and in last book 2 = 6 (that the beneficence of nature has placed powerful remedies even in disgusting animals), beetle 7 and in last book 1 = 8, cockroaches 13 and in last book 4 = 17; the genus Spanish flydrugs from these 11 and in last book 5 = 16, bug 5 and in last book 9 = 14, house-fly 5 and in last book 7 = 12, locusts 3 and in last book 4 = 7, ants 5 and in last book 3 = 8.Total 854 drugs, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Marcus Varro, Nigidius, Marcus Cicero, Sextius Niger (Greek works of ), Licinius Macer. Foreign authorities: Eudoxus, Aristotle, Hermippus, Homer, Apion, Orpheus, Democritus, Anaxilaus. Medical writers: Botrys, Apollodorus, Menander, Archidemus, Aristogenes, Xenocrates, Diodorus, Chrysippus, Pbilippus, Orus, Nicander, Apollonius of Pitane.

Book XXXI. Contents: drugs obtained from aquatic animals. (i) Remarkable facts as to waters. (ii) Differences in waters. (iii-xvi) Medicinal properties: 266 observations; what sorts of waters are good for the eyes, what sorts produce fertility, what sorts cure insanity, what sorts gall-stone, what sorts wounds, what sorts protect the embryo, what sorts remove tetter, which make dye for wools, which for human beings, which produce memory, which forgetfulness, which keenness of sense, which slowness, which a musical voice, which dislike of wine, which intoxication, which fill the place of oil, which are salt and bitter; springs discharging rocks, springs that cause laughter or weeping, springs said to cure love. (xvii) Water keeping hot for three days after being drawn. (xviii-xx) Remarkable waters: waters in which all objects sink, in which no objects; waters that kill, poisonous fishes; waters that turn into stone, or produce stones. (xxi-iii) Health-giving property of waters; impurities of waters; mode of testing waters. (xxiv f.) The Marcian Spring, the Maiden Spring. (xxvi-ix) Method of finding water; signs of sprints; .differences of waters according to kinds of earth; variation of springs with the seasons. (xxx). Historical account of springs suddenly arising or stopping. (xxxi) Method of carrying water in pipes. (xxxii f.) Medicinal waters, mode of employing, for what kinds of illnesses; ditto sea-water, 29 kinds. Benefits of a voyage, 5. (xxxiv-vi) Sea-water at places inland, 1 method of producing, sea-water-honey 1, water-honey 1. (xxxvii f.) Remedy against foreign waters; 6 drugs from moss; drugs from sands. (xxxix-xlv) Salt, kinds of, preparations and drugs from, 204 observations; historical importance of salt 120; froth of salt; flower of salt 20; brine 2; fish-sauce 15; pickle 15; fish-brine 8; nature of salt. (xlvi f.) Native soda, kinds of, preparations and drugs from221 observations; sponges, 92 drugs from and observations.Total 924 drugs, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Marcus Varro, Cassius of Parma, Cicero, Mucianus, Caelius, Celsus, Trogus, Ovid, Polybius, Sornatius. Foreign authorities: Callimachus, Ctesias, Eudicus, Theophrastus, Eudoxus, Theopompus, Polyclitus, Juba, Lycus, Apion, Epigenes, Pelops, Apelles, Democritus, Thrasyllus, Nicander, comedies of Menander, Attalus, Sallustius, Dionysius, Andreas, Niceratus, Hippocrates, Anaxilaus.

