Constitution of Argentina

CONSTITUTION OF THE ARGENTINE NATION

PREAMBLE

We, the representatives of the people of the Argentine Nation, gathered in General Constituent Assembly by the will and election of the Provinces which compose it, in fulfillment of pre-existing pacts, in order to form a national union, guarantee justice, preserve domestic peace, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves, to our posterity, and to all men of the world who wish to dwell on Argentine soil: invoking the protection of God, source of all reason and justice:

do ordain, decree, and establish this Constitution for the Argentine Nation.

PART I
CHAPTER I

Declarations, Rights and Guarantees

Section 1.- The Argentine Nation adopts the federal republican representative form of government, as this
Constitution establishes.

Section 2.- The Federal Government supports the Roman Catholic Apostolic religion.

Section 3.- The authorities in charge of the Federal Government shall reside in the city to be declared
Capital of the Republic by a special law of Congress, once settled the cession of the territory to be federalized
by one or more Provincial legislatures.

Section 4.- The Federal Government provides for the expenditures of the Nation with the funds of the
National Treasury, composed of the proceeds of export and import duties, the sale or lease of lands owned
by the Nation, the revenues of the Postal Service, other taxes equitably and proportionally levied on the
population by the National Congress, and of whatever loans and credit transactions Congress may order in
case of national emergencies or for enterprises of national interest.

Section 5.- Each Province shall enact its own constitution under the republican, representative system,
in accordance with the principles, declarations, and guarantees of the National Constitution, ensuring its
administration of justice, municipal regime, and elementary education. Under these conditions, the Federal
Government shall guarantee to each Province the full exercise of its institutions.

Section 6.- The Federal Government intervenes the territory of the Provinces in order to guarantee
the republican form of government or to repel foreign invasions; and at the request of their incumbent
authorities, in order to support or reestablish them, should they have been deposed by sedition or invasion
from another Province.

Section 7.- The public acts and judicial proceedings of one Province are worthy of full faith in the others;
and Congress may, by general laws, provide for the manner in which such acts and proceedings shall be
proved and the legal effects thereof.

Section 8. – The citizens of each Province shall be entitled to all rights, privileges, and immunities inherent
in the condition of citizen in the other Provinces. The extradition of criminals is a reciprocal obligation
among all the Provinces

Section 9.- In all the territory of the Nation there shall be no other Customs than the national ones, in
which the tariffs enacted by Congress shall be in force.

Section 10.- The circulation of goods of national production or manufacture is free from duties throughout
the Republic, as well as the circulation of articles and merchandise of all kinds cleared through the
national Customs.

Section 11.- Goods of national or foreign production or manufacture, as well as livestock of all kinds, that
may pass through the territory of one Province to another, shall be free from the so called transit duties, the
same as the carriages, vessels or beasts in or on which they are transported; and no other duty, whatever its
name may be, shall be imposed on them by reason of their passing through the territory.

Section 12.- Vessels sailing from one Province to another shall not be bound to enter, anchor, or pay transit
duties; and no preference shall be granted in any case to any port in respect of another, by means of laws or
trading regulations.

Section 13.- New Provinces may be admitted into the Nation; but a new Province shall neither be established
within the territory of another Province or Provinces, nor be formed from several, without the consent of the
legislatures of the Provinces concerned and of Congress.

Section 14.- All the inhabitants of the Nation are entitled to the following rights, in accordance with the
laws that regulate their exercise, namely: to work and perform any lawful industry; to navigate and trade;
to petition the authorities; to enter, remain in, travel through, and leave the Argentine territory; to publish
their ideas through the press without prior censorship; to make use and dispose of their property; to associate
for useful purposes; to freely profess their religion; to teach and to learn.

Section 14 bis.- Labor in its several forms shall be protected by law, which shall ensure to workers: dignified
and equitable working conditions; limited working hours; paid rest and vacations; fair remuneration;
adjustable minimum living wages; equal pay for equal work; a share in the profits of enterprises, with
control over production and collaboration in management; protection against arbitrary dismissal; stability
of the civil servant; free and democratic labor union organizations recognized by the mere registration in
a special record.

Trade unions are hereby guaranteed: the right to enter into collective bargaining agreements; to resort to
conciliation and arbitration; the right to strike. Union representatives shall have the guarantees necessary for
carrying out their union tasks and those related to the stability of their employment.

The State shall grant the benefits of social security, which shall be of a comprehensive nature and may not be
waived. In particular, the laws shall establish: compulsory social security, which shall be in charge of national
or Provincial entities with financial and economic autonomy, administered by the interested parties with
State participation, with no overlapping of contributions; adjustable retirements and pensions; full family
protection; protection of family welfare; family allowances and access to decent housing.

Section 15.- In the Argentine Nation there are no slaves: the few who still exist shall become free as from the
swearing of this Constitution; and a special law shall regulate the compensations arising from this declaration.
Any contract for the purchase and sale of persons is a crime for which the parties, as well as the notary or
officer authorizing it, shall be liable. And slaves who by any means are introduced, shall be free by the mere
fact of entering the territory of the Republic.

Section 16.- The Argentine Nation allows neither blood nor birth prerogatives: there are neither personal
privileges nor titles of nobility. All its inhabitants are equal before the law, and admissible for employment
without any other requirement than fitness. Equality is the basis of taxation and public charges.

