Civil Procedures

Code of Civil Procedure-Germany-2005

Book 1

General regulations
Chapter 1
Courts
Title 1
Substantive jurisdiction of the courts; regulations as to value
Section 1Substantive jurisdiction
Section 2Significance of the value
Section 3Assessment of the value at the sole discretion of the court
Section 4Computation of the value; ancillary claims
Section 5Plurality of claims
Section 6Possession; freezing of property; security right
Section 7Easement
Section 8Lease or tenancy relationship
Section 9Recurrent usufruct or performance
Section 10(repealed)
Section 11Binding decision as to the lack of jurisdiction

Title 2
Venue
Section 12General venue; term
Section 13General venue of the place of residence
Section 14(repealed)
Section 15General venue of extraterritorial German citizens
Section 16General venue of persons without a place of residence
Section 17General venue of legal persons
Section 18General venue of the government treasury
Section 19Several judicial districts at the official seat of the public authority
Section 19aGeneral venue of the insolvency administrator
Section 20Specific jurisdiction of the place of abode
Section 21Specific jurisdiction of a place of business
Section 22Specific jurisdiction of a membership
Section 23Specific jurisdiction of assets and of an object
Section 23a(repealed)
Section 24Exclusive jurisdiction as to the subject matter (forum rei sitae)
Section 25Jurisdiction as to the subject matter (forum rei sitae) in light of the matter’s connection with the various facts and their overall context
Section 26Jurisdiction as to the subject matter (forum rei sitae) for complaints brought against a person
Section 27Specific jurisdiction of an inheritance
Section 28Extended jurisdiction of an inheritance
Section 29Specific jurisdiction of the place of performance
Section 29aExclusive jurisdiction of spaces governed by a tenancy or lease agreement
Section 29b(repealed)
Section 29cSpecific jurisdiction for doorstep sales
Section 30Jurisdiction for Carriage
Section 30aJurisdiction for claims arising from search and rescue operations
Section 31Specific jurisdiction for asset management
Section 32Specific jurisdiction for tort
Section 32aExclusive jurisdiction for effects on the environment
Section 32bExclusive jurisdiction for false or misleading public capital market disclosures, and exclusive jurisdiction in the event that such disclosures have not been made
Section 33Specific jurisdiction for countercharges
Section 34Specific jurisdiction of the main proceedings
Section 35Selection from among several jurisdictions
Section 35a(repealed)
Section 36Determination of jurisdiction by a court
Section 37Procedure by which a court determines the venue

Title 3
Agreement as to the jurisdiction of the courts
Section 38Admissible agreement as to the choice of venue
Section 39Competence of a court as a result of a party having participated in court proceedings without objecting to the court’s lack of jurisdiction (rügelose Verhandlung)
Section 40Invalid and inadmissible choice of court agreement

Title 4
Disqualification and recusal of court personnel
Section 41Disqualification from the exercise of judicial office
Section 42Recusal of a judge from a case
Section 43Loss of the right to recuse a judge
Section 44Motion to recuse a judge
Section 45Decision on a motion to recuse a judge
Section 46Decision and appellate remedies
Section 47Official acts that cannot be delayed
Section 48Self-recusal; recusal ex officio
Section 49Records clerks

Chapter 2
Parties
Title 1
Capacity to be a party to court proceedings; capacity to sue and be sued
Section 50Capacity to be a party to court proceedings
Section 51Capacity to sue and be sued; legal representation; pursuit of court proceedings
Section 52Scope of the capacity to sue and be sued
Section 53Legal disability in case of custodianship or curatorship
Section 53a(repealed)
Section 54Special authorisation to take actions in the proceedings
Section 55Foreigners’ capacity to sue and be sued
Section 56Review ex officio
Section 57Curator ad litem
Section 58Curator ad litem for ownerless real estate or unclaimed ships

Title 2
Joinder of parties
Section 59Joinder of parties in communities of interest with regard to the disputed right, or where the cause is identical
Section 60Joinder of parties in the event of similar claims
Section 61Effect of a joinder of parties
Section 62Necessary joinder of parties
Section 63Pursuit of the proceedings; summonses

Title 3
Involvement of third parties in the legal dispute
Section 64Third-party intervention through an action against the two parties to a pending lawsuit
Section 65Suspension of the main proceedings
Section 66Third-party intervention in support of a party to the dispute
Section 67Legal position of the third party intervening in support of a party to the dispute
Section 68Effect of the third-party intervention in support of a party to the dispute
Section 69Third-party intervention in support of a party to the dispute as a joinder of parties
Section 70Accession by the third party intervening in support of a party to the dispute
Section 71Interlocutory proceedings regarding the third-party intervention in support of a party to the dispute
Section 72Admissibility of third-party notice
Section 73Form of filing third-party notice
Section 74Effects of the third-party notice
Section 75Interpleader sought by the defendant
Section 76Laudatio auctoris in cases involving possession
Section 77Laudatio auctoris in cases involving impaired ownership

Title 4
Attorneys of record and counsel
Section 78Proceedings in which the parties must be represented by counsel
Section 78a(repealed)
Section 78bAttorney appointed by the court in keeping with statutory requirements
Section 78cSelection of the attorney
Section 79Proceedings the parties may pursue without being represented by counsel
Section 80Power of attorney for proceedings
Section 81Scope of the power of attorney for proceedings
Section 82Power of attorney valid for collateral proceedings outside of the actual litigation
Section 83Limitation of the power of attorney for proceedings
Section 84Plurality of attorneys of record
Section 85Effect of the power of attorney for proceedings
Section 86Continuation in force of the power of attorney for proceedings
Section 87Expiry of the power of attorney
Section 88Lack of power of attorney
Section 89Representative without a power of attorney
Section 90Advisers

Title 5
Costs of the proceedings
Section 91Principle of the obligation to bear costs; scope of this obligation
Section 91aCosts where the main action has been dealt with and terminated
Section 92Costs in the event a party prevails in part
Section 93Costs in the event an immediate acknowledgment is made
Section 93a(repealed)
Section 93bCosts of actions brought for the vacation of premises
Section 93c(repealed)
Section 93d(repealed)
Section 94Costs where claims have devolved upon others
Section 95Costs in the event of failure to comply with procedural rules or of fault
Section 96Costs of means of challenge or defence that have not met with success
Section 97Costs of appellate remedies
Section 98Costs of settling a matter
Section 99Contestation of rulings on the payment of costs
Section 100Costs as borne by joined parties
Section 101Costs of a third-party intervention in support of a party to the dispute
Section 102(repealed)
Section 103Basis for the assessment of costs; petition for the assessment of costs
Section 104Procedure for the assessment of costs
Section 105Simplified cost-assessment order
Section 106Cost allocation according to quotas
Section 107Change based on an assessment of the value of the claim