Book XXXII. Contentsdrugs from aquatic animals. (i-iv) Nature’s supreme force in antipathy. The sucking-fish, 2 cases; the electric ray, 7 cases; the sea-hare, 5 cases; marvels of the Red Sea. (v-ix) Intellect of fishes; remarkable properties of fishes; places where oracles are given from fishes, where fishes eat out of the hand, where they recognize the voice, where they are bitter, where salt, where sweet, where not dumb; Their sympathy and also antipathy for localities. (x) Sea-fish when first used by the Roman nation. King Numa’s regulation as to fish. (xi) Coral, drugs from and observations as to, 66. (xii) Discord between marine animals: sting-ray 9, dog-fish, mullet 15. (xiii-xx) Amphibious animals: beaver-castors, drugs from and observations as to, 56; tortoise, drugs and observations 66; gilt-bream 4, star-fish 7, sea-snake 3, salt fish 25, sardines 1, tunnies, sea-frog 6, river-frog 52, bramble-toad; observations about them 32; water-snake 6, river-crabs 14, sea-crabs 7, river-snails 7, crow-fish 4, pig-fish 2, sea-calf 10, lamprey 1, sea-horse 9, sea-urchins 11. (xxi-xxx) Shellfish: kinds, observations and drugs 1; purple dye 9; seaweed 2, sea-mouse 2, sea-scorpion 12, leeches 6, purple-fishes 13, mussels 5, fishes’ fat 2, callyonymi 3, crow-fish’s gall 1, cuttle-fish 24, huso sturgeon 5, batia 1, bacchus or myxon 2, sea-lice 2, sea-bitch 4, seal 1, dolphin 9, sea-snail or murex 3, sea-foam 7, tunny 5, maena 13, scolopendra 2, lizard 1, conchis 1, sheat-flsh 15, sea-snail or longniussel 6, sponge 5. (xxxi-lii) Sea-cabbage 1, myax mussel 25, sea-mussels 8, giant mussels 1, seriphus fish 2, sea-mullet 2, sole-fish 1, turbot 1, blendia 1, sea-nettle 7, sea-lung 6, scallops 4; from the water-snake 4, from the water-serpent 1, mullet 1, from the young tunny 4, grayling 1, perch 4, from the skate 3, zmarides 3, conger 1, beaver 4, moss 1, haddock 1, phager 1, from the whale 1, polypus 1, shad 1, blue-fish I, rudd 1, sea-grape 1, eel 1, river-horse 1, crocodile 1, adarca or sea-foam 3, rush 8. (liii) Names of all animals living in the sea 176.Total: 990 drugs, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Licinius Macer, Trebius Niger, Sextius Niger (Greek writings of), the poet Ovid, Cassius Hemina, Maecenas, Iacchus, Sornatius. Foreign authorities: Juba, Andreas, Salpes, Apion, Pelops, Apelles, Thrasyllus, Nicander.

Book XXXIII. Contents: the properties of the metals. (ii-xii) Gold, what first caused it to be valued; origin of gold rings; limited amount of gold among the ancients; the equestrian order, its right of wearing gold rings; its panels of judges; how often the title ‘equestrian order’ altered; gold and silver military gifts; gold wreath. When first bestowed; other uses of gold, its use by women. (xiii-xxv) Gold coinage; date of earliest coins, copper, silver, gold; method of using copper before introduction of stamping; highest money rating at first census; how often and at what dates value of copper and stamped coinage raised; the lust for gold; largest owners of silver and gold; date of earliest employment of silver ornaments in the arena, and on the stage; dates of largest accumulations of gold and silver in the national treasury; date of earliest gilded ceilings; reasons for special value of gold; method of gilding; discovery of gold; orpiment; synthetic amber; earliest gold statues; 8 drugs from gold. (xxvi-ix) malachite, method of employing it in painting; 7 drugs from malachite; goldsmith’s malachite or mountain-green. (xxx) Remarkable natural facts as to the welding of metals and as to metal manufactures. (xxxi-v) Silver; quicksilver; antimony or stibis or alabaster or larbasis or platyopathalmus, drugs made of, 7; silver slag, drugs made of, 6; foam of silver, drugs made of, 7. (xxxvi-xli) Minimum, reverence for among the ancients; discovery and source of; cinnabar, method of using in medicine and in painting; kinds of red-lead; method of use in medicine and painting; watersilver. (xliii f.) Gilding of silver; touchstones for gold. (xliv-lv) Silver, its kinds and methods of testing; mirrors; Egyptian silver; immoderate wealth; who were the richest people; when did the Roman nation begin to squander money; luxury in silver vessels sparing use of silver in antiquity, instances of; date of earliest use of silver inlay on couches, of silver vessels of excessive size, of trays inlayed with silver, of making drums; excessive prices for silver; silver statuary ; famous works of art and artists in silver. (lvi-lviii) Of yellow ochre, who first used for painting and how. Steel blue; drugs made from, 2.Total 288 drugs, investigations and observations.

