The Washington Declaration, which was signed by His Majesty King Hussein and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin at the White House on July 25, 1994, formally ended the 46-year state of war between Jordan and Israel. The Declaration committed both Jordan and Israel to aim at the “achievement of a just, lasting and comprehensive peace between Arab states and the Palestinians, with Israel.”
This document safeguards Islamic control over the Muslim Holy Sites of Jerusalem, as Israel: “respects the present role of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in the Muslim Holy Shrines in Jerusalem. When negotiations on the permanent status will take place, Israel will give high priority to the Jordanian historic role in these shrines.”
The Washington Declaration also mandates a number of practical steps such as the establishment of direct telephone links between Jordan and Israel, the opening of two new border crossings between the two countries, linking of the Jordanian and Israeli power grids and police cooperation in combatting crime. The signing of the Washington Declaration paved the way for Jordan and Israel to reach agreement on their Treaty of Peace, which they signed on October 26, 1994.
TEXT OF THE DECLARATION
The Washington Declaration
July 25, 1994
A. After generations of hostility, bloodshed and tears and in the wake of years of pain and wars, His Majesty King Hussein and Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin are determined to bring an end to bloodshed and sorrow. It is in this spirit that His Majesty King Hussein of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and Prime Minister and Minister of Defense, Mr. Yitzhak Rabin of Israel, met in Washington today at the invitation of President William J. Clinton of the United States of America. This initiative of President William J. Clinton constitutes an historic landmark in the United States’ untiring efforts in promoting peace and stability in the Middle East. The personal involvement of the President has made it possible to realize agreement on the content of this historic declaration. The signing of this declaration bears testimony to the President’s vision and devotedness to the cause of peace.
In their meeting, His Majesty King Hussein and Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin have jointly reaffirmed the five underlying principles of their understanding on an Agreed Common Agenda designed to reach the goal of a just, lasting and comprehensive peace between the Arab States and the Palestinians, with Israel.
Jordan and Israel aim at the achievement of just, lasting and comprehensive peace between Israel and its neighbors and at the conclusion of a Treaty of Peace between both countries.
The two countries will vigorously continue their negotiation to arrive at a state of peace, based on (UN) Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338 in all their aspects, and founded on freedom, equality and justice.
Israel respects the present special role of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in the Muslim holy shrines in Jerusalem. When negotiations on the permanent status will take place, Israel will give high priority to the Jordanian historic role in these shrines. In addition, the two sides have agreed to act together to promote interfaith relations among the three monotheistic religions.
The two countries recognize their right and obligation to live in peace with each other, as well as with all states, within secure and recognized boundaries. The two states affirmed their respect for and acknowledgment of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of every state in the area.
The two countries desire to develop good neighborly relations of cooperation between them to ensure lasting security and to avoid threats and the use of force between them.
C. The long conflict between the two states is now coming to an end. In this spirit, the state of belligerency between Jordan and Israel has now been terminated.
D. Following this declaration and in keeping with the Agreed Common Agenda, both countries will refrain from actions or activities by either side that may adversely affect the security of the other or may prejudice the final outcome of negotiations. Neither side will threaten the other by use of force, weapons, or any other means against each other, and both sides will thwart threats to security resulting from all kinds of terrorism.
E. His Majesty King Hussein and Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin took note of the progress made in the bilateral negotiations within the Jordan-Israel track last week on the steps decided to implement the sub-agendas on borders, territorial matters, security, water, energy, environment and the Jordan Rift Valley.
In this framework, mindful of items of the Agreed Common Agenda (borders and territorial matters), they noted that the boundary sub- commission has reached agreement in July 1994 in fulfillment of part of the role entrusted to it in the sub-agenda. They also noted that the sub- commission for water, environment and energy agreed to mutually recognize, as the role of their negotiations, the rightful allocations of the two sides in Jordan River and Yarmouk River waters and to fully respect and comply with the negotiated rightful allocations, in accordance with agreed acceptable principles with mutually acceptable quality.
Similarly, His Majesty King Hussein and Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin expressed their deep satisfaction and pride in the work of the trilateral commission in its meeting held in Jordan on Wednesday, July 20, 1994, hosted by the Jordanian Prime Minister Abdel-Salam al-Majali, and attended by Secretary of State Warren Christopher and Foreign Minister Shimon Peres. They voiced their pleasure at the association and commitment of the United States in this endeavor.
F. His Majesty King Hussein and Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin believe that steps must be taken both to overcome psychological barriers and to break with the legacy of war. By working with optimism towards the dividends of peace for all the people in the region, Jordan and Israel are determined to shoulder their responsibilities towards the human dimension of peace- making. They recognize that imbalances and disparities are a root cause of extremism, which thrives on poverty and unemployment and the degradation of human dignity. In this spirit, His Majesty King Hussein and Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin have today approved a series of steps to symbolize the new era now at hand:
Direct telephone links will be opened between Jordan and Israel.
The electricity grids of Jordan and Israel will be linked as part of a regional concept.
Two new border crossings will be opened between Jordan and Israel—one at the tip of Aqaba-Eilat and the other at a mutually agreed point in the north.
In principle, free access will be given to third country tourist traveling between Jordan and Israel.
Negotiations will be accelerated on opening an international air corridor between the two countries.
The police forces of Jordan and Israel will cooperate in combating crime with emphasis on smuggling and particularly drug smuggling. The United States will be invited to participate in this joint endeavor.
Negotiations on economic matters will continue in order to prepare for future bilateral cooperation including the abolition of all economic boycotts.
All these steps are being implemented within the framework of regional infrastructure development plans and in conjunction with the Jordan-Israel bilaterals on boundaries, security, water and related issues and without prejudice to the final outcome of the negotiations on the items included in the Agreed Common Agenda between Jordan and Israel.
G. His Majesty King Hussein and Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin have agreed to meet periodically or whenever they feel necessary to review the progress of the negotiations and express their firm intention to shepherd and direct the process in its entirety.
H. His Majesty King Hussein and Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin wish to express once again their profound thanks and appreciation to President William J. Clinton and his administration for their untiring efforts in furthering the cause of peace, justice and prosperity for all the peoples of the region. They wish to thank the president personally for his warm welcome and hospitality. In recognition of their appreciation to the president, His Majesty King Hussein and Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin have asked President William J. Clinton to sign this document as a witness and as a host to their meeting.
His Majesty King Hussein
Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin
President William J. Clinton