Title 6
Provision of security
Section 108Nature and amount of the security
Section 109Return of the security
Section 110Security deposit for the costs of the proceedings
Section 111Retroactive demand for a security deposit for the costs of the proceedings
Section 112Amount of the security deposit for the costs of the proceedings
Section 113Determination of the deadline by which the security deposits for the costs of the proceedings are to be provided

Title 7
Assistance with court costs; advance on the costs of litigation
Section 114Prerequisites
Section 115Use of income and assets
Section 116Party by virtue of an office; legal person; organisations having the capacity to be a party
Section 117Application
Section 118Approval procedure
Section 119Approval
Section 120Assessment of payments
Section 120aModification of approval
Section 121Assignment of counsel
Section 122Effect of assistance with court costs
Section 123Reimbursement of costs
Section 124Repeal of the approval
Section 125Collection of costs
Section 126Recovery of attorneys’ fees
Section 127Decisions
Section 127a(repealed)

Chapter 3
Proceedings
Title 1
Hearing for oral argument
Section 128Principle of oral argument; proceedings conducted in writing
Section 128aHearing for oral argument using image and sound transmission
Section 129Preparatory written pleadings
Section 129aPetitions and declarations filed for the record
Section 130Content of the written pleadings
Section 130aElectronic document
Section 130bJudicial electronic documents
Section 131Attachment of records or documents
Section 132Deadlines for written pleadings
Section 133Copies
Section 134Inspection of records or documents
Section 135Communication of records or documents amongst attorneys
Section 136Power of the presiding judge to direct the course of the proceedings
Section 137Course of the hearing for oral argument
Section 138Obligation to make declarations as to facts; obligation to tell the truth
Section 139Direction in substance of the course of proceedings
Section 140Objections raised against the direction of the course of proceedings, or against questions
Section 141Order that a party appear in person
Section 142Order to produce records or documents
Section 143Order to transmit files
Section 144Visual evidence taken on site; experts
Section 145Separation of proceedings
Section 146Limitation to individual means of challenge or defence
Section 147Consolidation of proceedings
Section 148Suspension if a decision in another matter is anticipated
Section 149Suspension in the event a criminal offence is suspected
Section 150Repeal of the separation, consolidation, or suspension of proceedings
Section 151(repealed)
Section 152Suspension in the event of a petition for annulment of a marriage
Section 153Suspension in the event of an action challenging paternity having been brought
Section 154Suspension in the event of action having been brought in a matrimonial matter, or in a matter of parental responsibility for children
Section 155Repeal of the suspension in the event of delays
Section 156Resumption of the hearing
Section 157Delegation of authority for the hearing
Section 158Removal from the hearing as the result of a court order issued as part of the court’s direction of the course of proceedings
Section 159Recording the hearing
Section 160Content of the hearing record
Section 160aPreparing a preliminary record of the hearing
Section 161Dispensable determinations
Section 162Approval of the record of the hearing
Section 163Signature of the record of the hearing
Section 164Corrections of the hearing record
Section 165Evidentiary value of the hearing record

Title 2
Procedure for the Service of Records or Documents
Subtitle 1
Service ex officio
Section 166Service
Section 167Retroactive effect of the service
Section 168Responsibilities of the court registry
Section 169Confirmation of the time of service; certification
Section 170Service on representatives
Section 171Service on authorised recipients
Section 172Service on attorneys of record
Section 173Service by physical delivery at the sub-office
Section 174Service against return confirmation of receipt
Section 175Service by registered mail, return receipt requested
Section 176Instructions to serve records or documents
Section 177Place of service
Section 178Substituted service at the residence, at business premises, and at institutions
Section 179Service in the event acceptance is refused
Section 180Substituted service by placement in the letterbox
Section 181Substituted service by deposit of the records or documents
Section 182Record of service
Section 183Service abroad
Section 184Authorised recipients; service by mailing the records or documents
Section 185Service by publication
Section 186Approval of and implementation of service by publication
Section 187Publication of the notification
Section 188Time at which service by publication has been effected
Section 189Remediation of defects in the service of records or documents
Section 190Standard forms for the service of records or documents
Subtitle 2
Service of records or documents at the instigation of the parties
Section 191Service of records or documents
Section 192Service of records or documents by a court-appointed enforcement officer
Section 193Implementation of service
Section 194Instructions to serve records or documents
Section 195Service of records or documents from one attorney on another attorney
Sections 195a to 213a(repealed)

Title 3
Summonses, hearings, and periods
Section 214Summons to a hearing
Section 215Required content of a summons to a hearing for oral argument
Section 216Hearing dates determined by the court
Section 217Summons period
Section 218Cases in which a summons may be dispensed with
Section 219Venue of the hearing
Section 220Case called up; failure of a party to make an appearance at the hearing
Section 221Commencement of periods
Section 222Calculation of the period
Section 223(repealed)
Section 224Reduction of a period; extension of a period
Section 225Procedure for modifying a period
Section 226Reduction of interim periods
Section 227Changes of date for scheduled hearings
Section 228(repealed)
Section 229Judge correspondingly delegated or requested

Title 4
Consequences of failure to take action; instruction on available legal remedies; restoration of the status quo ante
Section 230General consequence of failing to take action
Section 231No warning; procedural actions taken retroactively
Section 232Instruction on available legal remedies
Section 233Restoration of the status quo ante
Section 234Period for the restoration of the status quo ante
Section 235(repealed)
Section 236Petition for restoration of the status quo ante
Section 237Responsibility for restoration of the status quo ante
Section 238Procedure in the event of the status quo ante having been restored

Title 5
Interruption and suspension of the proceedings
Section 239Interruption due to the death of a party
Section 240Interruption due to insolvency proceedings
Section 241Interruption due to a person coming under legal disability
Section 242Interruption due to reversionary succession
Section 243Resumption of proceedings in the case of a curator or an executor having been appointed for an estate
Section 244Interruption due to the loss of an attorney
Section 245Interruption due to suspension of the administration of law
Section 246Suspension in the event a party is represented by an attorney of record
Section 247Suspension in the event of interrupted communications
Section 248Procedure in the event of suspension
Section 249Effects of interruption and suspension
Section 250Form of resuming proceedings and notification
Section 251Stay of proceedings
Section 251aFailure of both parties to comply with procedural rules; decision on the basis of the record as it stands
Section 252Appellate remedies available in the event of proceedings being suspended

