Arabic Lexicon

The first Arabic lexicon is that which is generally ascribed to al-K͟halīl, and entitled Kitābu ʾl ʿAin. The following are the most celebrated Arabic dictionaries composed after the ʿAin.

The Jamharah, by Ibn Duraid, died a.h. 321.

The Tahẕīb, by al-Azhari, died a.h. 370.

The Muḥīt̤, by the Ṣāḥib Ibn ʿAbbād, died a.h. 385.

The Mujmal, by Ibn Fāris, died a.h. 395.

The Ṣiḥāḥ, by al-Jauharī, died a.h. 398.

The Jāmiʿ, by al-Qazzāz, died a.h. 412.

The Mūʿab, by Abū G͟hālib, died a.h. 436.

The Muḥkam, by Ibn Sīdah, died a.h. 458.

The Asās, by az-Zamak͟hsharī, died a.h. 538.

The Mughrib, by al-Mut̤arrizī, died a.h. 610.

The ʿUbāb, by aṣ-Ṣāghānī, died a.h. 660.

The Lisānu ʾl-ʿArab, by Ibn Mukarram, died a.h. 711.

The Tahẕību ʾt-Tahẕīb, by Maḥmūd at-Tanūk͟hi, died a.h. 723.

The Miṣbāḥ, by Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad al-Faiyūmī, compiled a.h. 734.

The Mughni ʾl-Labīb, by Ibn Hishām, died a.h. 761.

The Qāmūs, by al-Fairūzābādī, died a.h. 816.

The Ṣiḥāḥ (says Mr. Lane in his Preface to his Dictionary), is among the books of lexicology like the Ṣaḥīḥ of Al-Buk͟hārī amongst the books of traditions; for the point on which turns the title to reliance is not the copiousness of the collection, but the condition of genuineness and correctness.

Two well-known dictionaries, compiled in modern times in Hindustān, are the G͟hiyās̤u ʾl-Lug͟hat, by Maulawī G͟hiyās̤u ʾd-dīn of Rāmpūr, and the Muntaha ʾl-ʿArab, by ʿAbdu ʾr-Raḥīm ibn ʿAbdu ʾl-Karīm of Ṣafīpūr. These are both Arabic and Persian lexicons.

The Arabic-Latin dictionary of Jacob Golius, was printed at Leyden, a.d. 1653; that of Freytag at Halle, a.d. 1830–35.

The Arabic-English and English-Arabic dictionaries extant are—

Richardson’s Persian-Arabic-English, a.d. 1777.

Richardson’s English-Persian-Arabic, a.d. 1810.

Francis Johnson’s Persian-Arabic-English, a.d. 1852.

Catafago’s Arabic-English and English-Arabic, new edition, 1873.

Lane’s Arabic-English, a.d. 1863 to 1882, imperfect.

Dr. Badger’s English-Arabic, a.d. 1881.

Dr. Steingass’s English-Arabic, a.d. 1882.


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