Section 17.- Property may not be violated, and no inhabitant of the Nation can be deprived thereof except
by virtue of a judgment based on law. Expropriation for reasons of public interest must be authorized by
law and previously compensated. Only Congress levies the taxes mentioned in Section 4. No personal
service can be required except by virtue of a law or sentence based on law. Every author or inventor is
the exclusive owner of his work, invention, or discovery for the term granted by law. The confiscation of
property is hereby abolished forever from the Argentine Penal Code. No armed body may make requisitions
nor demand assistance of any kind.

Section 18.- No inhabitant of the Nation may be punished without previous trial based on a law in
force prior to the offense, nor tried by special committees, nor removed from the judges appointed
by a law in force prior to the offense. Nobody may be compelled to testify against himself, or be
arrested except by virtue of a written warrant issued by a competent authority. The defense at trial
of persons and rights may not be violated. The residence may not be trespassed, nor may the written
correspondence and private papers be violated; and a law shall determine in which cases and for what
reasons the search and seizure shall be allowed. Death penalty for political causes, any kind of tortures
and whipping, are forever abolished . The prisons of the Nation shall be healthful and clean, for the
security and not for the punishment of the prisoners confined therein; and any measure taken with the
pretext of precaution which may lead to mortify them beyond the demands of security, shall render
liable the judge who authorizes it.

Section 19.- The private actions of men which in no way offend public order or morality, nor injure a third
party, are only reserved to God and are exempted from the authority of judges. No inhabitant of the Nation
shall be obliged to perform what the law does not order nor deprived of what it does not forbid.

Section 20.- Foreigners enjoy within the territory of the Nation all the civil rights of citizens; they may
engage in their industry, trade and profession; own, buy and sell real property; navigate the rivers and
coasts; freely practice their religion; make wills and marry under the laws. They are not obligated to accept
citizenship nor to pay extraordinary compulsory taxes. They may obtain naturalization papers by residing
two continuous years in the Nation; but the authorities may shorten this term in favor of those so requesting
it, upon their alleging and proving services to the Republic.

Section 21.- Every Argentine citizen is obligated to bear arms in defense of the Fatherland and of this
Constitution, in accordance with the laws enacted by Congress and the Decrees of the National Executive
Power to this effect. Citizens by naturalization are free to render or not this service for a period of ten years
as from the date they obtain citizenship papers.

Section 22.- The people neither deliberate nor govern except through their representatives and authorities
established by this Constitution. Any armed force or meeting of persons assuming the rights of the people
and petitioning in their name, commits the crime of sedition.

Section 23.- In the event of domestic disorder or foreign attack endangering the full enforcement of this
Constitution and of the authorities hereby established, the Province or territory which is in a turmoil shall
be declared in state of siege and the constitutional guarantees shall be suspended therein. But during such
a suspension the President of the Republic shall not convict or apply penalties upon his own authority. In such case, his power shall be limited, with respect to persons, to their arrest or transfer from one place of the
Nation to another, should they prefer not to leave the Argentine territory.

Section 24.- Congress shall promote the reform of the present legislation in all its forms, and the establishment
of trial by jury.

Section 25.- The Federal Government shall foster European immigration; and may not restrict, limit or
impose on any tax whatsoever, the entry into the Argentine territory of foreigners who arrive for the purpose
of tilling the soil, improving industries, and introducing and teaching arts and sciences.

Section 26.- Navigation of the inland rivers of the Nation is free for all flags, only subject to the regulations
issued by the national authority.

Section 27.- The Federal Government is under the obligation to strengthen its relationships of peace and
trade with foreign powers, by means of treaties in accordance with the principles of public law laid down by
this Constitution.

Section 28.- The principles, guarantees and rights recognized in the preceding sections shall not be modified
by the laws that regulate their enforcement.

Section 29.- Congress may not vest in the National Executive Power – nor may the Provincial legislatures
vest in the Provincial governors – extraordinary powers or the total public authority; it may not grant acts
of submission or supremacy whereby the life, honor, or property of the Argentine people will be at the
mercy of governments or any person whatsoever. Acts of this nature shall be utterly void, and shall render
those who formulate them, consent to them or sign them, liable to be condemned as infamous traitors to
their fatherland.

Section 30.- The Constitution may be totally or partially amended. The need of reform must be declared
by Congress with the vote of at least two-thirds of the members; but it shall not be carried out except by a
Constituent Assembly summoned to that effect.

Section 31.- This Constitution, the laws of the Nation enacted by Congress in pursuance thereof, and treaties
with foreign powers, are the supreme law of the Nation; and the authorities of each Province are bound
thereby, notwithstanding any provision to the contrary included in the Provincial laws or constitutions,
except, in the case of the Province of Buenos Aires, the treaties ratified after the Pact of 11 November 1859.
Section 32.- The Federal Congress shall not enact laws restricting the freedom of the press or establishing
federal jurisdiction over it.
Section 33.- The declarations, rights and guarantees which the Constitution enumerates shall not be
construed as a denial of other rights and guarantees not enumerated therein, but arising from the principle
of sovereignty of the people and from the republican form of government.
Section 34.- The judges of the federal courts cannot at the same time hold an office in the Provincial courts.
The federal service, whether civil or military, shall not grant a right of residence in the Province in which it
is performed unless it is where the employee habitually resides, this provision being understood as pertaining
to the right to choose employments in the Province in which he accidentally happens to be.
Section 35.- The denominations successively adopted since 1810 until the present, namely: “United
Provinces of the River Plate”; “Argentine Republic”; “Argentine Confederation”, shall henceforth be official
names to be indiscriminately used for the designation of the government and territory of the Provinces, the
words “Argentine Nation” being used in the making and enactment of laws.