Book 2

Procedural rules for proceedings before the courts of first instance

Chapter 1
Proceedings before the regional courts (Landgerichte)
Title 1
Proceedings until a judgment is entered
Section 253Statement of claim
Section 254Action by stages
Section 255Determination of periods in the judgment
Section 256Action for acknowledgment
Section 257Action for future payment or for the clearing of premises
Section 258Action for recurrent performance
Section 259Action brought due to concern that performance might not be made within the period set
Section 260Consolidation of claims
Section 261Pending suit
Section 262Other effects of the dispute being pending
Section 263Modification of the suit filed
Section 264No modification of the suit filed
Section 265Disposition or assignment of the object in dispute
Section 266Disposition of a plot of real estate
Section 267Presumed consent to the modification of a suit filed
Section 268Decision is incontestable
Section 269Withdrawal of legal action
Section 270Service; communication by simple letter
Section 271Service of the statement of claim
Section 272Determination of the form of procedure
Section 273Preparations for the hearing
Section 274Summons of the parties; time for entering an appearance
Section 275Advance first hearing
Section 276Preliminary proceedings conducted in writing
Section 277Statement of defence; counterplea
Section 278Amicable resolution of the dispute; conciliation hearing; settlement
Section 279Hearing for oral argument
Section 280Separate hearing on the admissibility of the action
Section 281Referral in the event the court does not have jurisdiction
Section 282Submissions to the court made in due time
Section 283Time limit for written pleadings that react to an opponent’s submissions
Section 283aCourt order for securitisation
Section 284Taking of evidence
Section 285Oral argument after evidence has been taken
Section 286Evaluation of evidence at the court’s discretion and conviction
Section 287Investigation and determination of damages; amount of the claim
Section 288Admission before the court
Section 289Additional statements made in an admission
Section 290Revocation of an admission
Section 291Common knowledge
Section 292Legal presumptions
Section 292a(repealed)
Section 293Foreign law; customary law; statutes
Section 294Demonstration of allegations to the satisfaction of the court
Section 295Objections to process
Section 296Refusal to accept submissions made late
Section 296aSubmissions made following close of the hearing
Section 297Form of filing petitions with the court
Section 298Hard copies for files
Section 298aElectronic file
Section 299Inspection of files; copies
Section 299aData carrier archive

Title 2
Judgment
Section 300Final judgment
Section 301Partial judgment
Section 302Judgment subject to a reservation of rights
Section 303Interlocutory judgment
Section 304Interlocutory judgment as to the merits of a claim
Section 305Judgment subject to the proviso of liability limited by inheritance law
Section 305aJudgment subject to the proviso of liability limited by maritime law
Section 306Waiver
Section 307Acknowledgment
Section 308Binding effect of the parties’ petitions
Section 308aDecisions handed down in disputes between lessor and lessee without a petition being required
Section 309Judges entering the judgment
Section 310Hearing for pronouncement of the judgment
Section 311Form of pronouncing the judgment
Section 312Presence of the parties
Section 313Form and content of the judgment
Section 313aPurposeful omission of merits of the case and reasons on which a ruling is based
Section 313bDefault judgment, judgment based on an acknowledgment by the defendant, and judgment based on a waiver having been declared
Section 314Evidentiary value of the section addressing the facts and the merits of the case
Section 315Signature by judges
Section 316(repealed)
Section 317Service of the judgment and its execution
Section 318Court bound by its ruling
Section 319Correction of the judgment
Section 320Correction of the judgment’s section addressing the facts and the merits of the case
Section 321Amendment of the judgment
Section 321aRedress granted in the event a party’s right to be given an effective and fair legal hearing has been violated
Section 322Legal validity of the judgment in substance
Section 323Modification of judgments
Section 323aModification of settlement agreements and deeds
Section 323bAggravated liability
Section 324Action asserting supplementary claims to a security
Section 325Subjective legal validity
Section 325aLegalisation effect of the decision taken in a model case for other cases of the same nature
Section 326Legal validity in the event of reversionary succession
Section 327Legal validity in the event of a will being executed
Section 328Recognition of foreign judgments
Section 329Orders and rulings

Title 3
Default judgment
Section 330Default judgment against the plaintiff
Section 331Default judgment against the defendant
Section 331aDecision taken on the basis of the record as it stands
Section 332Hearing scheduled for oral argument
Section 333Failure of the party appearing to submit oral argument
Section 334Incomplete oral argument
Section 335Inadmissibility of a default decision
Section 336Appellate remedies available against dismissal
Section 337Adjournment ex officio
Section 338Protest
Section 339Period within which a protest may be entered
Section 340Notice of protest
Section 340aService of the notice of protest
Section 341Review of the protest
Section 341aHearing for oral argument regarding the protest
Section 342Effects of admissible protest
Section 343Decision subsequent to a protest
Section 344Costs of the failure to comply with procedural requirements
Section 345Second default judgment
Section 346Waiver and withdrawal of protest
Section 347Procedure in bringing counterclaims and interlocutory proceedings

Title 4
Procedure before a judge sitting alone
Section 348Judge sitting alone as the court of decision
Section 348aObligatory judge sitting alone
Section 349Presiding judge of the division for commercial matters
Section 350Appellate remedies
Sections 351 to 354(repealed)

Title 5
General regulations on taking evidence
Section 355Evidence to be taken directly
Section 356Period within which evidence must be produced
Section 357Attendance of parties
Section 357a(repealed)
Section 358Necessity of issuing an order for evidence to be taken
Section 358aOrder for evidence to be taken and taking of evidence prior to a hearing for oral argument
Section 359Content of the order for evidence to be taken
Section 360Modification of the order for evidence to be taken
Section 361Evidence taken by a delegated judge charged with a task
Section 362Evidence taken by a requested judge
Section 363Evidence taken abroad
Section 364Cooperation and assistance by parties where evidence is taken abroad
Section 365Relinquishment of jurisdiction by the judge correspondingly delegated or requested
Section 366Interlocutory proceedings
Section 367Failure of a party to appear
Section 368New hearing for evidence to be taken
Section 369Taking of evidence abroad
Section 370Continuation of the hearing for oral argument

Title 6
Evidence taken by visual inspection
Section 371Evidence taken by visual inspection
Section 371aEvidentiary value of electronic documents
Section 371b Evidentiary value of scanned public records or documents
Section 372Taking of evidence
Section 372aTesting performed to establish parentage