Authorities: the Emperor Domitian, Junius Gracchanus, Lucius Piso, Marcus Varro, Corviuus, Pomponius Atticus, Licinius Calvus, Cornelius Nepos, Mneianus, Boeehus, Fetialis, Fenestella, Valerius Maximus, Julius Bassus, Greek medical writings of, Sextius Niger, ditto. Foreign authorities: Theophrastus, Democritus, Juba, the historian Timaeus’s Mineral Drugs, Heraclides, Andreas, Diagoras, Botrys, Archedemus, Dionysius, Aristogenes, Demodes, Mnesides, Attaius the medical writer, Xenocrates ditto, Theomnestus Nymphodorus, Iollas, Apohlodorus, Pasiteles’s Masterpieces, Antigonus On Graving, Menaechmus ditto, Xenocrates ditto, Duris ditto, Menander On Gravers, Heliodorus’s Votive Offerings of Athens, Metrodorus of Scepsis.

Book XXXIV. Contents: (i) Copper metals. (ii-x) Kinds of copper–Corinthian, Delian, Aeginetan. On bronze dining-couches; on candelabra; on temple decorations of bronze; first bronze image of a god made at Rome; on the origin of statues and the reverence paid to them. (x-xix) Statues, their kinds and shapes. Ancient statues dressed in toga without tunic; the first statues at Rome, the first erected by the state, the first erected on a column; ship’s beaks, when added; first foreigners to whom statues erected by the state at Rome; first women to whom statues so erected; first equestrian statue erected by the state at Rome; date of removal from public places of all statues erected by private donors; first statue publicly erected by foreigners; existence of sculptors from early times even in Italy; excessive prices for statues; the most celebrated colossal statues in the city; 366 famous instances of bronze statues and sculptors in bronze. (xx-xxix) Different kinds of bronze and alloy; gold-bronze, Capuan bronze; preservation of bronze; cadmia, 15 drugs made from; melted bronze, 10 medicinal products of; copper slag, copper blisters, copper scales, copper flakes, 47 drugs from these; copper rust, 18 drugs from; eye-salve; worm-eaten bronze, 18 drugs from; copper ore, 7 drugs from; itch-salve. (xxx-xxxviii) Ink-stone, 3 drugs from; copperas, 14 drugs from; copperas water or shoe-maker’s blacking, 16 drugs from; pompholyx, slag, 6 drugs from these; slag-ashes, 15 kinds; skin-detergent; diphryx; the Servilian family’s magic sixpence. (xxxix-xlvi) Iron mines; iron statues; chased iron; different kinds of iron; live iron; the tempering of iron; remedies for rust; 7 drugs from iron; 14 drugs from rust; 17 drugs from iron scale; wet plaster. (xlvii-lvi) Lead mines; white lead; silverlead, stannum, black lead; 15 drugs from lead; 15 drugs from lead slag; dross from lead; inolybdaena, 15 drugs from; sugar of lead or cerussa, 6 dmgs from; sandaraeh, 11 drugs from; arsenic.Total, 257 drugs, including remedies for dog-bite, for the head, fox-mange, eyes, ears, nostrils, ailments of the mouth, leprosy, gums, teeth, uvula, phlegm, throat, tonsils, quinsy, cough, vomiting, chest, stomaoh, asthma, pains in the side, spleen, stomach, straining, dysentery, the seat, the private parts, blood-stanching, gout, dropsy, ulcers, 26 wounds, pus, bones, whitlows, erysipelas, haemorrhoids, ulcers, callus, pimples, mange, scars, infants, ailments of women, depilatory, sex restraint, for the voice, against attacks of frenzy.Total, 915 facts, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Lucius Piso, Antias, Verrius, Marcus Varro, Cornelius Nepos, Rufus Messala, the poet Marsus, Bocchus, Julius Bassus’s Greek treatise on medicine, Sextius Niger’s ditto, Fabius Vestalis. Foreign authorities: Democritus, Metrodorns of Scepsis, Menaechmus’s Art of Graving, Xenocrates ditto, Antigonus ditto, Duris ditto, Heliodorus’s Votive Offerings of Athens, Pasiteles’s Miasterpieces, Timaeus’s Mineral Drugs, Nymphodorus, Iollas, Apollodorus, Andreas, Heraclides, Diagoras, Botrys, Archedemus, Dionysius, Aristogenes, Democles, Mnesides, Xenocrates son of Zeno, Theomnestus.