CHAPTER II
New Rights and Guarantees

Section 36.- This Constitution shall rule even when its observance is interrupted by acts of force against the
institutional order and the democratic system. These acts shall be irreparably null and void.
The perpetrators shall be punished with the penalty foreseen in Section 29, disqualified in perpetuity from
holding public offices and excluded from the benefits of pardon and commutation of sentences.
Those who, as a consequence of these acts, were to assume the powers foreseen for the authorities of this Constitution
or for those of the Provinces, shall be punished with the same penalties and shall be civil and criminally liable for
their acts. The respective actions shall not be subject to extinguishment due to the passage of time.
All citizens shall have the right to oppose resistance to those committing the acts of force stated in this section.
He who, procuring personal enrichment, incurs in serious fraudulent offense against the Nation shall also
commit a crime against the democratic system, and shall be disqualified to hold public office for the term
specified by law.
Congress shall enact a law on public ethics which shall rule the exercise of public office.
Section 37.- This Constitution guarantees the full exercise of political rights, in accordance with the
principle of popular sovereignty and with the laws derived therefrom. Suffrage shall be universal, equal,
secret and mandatory.
True equality of opportunities for men and women to elective and party offices shall be guaranteed by means
of positive actions in the regulation of political parties and in the electoral system.

Section 38.- Political parties are basic institutions of the democratic system.
This Constitution guarantees the free establishment and exercise of their activities, as well as their democratic
organization and performance, the representation of minority groups, their power to nominate candidates
for elective public offices, access to public information and communication of their ideas.
The State shall contribute to the economic support of their activities and the training of their leaders.
Political parties shall make public the source and destination of their funds and assets.
Section 39.- Citizens shall have the right to introduce bills before the House of Deputies. Congress shall
consider them within the term of twelve months.
Congress shall enact, with the vote of the absolute majority of all the members of each House, a regulatory
law that cannot require more than three per cent of the national voters register, which shall be consistent
with an adequate territorial distribution in order to endorse the initiative.
Bills referring to constitutional reform, international treaties, taxation, budget, and criminal legislation shall
not be subject to popular initiatives.

Section 40.- At the initiative of the House of Deputies, Congress may submit a bill to a referendum. The
law calling said referendum shall not be vetoed. With the affirmative vote of the people of the Nation, the
bill shall become a law and its promulgation shall be automatic.
Congress or the President of the Nation, according to their respective powers, may call a non-binding
referendum. In this case voting shall not be mandatory.
With the vote of the absolute majority of all the members of each House, Congress shall regulate the
subjects, procedures and occasion for the referendum.
Section 41.- All inhabitants are entitled to a healthful and balanced environment fit for human development
in order that productive activities shall meet present needs without endangering those of future generations;
and shall have the duty to preserve it. As a first priority, environmental damage shall bring about the
obligation to repair it according to law.
The authorities shall provide for the protection of this right, the rational use of natural resources, the
preservation of the natural and cultural heritage and of the biological diversity, and shall also provide for
environmental information and education.
The Nation shall regulate the minimum protection standards, and the Provinces those necessary to
complement them, without altering their local jurisdictions.
The entry into the national territory of present or potential hazardous wastes and of radioactive materials,
is forbidden.

Section 42.- As regards consumption, consumers and users of goods and services have the right to the
protection of their health, safety, and economic interests; to adequate and truthful information; to freedom
of choice, and to equitable and respectful treatment.
The authorities shall provide for the protection of the said rights, the consumer education, the defense of
competitiveness against any kind of market distortions, the control of natural and legal monopolies, the
quality and efficiency of public utilities, and the creation of consumer and user associations.
Legislation shall establish efficient procedures for conflict prevention and settlement, as well as the regulatory
framework for national public utilities, taking into account the necessary participation of consumer and user
associations and of the interested Provinces in the controlling entities.

Section 43.- Any person shall file a prompt and swift action of “amparo”, provided there is no other legal
remedy, against any act or omission of the public authorities or private individuals which currently or
imminently may damage, limit, modify or threaten rights and guarantees recognized by this Constitution,
by a treaty or by a law, with open arbitrariness or illegality. In such a case, the judge may declare that the act
or omission is based on an unconstitutional rule.
This action against any form of discrimination and about rights protecting the environment, competitiveness,
users and consumers, as well as about rights of general public interest, shall be filed by the damaged party,
the ombudsman and the associations which support such ends registered according to a law determining
their requirements and organization.
Any person shall file this action to obtain information on the data about himself and their purpose, registered
in public records or data bases, or in private ones intended to supply information; and in case of false data or
discrimination, this action may be filed to request the suppression, rectification, confidentiality or updating
of the said data. The secret nature of journalist sources shall not be impaired.
When the right damaged, limited, modified, or threatened affects physical freedom, or in case of an illegal
worsening of procedures or conditions of detention, or of forced disappearance of persons, the writ of
habeas corpus shall be filed by the party concerned or by any other person on his behalf, and the judge shall
immediately make a decision even under state of siege.

PART II

AUTHORITIES OF THE NATION
TITLE I
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

FIRST DIVISION

Legislative Power

Section 44.- The Legislative Power of the Nation shall be vested in a Congress composed of two Houses, one
of Deputies of the Nation and the other of Senators from the Provinces and from the City of Buenos Aires.

CHAPTER I
The House of Deputies

Section 45.- The House of Deputies shall be composed of representatives directly elected by the people
of the Provinces, of the City of Buenos Aires, and of the Capital City in case of its moving, which for this
purpose are considered as constituencies of a single state, and by simple plurality of votes. The number of
representatives shall be one for every thirty-three thousand inhabitants or fraction not under sixteen thousand
five hundred inhabitants. After each census, Congress shall establish the representation in accordance with
the same, being empowered to increase but not to decrease the basis indicated for each deputy.