Title 7
Taking of evidence by hearing witnesses
Section 373Offer to provide evidence
Section 374(repealed)
Section 375Taking of evidence by a judge correspondingly delegated or requested
Section 376Examination of persons subject to official secrecy obligations
Section 377Summons of a witness
Section 378Documents facilitating a witness’s testimony
Section 379Advance payment to cover expenditures
Section 380Consequences of a witness’s failure to appear
Section 381Sufficient excuse for failing to appear
Section 382Examination of certain witnesses at specific locations
Section 383Refusal to testify on personal grounds
Section 384Refusal to testify for factual reasons
Section 385Exceptions from the right to refuse testimony
Section 386Declaration of refusal to testify
Section 387Interlocutory proceedings regarding the refusal to testify
Section 388Interlocutory proceedings regarding a written refusal to testify
Section 389Refusal to testify before a judge correspondingly delegated or requested
Section 390Consequences of the refusal to testify
Section 391Placing a witness under oath
Section 392Oath sworn subsequently; wording of the oath
Section 393Examination of a witness who is not placed under oath
Section 394Examination of each witness individually
Section 395Instruction of a witness to tell the truth; personal information of the witness
Section 396Examination regarding the dispute
Section 397Right of the parties to ask questions
Section 398Repeated examinations; subsequent examinations
Section 399Waiver of a witness’s examination
Section 400Authorisation of the judge charged with taking evidence
Section 401Compensation of witnesses

Title 8
Evidence provided by experts
Section 402Applicability of the rules for witnesses
Section 403Offer to provide evidence
Section 404Selection of the expert
Section 404aDirections by the court as regards the expert’s activities
Section 405Selection of the judge charged with taking evidence
Section 406Rejection of an expert
Section 407Obligation to submit a report
Section 407aOther obligations of the expert
Section 408Right to refuse to prepare a report
Section 409Consequences of the failure to appear or of the refusal to submit a report
Section 410Placing the expert under oath
Section 411Written report
Section 411aUse of expert reports prepared in other proceedings
Section 412New report
Section 413Remuneration of the expert
Section 414Expert witnesses

Title 9
Evidence provided by records and documents
Section 415Evidentiary value of public records and documents regarding declarations
Section 416Evidentiary value of private records and documents
Section 416aEvidentiary value of the hard-copy printout of a public electronic document
Section 417Evidentiary value of public records and documents regarding a directive, ruling or decision issued by an authority
Section 418Evidentiary value of public records and documents with other content
Section 419Evidentiary value of flawed records and documents
Section 420Production by the party tendering evidence; offer to provide evidence
Section 421Production by the opponent; offer to provide evidence
Section 422Opponent’s obligation under civil law to produce a record or document
Section 423Opponent’s obligation to produce a record or document in the event of reference being made to same
Section 424Petition in the event the record or document is to be produced by the opponent
Section 425Order that the opponent produce the record or document
Section 426Examination of the opponent regarding the whereabouts of the record or document
Section 427Consequences of the opponent failing to produce the record or document
Section 428Production by third parties; offer to provide evidence
Section 429Obligation of third parties to produce a record or document
Section 430Petition for the record or document to be produced by a third party
Section 431Period set for the third party to produce the record or document
Section 432Production of records or documents by public authorities or civil servants; offer to provide evidence
Section 433(repealed)
Section 434Production of records or documents to judges correspondingly delegated or requested
Section 435Production of public records and documents as originals or as certified copies
Section 436Waiver following the production of a record or document
Section 437Authenticity of German public records and documents
Section 438Authenticity of foreign public records and documents
Section 439Declaration as to the authenticity of private records and documents
Section 440Evidence of the authenticity of private records and documents
Section 441Handwriting comparison
Section 442Evaluation of the handwriting comparison
Section 443Safekeeping of suspicious records or documents
Section 444Consequences of the removal of a record or document

Title 10
Evidence provided by examination of a party
Section 445Examination of the opponent; offer to provide evidence
Section 446Refusal by the opponent to be examined
Section 447Examination, upon corresponding application being made, of the party upon whom it is incumbent to provide evidence
Section 448Ex officio examination
Section 449Examination of joined parties
Section 450Court order for evidence to be taken
Section 451Actual examination
Section 452Placing a party under oath
Section 453Evaluation of the evidence obtained in examining a party
Section 454Failure of the party to appear
Section 455Persons under a legal disability
Sections 456 to 477(repealed)

Title 11
Administration of oaths and affirmations
Section 478Oath taken in person
Section 479Oath taken before the judge correspondingly delegated or requested
Section 480Cautionary remarks regarding the oath to be sworn
Section 481Taking of the oath; wording of the oath
Section 482(repealed)
Section 483Oaths taken by persons suffering from a speech disorder or a hearing impairment
Section 484Solemn affirmation deemed equivalent to an oath
Title 12
Independent evidentiary proceedings
Section 485Admissibility
Section 487Content of the petition
Sections 488 and 489(repealed)
Section 490Decision on the petition
Section 491Summons of the opponent
Section 492Taking of evidence
Section 493Use in proceedings
Section 494Unknown opponent
Section 494aPeriod for bringing proceedings in the courts

Chapter 2
Proceedings pursued before the local courts (Amtsgerichte)
Section 495Rules to be applied
Section 495aProceedings performed at the court’s equitably exercised discretion
Section 496Submission of written pleadings; declarations made for the record
Section 497Summonses
Section 498Service of the record of the action
Section 499Instructions
Sections 499a to 503(repealed)
Section 504Notification in the event the local court lacks jurisdiction
Section 505(repealed)
Section 506Subsequent lack of jurisdiction ratione materiae
Sections 507 to 509(repealed)
Section 510Declarations made regarding records or documents
Section 510aContent of the record
Section 510bJudgment requiring a party to take specific action
Section 510c(repealed)

Book 3

Appellate remedies

Chapter 1
Appeal
Section 511Appeal available as a remedy
Section 512Prior decisions handed down by the court of first instance
Section 513Grounds for appeal
Section 514Default judgments
Section 515Waiver of the right to appellate remedy
Section 516Withdrawal of an appeal
Section 517Time limit for filing an appeal
Section 518Time limit for filing an appeal in the event the judgment is amended
Section 519Notice of appeal
Section 520Particulars of the appeal
Section 521Service of the notice of appeal and its particulars
Section 522Review of the appeal’s admissibility; court order denying leave to appeal
Section 523Notice scheduling a hearing
Section 524Cross appeal
Section 525General procedural rules
Section 526Judge taking the decision
Section 527Judge sitting alone in preparatory proceedings
Section 528Binding effect of petitions filed in appeal proceedings
Section 529Scope of the review by the court of appeal
Section 530Delays in submitting means of challenge or of defence
Section 531Means of challenge or defence that have been dismissed; new means of challenge or defence
Section 532Objections as to a complaint being inadmissible
Section 533Modification of the suit filed; declaration as to claims being offset; counterclaims
Section 534Loss of the right to file objections
Section 535Admission of guilt before the court
Section 536Examination of a party
Section 537Provisionally enforceable judgments
Section 538Referral to a court of lower instance
Section 539Default proceedings
Section 540Content of the appellate judgment
Section 541Court records of the dispute