Book XXXV. Contents: (i-x) Praise of painting. Praise of sculpture. Shields with sculptured figures, when first instituted; when first set up in public; when in private houses. The commencement of painting; pictures in monochrome; the first painters. Antiquity of paintings in Italy. Roman painters. Paintingwhen first esteemed at Rome, and for what reasons, who first exhibited paintings of their victories. Foreign pictures, when first valued at Rome. (xi) Method of painting. (xii-xxx) Non-mineral pigments. Artificial colours; red ochre, 11 drugs from it; red chalk; Lemnian earth, 9 drugs from it; Egyptian earth; yellow ochre; 3 drugs from red ochre; gold size; Paraetonium white; Melian white; 6 drugs from it; burnt white-lead; earth of Eretria, 6 drugs from it; sandarach; vermilion; Syrian; black ink; dark purple ink; indigo, 4 drugs from it; ultramarine, 1 drug from it; Appian green; signet-ring white. (xxxi-iii) Colours that cannot be painted on a damp surface. Colours used by painters of early dates. When battles of gladiators were first painted and exhibited. (xxxiv-xli) The antiquity of painting; 405 celebrated cases of paintings and artists; earliest painting competition; painters that used the brush; how to check the song of birds; what painters used encaustic or waxes or graver or brush; inventors of successive improvements in painting the most difficult thing in painting; kinds of painting; first painter of panelled ceilings; vaulted roofs, when first painted; remarkable prices for pictures; the talent. (xliii-xlvi) The first discoveries of modelling; who first took a mould of a face; 14 celebrated cases of artists in modelling; works in pottery; Segni plaster. (xlvii-lix) Varieties of earth: Pozzuoli dust and other kinds of earth used for concrete; walls cast in moulds; brickwork and employment of brick; brimstone and its kinds; 14 drugs; bitumen and its kinds; 27 drugs; alum and its kinds; 38 drugs therefrom; Samian earth; 3 drugs therefrom; Eretrian earth, its kinds; on washing earth to make a drug; Chian earth; 3 drugs therefrom; earth of Selinunte; 3 drugs therefrom; potters’ clay; 9 drugs therefrom; vine-earth; 4 drugs therefrom; chalks for use in connexion with clothes; earth of Kimolo; 9 drugs therefrom; earth of Sardis, of Umbria, rock; rotten-stone; what people and whose freedmen are excessively powerful; Galatian earth, Kalibian earth, Balearic earth, Iviza earth; 4 drugs from these.Total 956 drugs, investigations and observations.

Authorities: the orator Messala, Messala senior, Fenestella. Atticus, Marcus Varro, Verrius, Cornelius Nepos, Deculo, Mucianus, Melissus, Vitruvius, Cassius Severus, Longulanus, Fabius Vestalis On Painting. Foreign authorities; Pasiteles, Apelles, Melanthius, Asclepiodorus, Euphranor, Parrhasius, Heliodorus’s Votive offerings of Athens, Metrodorus’s Science of Architecture, Democritus, Theophrastus, the philologist Apion’s Mineral Drugs, Nymphodorus, Iollas, Apollodorus, Andreas, Heraclides, Diagoras, Botrys, Archedemus, Dionysius, Aristogenes, Democles, Mnesides, Xenocrates son of Zeno, Theomnestus.