Section 46.- The deputies for the first legislative session shall be appointed in the following proportion: for
the Province of Buenos Aires, twelve; for Córdoba, six; for Catamarca, three; for Corrientes, four; for Entre
Ríos, two; for Jujuy, two; for Mendoza, three; for La Rioja, two; for Salta, three; for Santiago, four; for San
Juan, two; for Santa Fe, two; for San Luis, two; and for Tucumán, three.

Section 47.- For the second legislative session a general census shall be carried out and the number of
deputies shall be arranged according thereto; but this census shall only be renewed every ten years.

Section 48.- In order to be a deputy it is necessary to have attained to the age of 25 years; to have been
four years a fully qualified citizen; and to be a native of the Province electing him or to have two years of
immediate residence therein.

Section 49.- On this occasion, the Legislatures of the Provinces shall regulate the means to hold the direct
election of the deputies of the Nation; in the future, Congress shall enact a general law.

Section 50.- Deputies shall hold office for a term of four years and may be re-elected; but the House shall be
renewed by halves every two years; for this purpose those elected for the first legislative session, after meeting,
shall draw lots to decide which seats shall be vacated after the first period.

Section 51.- In case of vacancy, the Government of the Province or of the Capital City shall proceed to call
a legal election for a new member.

Section 52.- All bills for raising revenue and for the recruitment of troops shall exclusively originate in the
House of Deputies.

Section 53.- Only the House of Deputies has the power to impeach the President, the Vice President, the
Cabinet Chief, the Ministers, and the Justices of the Supreme Court before the Senate, in such cases of
responsibility as are brought against them for misconduct or crimes committed in the fulfillment of their
duties; or for ordinary crimes, after the House is informed about them and after the decision to bring an
action is voted by a majority of two-thirds of its members present.

CHAPTER II

The Senate

Section 54.- The Senate shall be composed of three senators from each Province, and three from the City of
Buenos Aires, who shall be jointly and directly elected, corresponding two seats to the most voted political
party, and the other seat to the political party following in number of votes. Each senator shall have one vote.
Section 55.- In order to be elected senator the following conditions are required: to have attained to the age
of thirty, to have been six years a citizen of the Nation, to have an annual income of two thousand Pesos
Fuertes or similar revenues, and to be a native of the Province electing him or to have two years of immediate
residence therein.

Section 56.- Senators shall hold office for a term of six years and may be indefinitely reelected; but the
Senate shall be renewed by one-third of the constituencies every two years.

Section 57.- The Vice President of the Nation shall be the President of the Senate; but he shall have no vote
unless they be equally divided.

Section 58.- The Senate shall appoint a President pro tempore to preside it in case of absence of the Vice
President, or when he exercises the office of President of the Nation.

Section 59.- The Senate shall have the sole power to judge in public trial those impeached by the House of
Deputies, and its members must be on oath when sitting for this purpose. When the President of the Nation
is tried, the Senate shall be presided by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. No person shall be declared
guilty without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.

Section 60.- The judgment shall not extend further than to remove the accused person from office, and
to disqualify him to hold any office of honor, trust, or profit in the Nation. But the convicted party shall
nevertheless be subject to accusation, trial, and punishment according to law before the ordinary courts.

Section 61.- In case of foreign attack, the Senate is also empowered to authorize the President of the Nation
to declare in state of siege one or several places of the Republic.

Section 62.- When any vacancy occurs in the Senate because of death, resignation or other cause, the
government to which the vacancy belongs shall immediately call an election for a new member.

CHAPTER III
Provisions applicable to both Houses

Section 63.- Both Houses shall assemble, on their own account, every year in ordinary legislative session
from March 1 until November 30. The President of the Nation may convene extraordinary legislative
session or extend the ordinary one.

Section 64.- Each House shall be the judge of the elections, rights and qualifications of its members, as
regards their validity. Neither of them shall meet without the absolute majority of its members; but a smaller
number may compel the absent members to attend the meetings, in the terms and under the penalties as
each House may provide.

Section 65.- Both Houses begin and conclude their legislative session simultaneously. Neither of them,
while they sit, shall adjourn its meetings for more than three days without the consent of the other.

Section 66.- Each House shall make its rules of proceedings, and with the concurrence of two-thirds may correct
any one of its members for disorderly behavior in the exercise of his duties, or can remove him on account of
physical or moral disability occurring after his admission, and may even expel him from the body; but a majority
of one more than the half of those present shall be enough to decide on voluntary resignations from office.

Section 67.- Senators and deputies, on assuming office, shall take an oath to duly perform their duties and
to act in all matters in accordance with the provisions herein established.

Section 68.- No member of Congress shall be accused, judicially examined, or disturbed for opinions
expressed or speeches delivered by him while holding office as legislator.

Section 69.- No senator or deputy shall be arrested as from the day of his election until the expiration of his
term, except when flagrantly surprised committing a crime deserving capital punishment or other infamous or
serious punishment, in which case a summary report of the facts shall be submitted to the corresponding House.

Section 70.- When a written complaint is filed before the ordinary courts against any senator or deputy,
once examined if there is enough evidence in a public trial, each House may, with the concurrence of
two-thirds of the votes, suspend the accused party from his office and place him under the jurisdiction of
the competent court to be judged.

