Language, perspective and communication

  • 52 nd REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA - Apart from the Safeguards under Article 29 and 30 of the Constitution, a Scheme of Safeguards was evolved at all India level from time to time at various fora like the Education Ministers’ Conference, 1949; Government of India Memorandum, 1956; Southern Zonal Council Decisions, 1959; Chief Ministers’ Conference, 1961 and Meeting of the Committee of Vice-Chairmen of Zonal Councils, 1961. The CLM interacts with the linguistic minority groups and the States/UTs on all the matters pertaining to the issues concerning the implementation of the constitutional and the nationally agreed Scheme of Safeguards for linguistic minorities.
  • ब्राह्मी लिपि – Brahmic scripts -
  • Chinese Regulations on Spoken and Written Language for Xinjiang Uygur Region-1993 - In order to promote the development and prosperity of the spoken and written languages ​​of all ethnic groups and improve the scientific and cultural level of the people of all ethnic groups, in accordance with the "Law of the People's Republic of China on Regional Autonomy of Ethnic Groups", "The Law of the People's Republic of China on Common Languages ​​and Characters" and other relevant laws and regulations
  • Compulsory Telugu subject from Classes 1 to 10 Standard in Telengana - Telangana (Compulsory Teaching and Learning of Telugu in Schools) Act 2018 3. Telugu as a Compulsory Subject (1) Telugu shall be taught as a compulsory subject from Classes 1 to 10 / Standard I to Standard X in all schools, commencing from the Academic Year, 2018-19 in a phased manner, as specified in the Schedule. (2) The curriculum etc. to […]
  • European Cultural Convention 1954 - Each Contracting Party shall take appropriate measures to safeguard and to encourage the development of its national contribution to the common cultural heritage of Europe.
  • Haryana Official Language Act 1969 - An Act to provide for the adoption of Hindi as the first language and Punjabi as the second language to be used for the official purposes of the State of Haryana.
  • The Government and Security Hindi is the Official Language of India,English may be used in addition - Provided that the English language shall be used for purposes of communication between the Union and a State which has not adopted Hindi as its official language
  • History of Indian Linguistics - Early Vedic texts (Rig Veda 1:164:45; 4:58:3; 10:125) suggest a structure for languages: Language is composed of sentences with four stages of evolution that are expressed in three tenses (past, present and future). The sentences are composed of words that have two distinct forms of existence (vocal form, the word, and perceptional form, the meaning). These words are recognized mainly as verbs that […]
  • India’s national speech is Hindi and it will be an international speech : Gandhi in Inter-Asian Relations Conference (02/04/1947) - Our national speech is Hindustani. I know that it will be a long time before it can be made into an international speech. For international commerce, undoubtedly, English occupies the first place. I used to hear that French was the language of diplomacy. I was told, when I was young, that if I wanted to go from one end of Europe to the other, I must try to pick up French.
  • Indian Unparliamentary Expressions – 2022 - Words and expressions in English which have been declared Unparliamentary in Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, State Legislatures in India and some Commonwealth Parliaments
  • Language Index - Afrikaans (Afrikaans) Albanian (Shqip) Arabic (العربية) Armenian (հայերէն) Assamese (অসমীয়া) Azeri (Azərbaycan) Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia) Basque (Euskara) Bengali (বাংলা) Bulgarian (ьългарски) Burmese  Catalan (català) Chinese (中文) Cornish (Kernowek) Croatian-Serb (hrvatskosrpski) Czech (Čeština) Danish (Dansk) Dutch (Nederlands) Esperanto (Esperanto) Estonian (Eesti) Farsi, Persian (فارسی) Finnish (Suomi) French (Français) Gascon (Occitan) Georgian (ქართული ენა) German (Deutsch) Greek (Ελληνικά) Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) Hausa (Hausa) […]
  • Latin Language - Latin is an ancient Indo-European language(originated from Sanskrit) originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. Latin gained wide currency, especially in Europe, as the formal language of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire, and, after Rome’s conversion to Christianity, of the Roman Catholic Church (although by the time of widespread Christian conversion in Europe, Latin had already become more a language of the Church and of scholars, rather […]
  • Linguistic structure - Linguistic structures are pairings of meaning and sound or other forms of externalization. A Linguists may specialize in some subpart of the  following linguistic structure: Phonetics, the study of the physical aspects of sounds of human language Phonology, the study of patterns of a language’s sounds Morphology, the study of the internal structure of words Syntax, the study of how […]
  • National Identity- Culture and Language - Purpose of the national constitution is to preserve culture and language, two core elements of the notion are of identity in said terms, then the well‑being of individuals and communities. We would also point out that, unlike some other rights in the constitution, it recognizes rights that are assessed not only in individual terms but also on a collective level.
  • Official Language Rules-1976 - Communications from a Central Government office to a State or a Union Territory in Region "A" or to any office (not being a Central Government office) or person in such State or Union Territory shall, save in exceptional cases, be in Hindi, and if any communication is issued to any of them in English it shall be accompanied by a Hindi translation thereof.
  • Problems of Religious Language - Indeed, the basic criticism that has been made of the Neo-Wittgensteinian theory of religious language is that it is not (as it professes to be) an account of normal or ordinary religious language use but rather is a proposal for a radical new interpretation of religious utterances. In this new interpretation, religious expressions are systematically deprived of the cosmic implications that they have always been assumed to have.