Chapter 2
Appeal on points of law

Section 542Appeal on points of law as an available remedy
Section 543Admission to appeal
Section 544Complaint against denial of leave to appeal
Section 545Grounds for an appeal on points of law
Section 546Definition of the term “violation of the law”
Section 547Absolute grounds for an appeal on points of law
Section 548Time limit for filing an appeal on points of law
Section 549Filing an appeal on points of law
Section 550Service of the notice on appeal on points of law
Section 551Reasoning provided for the appeal on points of law
Section 552Review of admissibility
Section 552aCourt order denying leave to appeal
Section 553Hearing date as determined by the court; time for entering an appearance
Section 554Cross appeal on points of law
Section 555General procedural rules
Section 556Loss of the right to file objections
Section 557Scope of the review performed upon an appeal having been filed on points of law
Section 558Provisionally enforceable judgments
Section 559Limited review of the facts as established by the courts of prior instance
Section 560Acts not open to review
Section 561Denial of leave to appeal on points of law
Section 562Reversal of the contested judgment
Section 563Referral to a court of lower instance; decision on the merits of the case by the court hearing the appeal on points of law
Section 564No reasoning for the decision in the case of objections due to irregularities in the proceedings
Section 565Rules of the appeal proceedings to be applied in appeals on points of law
Section 566Immediate appeal on points of law in lieu of an appeal on facts and law

Chapter 3
Complaints

Title 1
Complaints subject to a time limit
Section 567Complaints subject to a time limit; cross appeal under a complaint
Section 568Judge sitting alone as the court of decision
Section 569Time limit and formal requirements
Section 570Suspensive effect; interim orders
Section 571Reasoning; extinction of the exercise of a right (preclusion); exceptions from the statutory requirement to be represented by an attorney
Section 572Course of the complaint procedure
Section 573Reminder as a legal remedy
Title 2
Complaint on points of law
Section 574Complaint on points of law; cross appeal under a complaint on points of law
Section 575Time limit, formal requirements, and reasoning of the complaint on points of law
Section 576Grounds for filing the complaint on points of law
Section 577Review of the complaint on points of law and decision

Book 4

Reopening of proceedings

Section 578Types of reopening proceedings
Section 579Action for annulment
Section 580Action for retrial of the case
Section 581Special prerequisites to be met by an action for retrial of the case
Section 582Auxiliary nature of an action for retrial of the case
Section 583Prior decisions
Section 584Exclusive jurisdiction for actions for annulment and actions for retrial of the case
Section 585General procedural rules
Section 586Period for filing an action
Section 587Statement of claim
Section 588Content of the statement of claim
Section 589Review of admissibility
Section 590New hearing
Section 591Appellate remedies

Book 5
Proceedings on claims arising from a deed, in which solely documentary evidence is submitted, and proceedings on claims arising from a bill of exchange

Section 592Admissibility
Section 593Content of the statement of claim; records and documents
Section 594(repealed)
Section 595No countercharges; evidence
Section 596Desisting from proceedings in which plaintiffs rely entirely on documentary evidence
Section 597Dismissal of the action
Section 598Refusal to admit objections
Section 599Judgment subject to a reservation of rights
Section 600Subsequent proceedings
Section 601(repealed)
Section 602Proceedings on claims arising from a bill of exchange
Section 603Venue
Section 604Content of the statement of claim; summons period
Section 605Regulations governing the submission of evidence
Section 605aProceedings on claims asserted concerning the payment of a cheque
Sections 606 to 687(repealed)

Book 7
Summary proceedings for a payment order

Section 688Admissibility
Section 689Jurisdiction; automatic processing
Section 690Petition for a payment order
Section 691Dismissal of the petition for a payment order
Section 692Payment order
Section 693Service of the payment order
Section 694Lodging an opposition against the payment order
Section 695Notice of opposition; copies
Section 696Proceedings upon an opposition having been lodged
Section 697Initiation of litigation
Section 698Transfer of the proceedings within the same court
Section 699Writ of execution
Section 700Protest against the writ of execution
Section 701Payment order ceases to have effect
Section 702Form of petitions and declarations
Section 703No proof of the power of attorney
Section 703aSummary proceedings for a payment order under a deed, a bill of exchange, or a cheque
Section 703bSpecial regulations for automatic processing
Section 703cForms; introduction of automatic processing
Section 703dRules where respondents have no general venue in Germany