Section 71.- Either House shall summon the Ministers of the Executive Power to receive such explanations
or reports as it may deem necessary.

Section 72.- No member of Congress shall be appointed to any civil office or commission under the
Executive Power, without the previous consent of the respective House, except for employments subject
to promotions.

Section 73.- Neither the regular members of the clergy nor the governors in representation of their own
Provinces, may be members of Congress.

Section 74.- The senators and deputies shall receive a remuneration for their services, to be ascertained by
law, and paid out of the Treasury of the Nation.

CHAPTER IV
Powers of Congress

Section 75.- Congress is empowered:

1.- To legislate about national Customs. To lay import and export duties that shall be
uniform throughout the Nation as well as the valuations on which they are assessed.
2.- To levy indirect taxes as a power concurrent with the Provinces. To levy direct
taxes for a specified term and proportionally equal throughout the national territory,
provided that the defense, common security and general welfare of the State so require
it. The taxes under this subsection are shared with the provinces, except for those which,
in part or in all, have specific allocation.
An agreement-law based on understandings between the Nation and the Provinces shall
establish a tax-sharing deal, guaranteeing the automatic remittance of funds.
The distribution among the Nation, the Provinces and the City of Buenos Aires, and
among themselves, shall be carried out in direct relation to the jurisdictions, services
and functions of each one of them taking into account objective sharing criteria; it shall
be based on principles of equality and solidarity giving priority to the achievement of a
similar degree of development, of living standards and equal opportunities throughout
the national territory.
The agreement-law shall originate in the Senate and shall be enacted with the absolute
majority of all the members of each House; it shall be neither unilaterally amended nor
regulated, and shall be approved by the Provinces.
There shall be no transfer of jurisdictions, services or functions without the corresponding
reallocation of funds approved by a law of Congress, when appropriate, and by the
interested Province or the City of Buenos Aires, as the case may be.
A Federal tax agency shall be in charge of the control and monitoring of what is laid
down in this subsection, according to the law which shall guarantee the representation
of all the Provinces and of the City of Buenos Aires as regards its composition.
3.- To set and modify specific allocations from the tax-sharing deal, for a specified term,
by a special law enacted with the absolute majority of all the members of each House.
4.- To borrow money on the credit of the Nation.
5.- To decide about the use and sale of national lands.
6.- To establish and regulate a Federal bank with power to coin money, as well as other
national banks.
7.- To settle the payment of the domestic and foreign debt of the Nation.
8.- To fix annually, according to the standards laid down in the third paragraph of
subsection 2 of this Section, the general budget of expenses and the estimate of resources
of the National Administration, based on the general program of the government and
on the public investment plan, and to approve or reject the investment account.
9.- To grant subsidies from the National Treasury to those Provinces the incomes of
which, according to their budgets, do not cover their ordinary expenses.
10.- To regulate the free navigation of inland rivers, to authorize the operation of such
ports as it shall consider necessary, and to create or close Customs offices.
11.- To coin money, to regulate the value thereof and that of foreign currency; and to
adopt a uniform standard of weights and measures for the whole Nation.
12.- To enact the Civil, Commercial, Penal, Mining, Labor and Social Security Codes,
in unified or separate bodies, provided that such codes do not alter local jurisdictions,
and their enforcement shall correspond to the Federal or Provincial courts depending
on the respective jurisdictions for persons or things; and particularly to enact general
laws of naturalization and nationality for the whole nation, based on the principle
of nationality by birth or by option for the benefit of Argentina; as well as laws on
bankruptcy, counterfeiting of currency and public documents of the State, and those
laws that may be required to establish trial by jury.
13.- To regulate trade with foreign nations and among the Provinces.
14.- To regulate and establish the general Postal Service of the Nation.
15.- To settle definitely the boundaries of the national territory, to fix those of the
Provinces, to create new ones, and to determine, by special legislation, the organization,
administration and government that the national territories outside the boundaries
assigned to the Provinces are to have.
16.- To provide for the security of the frontiers.
17.- To recognize the ethnic and cultural pre-existence of indigenous people of Argentina.
To guarantee respect for the identity and the right to bilingual and intercultural
education; to recognize the legal status of their communities, and the possession
and community ownership of the lands they traditionally occupied; and to regulate
the granting of other lands adequate and sufficient for human development; none of them shall be sold, conveyed or subject to liens or attachments. To guarantee their
participation in issues related to their natural resources and in other interests affecting
them, the Provinces may jointly exercise these powers.
18.- To provide for the prosperity of the country, for the development and welfare of
all the Provinces, and for the progress of education, drawing up general and university
curricula, and promoting industry, immigration, the construction of railroads and
navigable canals, the settlement of government-owned lands, the introduction and
establishment of new industries, the import of foreign capital, and the exploration of
inland rivers, through laws protecting these goals and through temporary grants of
privileges and incentive rewards.
19.- To provide for everything relevant to human development, to economic progress
with social justice, to the growth of the national economy, to employment creation, to the
professional training of workers, to the protection of the currency value, to the scientific and
technological research and development, including its dissemination and beneficial use.
To provide for the harmonious growth of the Nation and the settlement of its territory;
to promote differential policies that lead to balancing the irregular development of
Provinces and regions. These initiatives shall originate in the Senate.
To enact laws about the organization of and basis for education which consolidate
National unity, paying respect to Provincial and local characteristics: which ensure
the undelegable responsibility of the State, the participation of family and society,
the promotion of democratic values and equality of opportunities and possibilities
with no discrimination whatsoever; and which guarantee the principles of free and
equitable public education by the State as well as the autonomy and self-sufficiency
of National universities.
To enact laws protecting the cultural identity and pluralism, the free creation and
circulation of artistic works of authors, the artistic heritage and places devoted to cultural
and audiovisual activities.
20.- To establish courts inferior to the Supreme Court; to create and eliminate offices, to
fix the duties thereof, to grant pensions, to decree honors and to grant general amnesties.
21.- To accept or reject the reasons for the resignation of the President or Vice President
of the Republic, and to declare the need to call a new election when required.
22.- To approve or reject treaties entered into with other nations and international
organizations, and concordats with the Holy See. Treaties and concordats have a higher
standing than laws.
The following instruments, in the full force of their provisions, have constitutional
standing, do no repeal any section of the First Part of this Constitution and are to
be understood as complementary of the rights and guarantees recognized therein: the
American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man; the Universal Declaration
of Human Rights; the American Convention on Human Rights; the International
Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; the International Covenant on
Civil and Political Rights and its Optional Protocol; the Convention on the Prevention
and Punishment of Genocide; the International Convention on the Elimination of
all Forms of Racial Discrimination; the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms
of Discrimination against Women; the Convention against Torture and other Cruel,
Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; the Convention on the Rights of the
Child. They shall only be denounced, in such event, by the National Executive Power
after the approval of two-thirds of all the members of each House.
After their approval by Congress, the other treaties and conventions on human rights
shall require the vote of two-thirds of all the members of each House in order to attain
constitutional standing.