  • Regarding discrimination of Russian speaking citizens of Ukraine – Statement of Fed Council of Fed Assembly of Russian Federation-24/07/2020 - The Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation expresses its deep concern about the fact that as early as September 2020, when the new Ukrainian legislation on education will enter into force, teaching in educational institutions (except for pre-school and primary levels) in Ukraine – country where Russian is the mother tongue for millions of people – will be almost entirely in Ukrainian.
  • Sanskrit language is most scientific for human civilization in entire world – Allahabad HC - Sanskrit language has already been claimed as most scientific for the human civilization in the entire world. This Court would like to place on record that respondents’ authorities will be better advised to provide better facilities, impetus, incentive and also environment for promoting Sanskrit language which is the mother of all the languages in the world. ALLAHABAD HIGH COURT SINGLE […]
  • Sanskrit was the ‘Mother’ of all western languages - Other Sanskrit words were similar to Greek terms. For instance, the Greek word trias ("three") is close to trayas and tres in the chart above. The Greek word pente ("five") is close to Sanskrit panca ("five"), and so on. Jones began systematically charting the similarities, finding literally thousands of such parallels between Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin.
  • Student’s Role in Nation Building-Jinnah at Dhaka University 24/03/1948 - The State language therefore, must obviously be Urdu, a language that has been nurtured by a hundred million Muslims of this sub-continent, a language understood throughout the length and breadth of Pakistan and above all a language which, more than any other provincial language, embodies the best that is in Islamic culture and Muslim tradition and is nearest to the language used in other Islamic countries.
  • The difference between official language, national language and mother tongue-Raj Bhasha, Rashtra Bhasha and Matri Bhasha. - The Constitution of India is careful not to identify a particular language as a national language. But, the Constitution of India does speak of an official language (raj bhasha).
  • THE FUNCTION OF PHILOSOPHY-Alfred Ayer - THE FUNCTION OF PHILOSOPHY -1936 Among the superstitions from which we are freed by the  abandonment of metaphysics is the view that it is the business of the philosopher to construct a deductive system.  In rejecting this view wc are not, of course, suggesting  that the philosopher can dispense with deductive reasoning.  We are simply contesting his right to posit […]
  • The Language of the Subordinate Courts in India - Chapter XXIII of Cr.P.C deals with evidence in enquiries and trials. Section 272 of Code of Criminal Procedure contemplates that the State Government may determine what shall be for the purposes of the Code of Criminal Procedure, the language of each Court within the State other than the High Court. In State of Karnataka, Kannada and English are the official […]
  • The Official Languages Act 1963 - An act to provide for the languages which may be used for the official purposes of the union, for transaction of business in parliament, for central and state acts and for certain purposes in high courts.
  • The question of national language for India-Constituent Assembly Debate-14/09/1949 - National language of India should not be and cannot be any other than Hindustani which is Hindi plus Urdu. For the sake of satisfying the sentiments of our friends we have accepted Hindi in Devanagari script. It is no less sacrifice for us to have had to depart from a principle, which we have all along fought for and lived for.
  • The West Bengal Official Language Act, 1961 - the use of any language other than the Bengali language which is authorized by or under any law for the time being in force to be used for any purpose in any of the civil or criminal courts within the State of West Bengal
  • What is Grammar - Grammar According to the structuralist point of view, grammar is the study of the rules governing the use of a language. That set of rules is also called the grammar of the language, and each language has its own distinct grammar. Grammar is part of the general study of language called linguistics. The subfields of grammar are phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics. In traditional terms, grammar includes only morphology and syntax. Linguists recognise a […]
  • What is Rhetoric - Rhetoric Rhetoric (from Greek ρητωρ, rhêtôr, “orator”) is one of the three original liberal arts or trivium (the other members are dialectic and grammar). While it has meant many different things during its 2500-year history, it is generally described today as the art of persuasion through language. Rhetoric can describe a persuasive way in which one relates a theme or idea in an effort to convince. History Rhetoric is as old […]
  • XML - XML is a W3C-recommended general-purpose markup language that supports a wide variety of applications. XML languages or ‘dialects’ may be designed by anyone and may be processed by conforming software. XML is also designed to be reasonably human-legible, and to this end, terseness was not considered essential in its structure. XML is a simplified subset of Standard Generalized Markup Language […]

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Slavery-History and Documentation

Sat Apr 3 , 2021
That when a person held to service or labor in any State or Territory of the United States, has heretofore or shall hereafter escape into another State or Territory of the United States, the person or persons to whom such service or labor may be due, or his, her, or their agent or attorney, duly authorized, by power of attorney, in writing, acknowledged and certified under the seal of some legal officer or court of the State or Territory in which the same may be executed, may pursue and reclaim such fugitive person, either by procuring a warrant from some one of the courts, judges, or commissioners aforesaid, of the proper circuit, district, or county, for the apprehension of such fugitive from service or labor, or by seizing and arresting such fugitive, where the same can be done without process, and by taking, or causing such person to be taken, forthwith before such court, judge, or commissioner, whose duty it shall be to hear and determine the case of such claimant in a summary manner;

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