Book 8
Compulsory enforcement

Chapter 1
General regulations
Section 704Enforceable final judgments
Section 705Formal legal validity
Section 706Certificate as to a judgment having attained legal force and certificate as to the statutory period
Section 707Temporary stay of compulsory enforcement
Section 708Provisionally enforceable judgments delivered without security being provided
Section 709Provisionally enforceable judgments delivered against security
Section 710Exceptions from the provision of security by the creditor
Section 711Authorisation to avert enforcement
Section 712Petition for protection filed by the debtor
Section 713Non-issuance of orders serving the protection of debtors
Section 714Petitions regarding the preliminary enforceability of the judgment
Section 715Return of the security
Section 716Amendment of the ruling
Section 717Effects of a judgment reversing or modifying the original judgment
Section 718Preliminary decision as to provisional enforceability
Section 719Provisional termination in the case of appellate remedies and protests having been filed
Section 720Lodgment in the event enforcement is averted
Section 720aPrecautionary attachment
Section 721Time limit for the vacation of premises
Section 722Enforceability of foreign judgments
Section 723Judgment for enforcement
Section 724Enforceable execution copy
Section 725Court certificate of enforceability
Section 726Enforceable execution copies where payments or other actions are subject to conditions
Section 727Enforceable execution copies for and against successors in title
Section 728Enforceable execution copies for reversionary heirs or executors
Section 729Enforceable execution copies against parties taking over the property of another person and against parties acquiring firms
Section 730Hearing the debtor
Section 731Action brought for issuance of the court certificate of enforceability
Section 732Reminder serving as a legal remedy against the issuance of the court certificate of enforceability
Section 733Additional enforceable execution copies
Section 734Note recorded on the original of the judgment regarding the issuance of an execution copy
Section 735Compulsory enforcement against an association having no legal capacity
Section 736Compulsory enforcement against a partnership under the Civil Code
Section 737Compulsory enforcement in the cases of usufruct rights concerning assets or inheritance
Section 738Enforceable execution copy issued against the beneficiaries of usufruct
Section 739Presumption of custody and control in the case of compulsory enforcement against spouses and partners in a civil union
Section 740Compulsory enforcement with respect to the common marital property of both spouses
Section 741Compulsory enforcement against the common marital property of both spouses where there is a business
Section 742Enforceable execution copy in the case of marriages becoming subject to the regime of common marital property only in the course of the legal dispute
Section 743Terminated regime of common marital property
Section 744Enforceable execution copy where the regime of common marital property has been terminated
Section 744aCompulsory enforcement in the case of a community of property and assets
Section 745Compulsory enforcement in the case of the regime of common marital property continuing in force
Section 746(repealed)
Section 747Compulsory enforcement against an estate that has not been partitioned
Section 748Compulsory enforcement where an executor has been appointed
Section 749Enforceable execution copies for and against executors
Section 750Prerequisites for compulsory enforcement
Section 751Conditions for the commencement of enforcement
Section 752Provision of security in the event of partial enforcement
Section 753Enforcement by court-appointed enforcement officers
Section 754Enforcement instructions and enforceable execution copy
Section 755Determining the debtor’s place of abode
Section 756Compulsory enforcement where performance is to be made concurrently
Section 757Physical submission of the legal title and receipt note
Section 758Searches; use of force
Section 758aSearch warrant issued by a judge; enforcement at an inopportune time
Section 759Involvement of witnesses
Section 760Inspection of files; copies of files
Section 761(repealed)
Section 762Record of the hearing regarding enforcement measures
Section 763Notices and communications
Section 764Court responsible for execution
Section 765Orders issued by the execution court where performance is to be made concurrently
Section 765aProtection from execution
Section 766Reminder serving as a legal remedy against the nature and manner of compulsory enforcement
Section 767Action raising an objection to the claim being enforced
Section 768Action brought against a court certificate of enforceability
Section 769Interim orders
Section 770Interim orders set out in the judgment
Section 771Third-party proceedings instituted to prevent the execution of a judgment
Section 772Third-party proceedings instituted to prevent the execution of a judgment where the disposition of assets has been prohibited
Section 773Third-party proceedings instituted to prevent the execution of a judgment by a reversionary heir
Section 774Third-party proceedings instituted to prevent the execution of a judgment by a spouse
Section 775Termination or limitation of compulsory enforcement
Section 776Abrogation of enforcement activities
Section 777Reminder serving as a legal remedy in the event sufficient security has been provided to the creditor
Section 778Compulsory enforcement prior to acceptance of an inheritance
Section 779Continuation of compulsory enforcement following the debtor’s death
Section 780Reservation as to the limited liability of an heir for the debts of the estate
Section 781Limited liability of an heir in compulsory enforcement proceedings
Section 782Defence pleas of the heir against creditors of the estate
Section 783Defence pleas of the heir against personal creditors
Section 784Compulsory enforcement where an estate is in administration or subject to insolvency proceedings
Section 785Action brought by the heir by way of raising an objection to the claim being enforced
Section 786Action raising an objection to the claim being enforced in the case of limited liability
Section 786aLimitation of liability under the laws of the sea and the laws governing inland waterways transport
Section 787Compulsory enforcement where real estate or a ship is ownerless
Section 788Costs of compulsory enforcement
Section 789Involvement of public authorities
Section 790(repealed)
Section 791(repealed)
Section 792Issuance of records or documents to creditors
Section 793Complaint subject to a time limit
Section 794Further enforceable legal documents
Section 794aCompulsory enforcement based on a settlement reached regarding the vacation of premises
Section 795Application of the general regulations to additional, enforceable legal documents
Section 795aCompulsory enforcement based on a cost-assessment order
Section 795bDeclaration of enforceability of the court settlement
Section 796Compulsory enforcement based on writs of execution
Section 796aPrerequisites for the settlement reached among attorneys to be declared enforceable
Section 796bDeclaration of enforceability by the court hearing the case
Section 796cDeclaration of enforceability by a notary
Section 797Procedure pursued in the case of enforceable records or documents
Section 797aProcedure pursued in the case of settlements being reached before a dispute-resolution entity
Section 798Waiting period
Section 798a(repealed)
Section 799Enforceable record or document in the case of legal succession
Section 799aLiability for damages where other creditors are pursuing enforcement based on records or documents
Section 800Enforceable record or document against the respective owner of real estate
Section 800aEnforceable record or document in the case of a maritime mortgage
Section 801Legal documents enforceable under Land law
Section 802Exclusive venue
Chapter 2
Compulsory enforcement for monetary claims
Title 1
General regulations
Section 802aPrinciples of enforcement; general powers of the court-appointed enforcement officer
Section 802bAmicable termination of the matter; deferment of enforcement in the event of a payment agreement
Section 802cInformation from the debtor on his assets
Section 802dNew information on assets
Section 802eCompetence
Section 802fProceedings for taking the information on the debtor’s assets
Section 802gCoercive detention
Section 802hInadmissibility of the execution of the arrest
Section 802iInformation on the assets of a debtor in arrest
Section 802jDuration of arrest, renewed arrest
Section 802kCentral administration of schedules of assets
Section 802lInformation rights of the court-appointed enforcement officer
Title 2
Compulsory enforcement against movable property
Subtitle 1
General regulations
Section 803Attachment
Section 804Security right of a creditor
Section 805Action for preferential satisfaction
Section 806No warranty where an attached object is disposed of
Section 806aNotices from the court-appointed enforcement officer and interviews
Section 806b(repealed)
Section 807Taking the information on the debtor’s financial circumstances and assets following efforts to attach assets
Subtitle 2
Compulsory enforcement against physical objects
Section 808Attachment with the debtor
Section 809Attachment with the creditor or with third parties
Section 810Attachment of unharvested fruits
Section 811Objects exempted from attachment
Section 811aAttachment with substitution
Section 811bProvisional attachment with substitution
Section 811cDomestic animals exempted from attachment
Section 811dTemporary attachment (without actual possession being taken)
Section 812Attachment of household effects
Section 813Appraisal
Section 813a(repealed)
Section 813b(repealed)
Section 814Sale at public auction
Section 815Attached cash
Section 816Time and place of the auction
Section 817Successful bids and delivery
Section 817aMinimum bid
Section 818Discontinuation of the auction
Section 819Effect of accepting the proceeds
Section 820(repealed)
Section 821Realisation of securities
Section 822Transfer of registered securities
Section 823Bearer instruments that are withdrawn from circulation
Section 824Realisation of fruits that have not yet been harvested
Section 825Other form of realisation
Section 826Subordinate attachment
Section 827Procedure pursued in the case of several attachments
Subtitle 3
Compulsory enforcement against claims and other property rights
Section 828Jurisdiction of the execution court
Section 829Attachment of a monetary claim