23.- To legislate and promote positive measures guaranteeing true equality of
opportunities and treatment, the full enjoyment and exercise of the rights recognized by
this Constitution and by the international treaties on human rights in force, particularly
referring to children, women, the elderly, and disabled persons.

To enact a special and integral social security system to protect abandoned children,
from pregnancy up to the end of elementary education, and to protect the mother
during pregnancy and nursing.

24.- To approve treaties of integration which delegate powers and jurisdiction to
supranational organizations under conditions of reciprocity and equality, and which
respect the democratic order and human rights. The rules derived therefrom have a
higher standing than laws.
The approval of these treaties with Latin American States shall require the absolute
majority of all the members of each House. In the case of treaties with other States, the
National Congress, with the absolute majority of the members present in each House,
shall declare the advisability of the approval of the treaty which shall only be approved
with the vote of the absolute majority of all the members of each House, one hundred
and twenty days after the declaratory act.
The denunciation of the treaties referred to in this subsection shall require the prior
approval of the absolute majority of all the members of each House.
25.- To authorize the Executive Power to declare war or make peace.
26.- To empower the Executive Power to order reprisals and to make rules concerning
the booty.
27.- To establish the Armed Forces in times of peace and war; and to make rules for
their organization and government.
28.- To authorize the entry of foreign troops into the territory of the Nation and to
allow national troops to leave the country.
29.- To declare in state of siege one or several parts of the Nation in case of domestic
disturbance, and to approve or suspend the state of siege declared by the Executive
Power during its recess.
30.- To exercise exclusive legislation over the territory of the Capital City of the Nation
and to enact the legislation necessary for the achievement of the specific goals of premises
of national interest in the territory of the Republic. Provincial and municipal authorities
shall hold power to levy taxes and power of police over these premises, insofar as they do
not interfere with the achievement of those goals.
31.- To order the federal intervention of a Province or of the City of Buenos Aires.
To approve or revoke the intervention decreed by the Executive Power during the recess
of Congress.
32.- To enact all laws and rules necessary to put into effect the aforementioned powers, and
all other powers granted by this Constitution to the Government of the Argentine Nation.
Section 76.- The legislative powers shall not be delegated to the Executive Power save for issues concerning
administration and public emergency, with a specified term for their exercise and according to the delegating
conditions established by Congress.
The expiration of the term foreseen in the previous paragraph shall not imply the revision of the legal
relationships emerging from the rules issued as a result of the powers delegated by Congress.

CHAPTER V
Drafting and Enactment of Laws

Section 77.- Laws shall originate in either House of Congress, through bills introduced by their members or
by the Executive Power, save for the exceptions established in this Constitution.

Section 78.- When a bill is passed by the House in which it originated, it is sent to the other House for its
debate. Once approved by both, it is sent to the Executive Power of the Nation for its examination; and if it
is also approved, it shall become a law.

Section 79.- After the general approval of a bill, each House is empowered to delegate to its committees
the detailed approval of the said bill with the absolute majority vote of its members. With equal number of
votes, the House may revoke the powers delegated and return to the ordinary procedure. The committee
approval shall require the vote of the absolute majority of all its members. Once the bill is approved by the
committee, the ordinary procedures shall be followed.
Section 80.- Any bill not returned within ten working days is to be considered approved by the Executive
Power. When a bill is partially rejected, the remaining part shall not be approved. However, non-vetoed
parts may only be promulgated if they have normative autonomy and if their partial approval does not alter
the spirit or the unity of the bill approved by Congress. In this case, the procedure foreseen for emergency
decrees shall be applicable.

Section 81.- No bill wholly rejected by either House shall be reintroduced in the legislative session of the
same year. No House shall totally reject a bill originated in it and later added or amended by the revising
House. If the bill were subject to additions and amendments by the revising House, the result of the voting
shall be made known in order to state if such additions or amendments were made by the absolute majority
or by two-thirds of the members present. With the absolute majority of its members present, the originating
House shall approve the bill with the additions or amendments made or insist on the original text, unless
the additions or amendments were made by the revising House with two-thirds of those members present.
In such a case, the bill shall be sent to the Executive Power with the additions or amendments of the revising
House, unless the originating House were to insist on the original text with the vote of two-thirds of the
members present. The originating House shall not include new additions or amendments to those already
made by the revising House.