Book XXXVI. Contents: the natures of stones. (i-xi) Luxury in use of marbles; first owner of foreign marble pillars at Rome; first exhibitor of marble in public works; first distinguished sculptors in marble, and their dates; (ix the Mausoleum of Caria); 225 famous works and artists in marble; date of first employment of marbles in buildings; what people first cut marbles, and at what date; who first used marble wall-panelling at Rome; at which periods did the various marbles come into use at Rome; method of cutting marble; sands employed in marble-cutting; Naxian marble, Armenian marble, marbles of Alexandria. (xii f.) Onyx, alabaster; 6 drugs therefrom; Parian marble, coral marble, Alabanda stone, Theban stone, Syene granite. (xiv f.) Obelisks: obelisk in Campus Martius serving as gnomon. (xvi-xxiii) Remarkable structures in various countries; Egyptian Sphinx, pyramids; Pharos lighthouse; labyrinths; hanging gardens, hanging town; temple of Diana at Ephesus; remarkable facts as to other temples; runaway stone; sevenfold echo; buildings constructed without clamps. (xxiv) Eighteen remarkable works at Rome. (xxv-xxx) Magnetic stone: 3 drugs therefrom; Syros stone; flesh-eating or Assos stone, 10 drugs therefrom; Chermtes marble; tufa; bone-stones, palm-branch stones, Taenarus stones, Cora stones, black marbles; millstones; pyritis, 7 drugs therefrom. (xxxi-xl) Oyster-shell stone, 4 drugs therefrom; asbestos, 2 drugs therefrom; earthstone, 3 drugs therefrom; honey-stone; 6 drugs therefrom; jet, 6 drugs therefrom; sponge-stone, 2 drugs therefrom; Phrygian stone; bloodstone, 5 drugs therefrom; schistose, 7 drugs therefrom; androdarnas bloodstone, 3 drugs therefrom; Arabian stone; minium bloodstone or liverstone, anthracite; eagle-stone, Taphiusian stone, callimus; Samos stone, 8 drugs therefrom. (xli-l) Arab stone; 6 drugs therefrom; pumicestone, 9 drugs therefrom; medicinal and other mortars; Etesius stone, hailstone stone; Siphnos stone; soft stones; muscovy-stone; selenite; whetstones; tufas; flints, nature of; other building stones. (li-lix) Kinds of building; cisterns; lime; kinds of sand; mixtures of sand and lime; faults in building; stuccos; pillars; kinds of pillars; 5 drugs from chalk; lime-cement; white lime plaster. (lx-lxx) Pavements: the Tesselated Hall; first pavement at Rome; terrace pavements; pavements in the Greek mode; date of first mosaic pavement; date of first glass ceilings; origin of glass; its kinds and mode of manufacture; obsidian panes; remarkable uses of fire; 3 drugs from fire and ash; marvels of the hearth.Total: 89 drugs from these materials, 3 for serpents, animals’ bites, for poisons, for the head, eyes, eyelid sores, teeth, tooth-powders, throat, scrofula, stomach, liver, phlegm, testicles, bladder, stone, tumours, piles, gout, remedy for bleeding, for vomiting blood, dislocation, eases of insanity, of lethargy, of epilepsy, of melancholy, of giddiness, ulcers, caustic and surgical treatment of wounds, sprains, bruises, moles burns, consumption, the breasts, diseases of women, carbuncles, plague.Full total: 434 facts, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Marcus Varro, Gaius Galba, Cincius, Mucianus, Cornelius Nepos, Lucius Piso, Quintus Tubero, Fabius Vestalis, Annius Fetialis, Fabianus, Seneca, Cato the Censor, Vitruvius. Foreign authorities: Theophrastus, Pasiteles, King Juba, Nicander, Sotaeus, Sudines, Alexander the Learned, Apion Plistonicus, Duris, Herodotus, Euhemerus, Aristagoras, Dionysius, Artemidorus, Butoridas, Antisthenes, Demetrius, Demoteles, Lyceas.