Section 829aSimplified petition for enforcement in the case of writs of execution
Section 830Attachment of a mortgage claim
Section 830aAttachment of a maritime mortgage claim
Section 831Attachment of endorsable bills
Section 832Scope of attachment in the event of ongoing emoluments
Section 833Scope of attachment in the case of earned income and service income
Section 833aScope of attachment in the case of credit balances on an account
Section 834Debtor is not heard
Section 835Transfer of a monetary claim
Section 836Effect of the transfer
Section 837Transfer of a mortgage claim
Section 837aTransfer of a maritime mortgage claim
Section 838Objection of the debtor in the case of pledged collateral
Section 839Transfer where the debtor is authorised to avert enforcement
Section 840Obligation of the third-party debtor to make declarations
Section 841Obligation to give third-party notice
Section 842Compensation of damages for delayed recovery of claims
Section 843Waiver by the creditor having a right of lien
Section 844Other form of realisation
Section 845Notice of imminent attachment of a debt
Section 846Compulsory enforcement against claims to surrender
Section 847Claim to surrender of a movable object
Section 847aClaim to surrender of a ship
Section 848Claim to surrender of immovable property
Section 849No transfer in lieu of payment
Section 850Exemption from attachment of earned income
Section 850aEmoluments exempted from attachment
Section 850bEmoluments attachable subject to conditions
Section 850cAttachment-exempt threshold for earned income
Section 850dLiability to attachment where the debtor must comply with claims to maintenance
Section 850eComputation of attachable earned income
Section 850fModification of the amount exempted from attachment
Section 850gModification of the prerequisites for an exemption from attachment
Section 850hDisguised earned income
Section 850iExemption from attachment of other earnings
Section 850kAccount exempted from attachment
Section 850lOrder as to amounts being non-attachable that have been credited to accounts exempted from attachment
Section 851Non-transferable claims
Section 851aExemption from attachment for farmers
Section 851bExemption from attachment in the case of rents under tenancy and lease agreements
Section 851cExemption from attachment in the case of old-age pensions
Section 851dExemption from attachment in the case of retirement assets subsidised by tax credits
Section 852Claims attachable subject to restrictions
Section 853Several attachments of a monetary claim
Section 854Several attachments of a claim to movable assets
Section 855Several attachments of a claim to immovable property
Section 855aSeveral attachments of a claim to a ship
Section 856Action brought in the case of several attachments
Section 857Compulsory enforcement against other property rights
Section 858Compulsory enforcement against a share in a ship
Section 859Attachment of shares in jointly held property
Section 860Attachment of shares to common marital property
Sections 861 and 862(repealed)
Section 863Limitations of attachment where usufruct under an inheritance is concerned
Title 3
Compulsory enforcement against immovable property
Section 864Subject matter of enforcements against real estate
Section 865Relationship to enforcements against movable property
Section 866Types of enforcement
Section 867Judgment creditor’s mortgage
Section 868Acquisition of the judgment creditor’s mortgage by the owner
Section 869Enforced auction and receivership
Section 870Rights equivalent to real estate
Section 870aCompulsory enforcement against a ship or a ship under construction
Section 871Reservations under Land law applying to railway operations
Title 4
Distribution proceedings
Section 872Prerequisites
Section 873Request made by the court responsible for the distribution of assets
Section 874Distribution plan
Section 875Determination of a hearing date by the court
Section 876Hearing for declaration and implementation
Section 877Consequences of a failure to comply with procedural rules
Section 878Action brought in support of an opposition lodged
Section 879Court competent for the action brought in support of the opposition
Section 880Content of the ruling
Section 881Default judgment
Section 882Procedure following the ruling
Title 5
Compulsory enforcement against legal persons under public law
Section 882aCompulsory enforcement for a monetary claim
Title 6
List of debtors
Section 882b Content of the list of debtors
Section 882c Instructions to enter a debtor in the list of debtors
Section 882d Enforcement of the instructions to enter a debtor in the list of debtors
Section 882eCancellation
Section 882f Inspection of the list of debtors
Section 882gIssuance of excerpts
Section 882hCompetence; structure of the list of debtors
Chapter 3
Compulsory enforcement serving to obtain the surrender of objects or serving to ensure that actions are taken or refrained from
Section 883Surrender of specific movable objects
Section 884Provision of a specific amount of fungible things
Section 885Surrender of plots of real estate or ships
Section 885a Limited enforcement instructions
Section 886Surrender in the case of a third party having custody and control
Section 887Actions that may be taken by others
Section 888Actions that may not be taken by others
Section 888aNo enforcement of actions where there is a duty to pay compensation
Section 889Statutory declaration in lieu of an oath pursuant to civil law
Section 890Forcing the debtor to cease and desist from actions, or to tolerate actions
Section 891Procedure; hearing of the debtor; ruling on the payment of costs
Section 892Resistance by the debtor
Section 892a(repealed)
Section 893Action brought for performance of the equivalent in money
Section 894Fiction of a declaration of intent having been made
Section 895Declaration of intent for the purpose of entering it in a register in the event of provisionally enforceable judgments
Section 896Issuance of records or documents to the creditor
Section 897Transfer of ownership; creation of charges on real property
Section 898Acquisition in good faith
Chapter 4
(repealed)
Sections 899 to 915h (repealed)
Chapter 5
Seizure and injunction
Section 916Claim to seizure
Section 917Grounds for a writ of seizure to be issued in the case of seizure against the assets of a potential debtor
Section 918Grounds for a writ of seizure to be issued in the case of a debtor being arrested in person
Section 919Court responsible for the seizure
Section 920Request for writ of seizure
Section 921Decision regarding the request for a writ of seizure
Section 922Judgment ordering seizure and order of seizure
Section 923Authorisation to avert enforcement
Section 924Opposition
Section 925Decision following an opposition having been lodged
Section 926Order as to proceedings having to be brought in the courts
Section 927Seizure set aside due to a change in circumstances
Section 928Enforcement of the seizure
Section 929Court certificate of enforceability; enforcement period
Section 930Enforcement against movable property and receivables
Section 931Enforcement against a registered ship or a registered ship under construction
Section 932Seizure lien
Section 933Enforcement of the personal arrest of a debtor
Section 934Setting aside the enforcement of the seizure
Section 935Injunction regarding the subject matter of the litigation
Section 936Application of the rules governing arrest
Section 937Competent court
Section 938Content of the injunction
Section 939Abrogation of an injunction against provision of security
Section 940Injunction serving to provide a temporary status
Section 940aVacation of residential premises
Section 941Requests for entries to be made in the land register etc.
Section 942Competence of the local court in the district of which the object is located
Section 943Court responsible for the main action
Section 944Decision of the presiding judge in urgent cases
Section 945Obligation to compensate for damages
Sections 946 to 1024(repealed)
Book 10
Arbitration proceedings
Chapter 1
General regulations
Section 1025Scope of application
Section 1026Scope of the activities that a court may pursue
Section 1027Loss of the right to file objections
Section 1028Receipt of written communications by a party whose whereabouts are unknown
Chapter 2
Arbitration agreement
Section 1029Definition
Section 1030Eligibility for arbitration
Section 1031Form of the arbitration agreement
Section 1032Arbitration agreement and proceedings brought before the courts
Section 1033Arbitration agreement and preliminary measures taken by the court
Chapter 3
Formation of the arbitral tribunal
Section 1034Composition of the arbitral tribunal
Section 1035Appointment of arbitral judges
Section 1036Recusal of an arbitral judge
Section 1037Recusal procedure
Section 1038Failure to act or impossibility of performing the tasks assigned
Section 1039Appointment of a substitute arbitral judge
Chapter 4
Competence of the arbitral tribunal
Section 1040Authority of the arbitral tribunal to decide on its own competence
Section 1041Measures of temporary relief
Chapter 5
Implementation of the arbitration proceedings
Section 1042General procedural rules
Section 1043Venue of the arbitration proceedings
Section 1044Commencement of the arbitration proceedings
Section 1045Language of the proceedings
Section 1046Request for arbitration and reply to the request for arbitration
Section 1047Hearing for oral argument; proceedings conducted in writing
Section 1048Failure by a party to comply with procedural rules
Section 1049Expert appointed by the arbitral tribunal
Section 1050Support provided by the court in taking evidence and other actions reserved for judges
Chapter 6
Arbitration award and conclusion of the proceedings
Section 1051Applicable laws
Section 1052Decision by a panel of arbitral judges
Section 1053Settlement
Section 1054Form and content of the arbitration award
Section 1055Effects of the arbitration award
Section 1056Termination of the arbitration proceedings
Section 1057Decision as to costs
Section 1058Correction, interpretation, and amendment of the arbitration award
Chapter 7
Legal remedies against the arbitration award
Section 1059Petition for reversal of an arbitration award
Chapter 8
Prerequisites for the recognition and enforcement of arbitration awards
Section 1060Domestic arbitration awards
Section 1061Foreign arbitration awards
Chapter 9
Court proceedings
Section 1062Jurisdiction
Section 1063General regulations
Section 1064Special aspects of declaring arbitration awards enforceable
Section 1065Appellate remedies
Chapter 10
Arbitral tribunals not governed by agreements
Section 1066Application mutatis mutandis of the provisions made in Book 10