Section 82.- The will of each House shall be expressly stated; the tacit or fictitious approval is excluded in all cases.

Section 83.- If a bill is totally or partially rejected by the Executive Power, it shall return with the objections
to the originating House; the latter shall reconsider it and if it is confirmed by a majority of two-thirds of
the votes, it shall be sent again to the revising House. If both Houses approve it by such majority, the bill
becomes a law and is sent to the Executive Power for promulgation. In all such cases the voting in both
Houses shall be by roll call, by yeas and nays; and both the names and grounds of the voters, as well as the
objections of the Executive Power shall be immediately published by the press. If the Houses differ as to the
objections, the bill cannot be reintroduced in the legislative session of that year.
Section 84.- In the enactment of laws the following formula shall be used: The Senate and House of Deputies
of the Argentine Nation, in Congress assembled, decree or enact as law.

CHAPTER VI
National Audit Office

Section 85.- The Legislative Power is exclusively empowered to exercise the external control of the national
civil service as regards its estate and its economic, financial and operative aspects.
The revision and opinion of the Legislative Power about the performance and the general situation of the
National Civil Service are to be based on the reports of the National Audit Office.

This technical advisory agency of Congress with operational autonomy, shall be made up as established by the
law regulating its creation and functions, which shall be approved by the absolute majority of the members
of each House. The chairman of the agency shall be appointed under the proposal of the opposition political
party with the greatest number of legislators in Congress.

It shall be in charge of the control of the legal aspects, management and auditing of all the activities of
the centralized and decentralized civil service, whatever its forms of organization may be, as well as of
other powers granted by law. It must take part in the approval or rejection of the revenue and investment
accounts of public funds.

CHAPTER VII
The Ombudsman

Section 86.- The Ombudsman is an independent entity created within the sphere of the National Congress
operating with full autonomy and without receiving instructions from any authority. The mission of the
Ombudsman is the defense and protection of human rights and other rights, guarantees and interests
sheltered under this Constitution and the laws, against deeds, acts or omissions of the Administration; as
well as the control of public administrative functions.
The Ombudsman has legal standing. He is appointed and removed by Congress with the vote of two-thirds
of the members present in each House. He enjoys the immunities and privileges of legislators. He shall hold
office for the term of five years and may be reappointed only once.
The organization and operation of this entity shall be ruled by a special law.

SECOND DIVISION
Executive Power

CHAPTER I
Its nature and duration

Section 87.- The Executive Power of the Nation shall be vested in a citizen with the title of “President of
the Argentine Nation”.
Section 88.- In case of illness, absence from the Capital City, death, resignation, or removal of the President
from office, the Executive Power shall devolve upon the Vice President of the Nation. In case of removal,
death, resignation, or inability of the President and the Vice President of the Nation, Congress shall
determine the public officer who shall exercise the Presidency until the grounds of inability be removed or
a new President shall be elected.

Section 89.- To be elected President or Vice President of the Nation it is necessary to have been born in
the Argentine territory, or to be the son of a native born citizen if born in a foreign country; and to have the
other qualifications required to be elected senator.

Section 90.- The President and Vice President shall hold their offices for the term of four years; and they may
be re-elected or may succeed each other for only one consecutive term. If they have been re-elected or they have
succeeded each other, they cannot be elected for either of these two positions but with the interval of one term.

Section 91.- The President of the Nation shall cease to hold office the same day of the expiration of his fouryears term; and no interruption shall constitute grounds for completing the term afterwards.

Section 92.- The President and Vice President receive a remuneration paid out of the Treasury of the
Nation, which shall not be altered during their term of office. During this same period they shall neither
hold any other office nor receive any other emolument from the Nation or from any Province whatsoever.
Section 93.- On assuming office, the President and Vice President shall take the following oath before the
President of the Senate and before Congress assembled, respecting their religious beliefs: “to perform with
loyalty and patriotism the office of President (or Vice President) of the Nation and to faithfully observe, and
cause to be observed, the Constitution of the Argentine Nation.

CHAPTER II
Procedure and time of the election of President and Vice President of the Nation

Section 94.- The President and Vice President of the Nation shall be directly elected by the people, by second
ballot, according to this Constitution. To this end, the national territory shall be a single constituency.

Section 95.- The election shall be held within the two months previous to the expiration of the term of the
President in office.

Section 96.- The second ballot, when appropriate, shall be held between the two most voted candidates,
within thirty days of the previous election.

Section 97.- If in the first ballot the most voted candidate obtains more than forty-five per cent of the affirmative
votes validly cast, he and his running mate shall be proclaimed President and Vice President of the Nation.

Section 98.- If in the first ballot the most voted candidate obtains at least forty per cent of the affirmative
votes validly cast, and there is a difference of more than ten per cent regarding all the affirmative votes validly
cast for the candidate following in number of votes, he and his running mate shall be proclaimed President
and Vice President of the Nation.