Book XXXVII. Contents: (i-x) Origin of gems: the tyrant Polycrates’s jewel; Pyrrhus’s jewel; the best engravers; famous specimens of engraving; the first collection of signet-rings at Rome; jewels carried in the triumph of Pompey the Great; murrine vases, date of first importation; extravagance connected with; their nature; nature of rock-crystal, drug from it; extravagance in use of rock crystal. (xi-xx) Amber, erroneous statements about; kinds of amber, drugs from these; tourmaline, 2 drugs; diamond or ananeite, 6 kinds of diamonds, 2 drugs; emeralds, 12 kinds, their blemishes; the gem tanos; malachite; beryls, their 8 kinds, their blemishes. (xxi-xxx) Opals, their 7 kinds, their blemishes, tests of opals; sardonyx, its kinds, its blemishes; onyx, its kinds; carbuneles, their 12 kinds, their blemishes and tests; coal-carbuncle; sandastros or Garamantitis or sandacitis; sandaresus; lychnis, its 4 kinds; Carthaginian stone. (xxxi-xl) Carnelian, its 5 kinds; chrysolite, its 2 kinds; turquoise; leek-green stone, its 3 kinds; Nile-stone; malachite; jasper, its 4 kinds, their blemishes; lapis lazuli, its kinds; sapphire; amethyst, its 4 kinds; socondion, sapenos, pharanitis, Venus’s eyelid or love-returned or lad’s-love. (xli-l) Hyacinth; chrysolite, its 7 kinds; golden-amber; chrysolite, its 4 kinds; golden ehrysolite; xuthis; lad’s-love or sangenos or tenites; eat’s-eye; adularia, astriotes, astolon. (li-lx) St. John’s bread, its 4 kinds; baetvlos; rainbow-stone; holy-stone; agates, their kinds; crystalline quartz, drugs therefrom; alabaster-stone, drugs therefrom; cock-stones, androdamas, silverstone, charm-coral, chalcedony, scented amber, asbestos-stone, aspisatis, atizoe, turquoise, amphidanes or chrysocolla, Aphrodisiaca, apsyctos, little-gypsy; acorn-stone, frog-stone, taptes, cat’s eye, helus, baroptenus or baripe, grape-stone, lock-of-hair-stone, cow’s-heart, thunder-stone, boloe, cadmitis, turquoise, smoke-stone, Cappadocian stone, turquoise-stone, catochitis, catoptritis, cepitis or cepolatitis, brick-stone, cinaedias (kinds of), wax-stone, top-stone, hair-stone, coral-agate, coral-stone, crateritis, crocallis, cyitis, brazen-voice, swallow-stones, tortoise-stones, tortoise-shell-stone, greenstone, Choaspes-stone, gold-gleam, golden-topaz, cepionides, Daphne-stone, diadochos, diphyes, Dionysus-stone, snake-stone, heart-stone or enariste, enorchis, exhebenus, erythallis, erotylos or amphicomos or stone of remembrance, eumeces, eumithres, eupetalos, eureos, Eurotas-stone, eusebes, epimelas; milk-stone, milky-stone or white-earth-stone or white graphite or cloud-stone, Galician-stone, gassinades, tongue-stone, Gorgon-stone, goniaea, striped-jasper, Vulcan-stone, Mercury’s privates, sixty-colonr-stone, hawk-stone, hammitis, ammonite, hormiscion, hyenastone, menion bloodstone or yellow-stone. (lxi-lx) Ida’s fingers, ieterias, Jove-stone or dew-stone, Indian stone, violet-stone, scale-stone, Lesbian stone, white-eve, white-spot, myrrh-colour, emerald, Lipari-stone, lysimachos, white gold, Memnonstone, Persian stone, poppy-stone, mithrnx, morochthos, mormorion or promnium or Alexandria stone, myrrh-stone, wart-stone, myrrh-stone, white-centre, black-centre, stone of Nasamon, fawn-stone, Nipparena, egg-stone, rain-stone or storm-stone, ass’s-heart, mountain-stone or star-stone, hornstone or chalcedony, oyster-stone, ophicardelos, obsidian, all-colours, all-seeds, love-all or all-love, Black Sea stone, 4 kinds, flame-stone or gold-stone, purple-stone, sea-weed-stone, white-ring, Paeanite or gaeanita, sun-stone, green-stone, Samotliracian stone, lizard-stone, flesh-stone, moon-stone, iron-stone, variegated iron-stone, sponge-stone, bream-stone, Syrtian stone, reed-stone, tricolor, thelyrrizos, thelycardios or mucul, Thracian-stone (3 kinds), ash-stone, tecolithos, love-locks, Veii-stone, zathene, zmilampis, zoraniscaea. (lxxi-lxxvii) Liver-stone, soapstone, Adad’s-kidney, Adad’s-eye, Adad’s-finger, three-eyed-stone, crab-stone, adder-stone, scorpion-stone, wrasse-stone, triglitis, goat’s-eye, sow’s-eye, crane-stone, eagle-stone, ant-stone, beetle-stone, wolf’s-eye, peacock-stone, timiclonia; gold-sand-stone, millet-stone, oak-stone, ivy stone, narcissus-stone, bean-stone, pvren, purple-stone, hail-stone, pyritis, striped-stone, lightning-stone, flame-stone, coal-stone, enygros, hairy-stone, lion-stone, leopard-stone, dew-stone, honey-colour-stone, honey-yellow-stone, greystone, spartopolia, rose-stone, honey-stone, copper-stone, fig-stone, ringlet-stone, ivory-marble, anancitis, synochitis, tree-stone, snail-shell. Shape of precious stones; method of testing; natural properties compared in various countries; products compared in respect of price.Total, 1300 facts, investigations and observations.

Authorities: Marcus Varro, Records of Triumphs, Maecenas, Iacchus, Cornelius Bocchus. Foreign authorities: King Juba, Xenocrates son of Zeno, Sudines, Aeschylus, Philoxenus, Euripides, Nicander, Satyrus, Theophrastus, Chares, Philemon, Demostratus, Zenothemis, Metrodorus, Sotacus, Pytheas, Timaeus of Sicily, Nicias, Theochrestus, Asaruba, Mnaseas, Theomenes, Ctesias, Mithridates, Sophocles, King Archelaus, Callistratus, Democritus, Ismenias, Olympicus, Alexander the Learned, Apion, Orus, Zoroaster, Zachalias.

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