Book 11

Judicial collaboration within the European Union

Chapter 1
Service of records or documents pursuant to Council Regulation (EC) No 1393/2007
Section 1067Service of records or documents by diplomatic or consular missions
Section 1068Service of records or documents by post
Section 1069Responsibilities
Section 1070(repealed)
Section 1071(repealed)
Chapter 2
Taking of evidence in accordance with Council Regulation (EC) No 1206/2001
Section 1072Taking of evidence in the Member States of the European Union
Section 1073Participation rights
Section 1074Responsibilities pursuant to Council Regulation (EC) No 1206/2001
Section 1075Language of incoming requests
Chapter 3
Assistance with court costs pursuant to Council Directive 2003/8/EC
Section 1076Applicable regulations
Section 1077Outgoing applications
Section 1078Incoming applications
Chapter 4
European enforcement orders pursuant to Council Regulation (EC) No 805/2004
Title 1
Certificate of domestic enforcement orders as European enforcement orders
Section 1079Competence
Section 1080Decision
Section 1081Rectification and withdrawal
Title 2
Compulsory enforcement under European enforcement orders in Germany
Section 1082Enforcement title
Section 1083Translation
Section 1084Applications pursuant to Articles 21 and 23 of Council Regulation (EC) No 805/2004
Section 1085Termination of compulsory enforcement
Section 1086Action raising an objection to the claim being enforced
Chapter 5
European order for payment procedure pursuant to Council Regulation (EC) No 1896/2006
Title 1
General regulations
Section 1087Competence
Section 1088Automatic processing
Section 1089Service
Title 2
Statement of opposition against the European payment order
Section 1090Procedure following a statement of opposition
Section 1091Initiation of dispute proceedings
Title 3
Review of the European payment order in exceptional cases
Section 1092Procedure
Title 4
Compulsory enforcement under the European payment order
Section 1093Court certificate of enforceability
Section 1094Translation
Section 1095Protection against enforcement; action raising an objection to the claim being enforced under the European payment order issued in Germany
Section 1096Applications pursuant to Articles 22 and 23 of Council Regulation (EC) No 1896/2006; action raising an objection to the claim being enforced
Chapter 6
European small claims procedure pursuant to Council Regulation (EC) No 861/2007
Title 1
Procedure serving the judicial decision of a court
Section 1097Commencement and conduct of the procedure
Section 1098Refusal to accept a record or document by reason of its language
Section 1099Counterclaim
Section 1100Oral hearing
Section 1101Taking of evidence
Section 1102Judgment
Section 1103Failure to comply with procedural rules
Section 1104Redress granted in the event the defendant failed to comply with procedural rules through no fault of his own
Title 2
Compulsory enforcement
Section 1105Compulsory enforcement of domestic enforcement titles
Section 1106Certificate of domestic enforcement titles
Section 1107Foreign enforcement titles
Section 1108Translation
Section 1109Applications pursuant to Articles 22 and 23 of Council Regulation (EC) No 861/2007; action raising an objection to the claim being enforced
Annex (re. section 850c)


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