CHAPTER III
Powers of the Executive

Section 99.- The President of the Nation has the following powers:
1. He is the supreme head of the Nation, head of the government and he is politically
responsible for the general administration of the country.
2. He issues the instructions and rules necessary for the enforcement of the laws of the
nation, without altering their spirit with regulatory exceptions.
3. He takes part in the making of laws according to the Constitution, promulgates them
and makes them published.
The Executive Power shall in no event issue provisions of legislative nature, in which
case they shall be absolutely and irreparably null and void.
Only when due to exceptional circumstances the ordinary procedures foreseen by this
Constitution for the enactment of laws are impossible to be followed, and when rules
are not referred to criminal issues, taxation, electoral matters, or the system of political
parties, he shall issue decrees on grounds of necessity and urgency, which shall be
decided by a general agreement of ministers who shall countersign them together with
the Cabinet Chief.
Within the term of ten days, the Cabinet Chief shall personally submit the decision to the
consideration of the Joint Standing Committee of Congress, which shall be composed of
according to the proportion of the political representation of the parties in each House.
Within the term of ten days, this committee shall submit its report to the plenary meeting
of each House for its specific consideration and it shall be immediately discussed by both
Houses. A special law enacted with the absolute majority of all the members of each
House shall regulate the procedure and scope of Congress participation.
4. He appoints the Justices of the Supreme Court with the consent of the Senate by
two-thirds of its members present, in a public meeting summoned to this end.
He appoints the other judges of the lower federal courts according to a binding
proposal consisting of a list of three candidates submitted by the Judicial Council,
with the consent of the Senate in a public meeting, which shall take into account the
qualifications of the candidates.
16
Once they have attained to the age of seventy five years, a new appointment, with the
same consent, shall be necessary so that they may continue in office. Judges of that
age or older shall be appointed for five years, and may be indefinitely re-appointed by
this same procedure.
5. He may grant pardons or commute punishments for crimes subject to federal
jurisdiction, after the report of the corresponding court, except in cases of impeachment
by the House of Deputies.
6. He may grant pensions, retirements, leaves of absence, and widowed pensions
according to the laws of the Nation.
7. He appoints and removes ambassadors, ministers plenipotentiary and commercial
attaches with the consent of the Senate; on his own account, he appoints and
removes the Cabinet Chief and the Ministers, the officers of his Secretariat, consular
agents, and other employees whose appointments are not otherwise regulated by
this Constitution.
8. He annually performs the opening of the legislative session of Congress, both Houses
being assembled for this purpose, reporting on this occasion on the state of the Nation,
on amendments promised by the Constitution, and recommending for consideration
the measures he deems necessary and advisable.
9. He extends the ordinary legislative session of Congress, or convokes to an extraordinary
one when some serious order or progress interest so requires it.
10. He oversees the performance of the duties of the Cabinet Chief as regards the
collection of the revenues of the Nation, and their investment according to the law or
budget of national expenditures.
11. He concludes and signs treaties, concordats and other agreements required for the
maintenance of good relations with international organizations and foreign powers, he
receives their ministers and admits their consuls.
12. He is commander-in-chief of all the Armed Forces of the Nation.
13. He appoints the military personnel of the Nation: with the consent of the Senate,
he grants positions or ranks for the higher officers of the Armed Forces; and on his own
account, he has the same faculties in the battlefield.
14. He has the control of the Armed Forces and is in charge of their organization and
distribution, according to the needs of the Nation.
15. He declares war and orders reprisals with the consent and approval of Congress.
16. In the event of foreign attack, he declares in state of siege one or more places
of the Nation, with the consent of the Senate and for a limited period. In the event
of domestic disorder, he has this power only when Congress is in recess, since this
is a power pertaining to this body. The President exercises it under the limitations
prescribed in Section 23.
17. He may request whatever information he may consider appropriate from the Cabinet
Chief and from the heads of all branches and departments of the Administration,
and through them, from other employees, and they are compelled to supply such
information.
18. He may leave the territory of the Nation with the consent of Congress. During
the recess of the latter, he may only do so without permission on justified grounds of
public interest.
19. He is empowered to fill vacancies requiring the consent of the Senate and occurring
during its recess, by means of temporary appointments expiring at the end of the next
legislative session.
20. He decrees the federal intervention of a Province or of the City of Buenos Aires in
the event of the recess of Congress, and simultaneously he must summon the latter to
consider such intervention.

CHAPTER IV
The Cabinet Chief and other Ministers of the Executive Power

Section 100.- The Cabinet Chief and the other secretary ministers, whose number and powers shall be
determined by a special law, shall be in charge of the business of the Nation and shall countersign and
legalize the acts of the President with their signatures, without which said acts are void.
The Cabinet Chief, politically responsible before the National Congress, is empowered:
1.- To exercise the general administration of the country.
2.- To perform the acts and issue the rules necessary to exercise the powers granted by
this section as well as those delegated by the President of the Nation, and countersigned
by the pertinent secretary minister to which the act or rule refers.
3.- To appoint the employees of the Administration, except for those pertaining to
the President.
4.- To exercise the functions and powers delegated to him by the President of the Nation
and, with the consent of the Cabinet, to decide about matters that the Executive Power
may indicate to him or, on his own account, about those he deems it necessary due to
their importance, within the scope of his jurisdiction.
5.- To coordinate, prepare and summon the meetings of the ministerial cabinet,
presiding at them in the absence of the President.
6.- To submit to Congress the bills on Ministries and National Budget, with the prior
consent of the Cabinet and the approval of the Executive Power.
7.- To have the revenues of the Nation collected and to enforce the National Budget Act.
8.- To countersign regulatory decrees of the laws, decrees to extend the ordinary
legislative session of Congress or to convene to an extraordinary one, and the messages
of the President supporting legislative initiatives.
9.- To attend the meetings of Congress and take part in its debates, but not to vote.
10.- Once the ordinary legislative session of Congress has begun, to submit together with
the other ministers a detailed report on the state of the Nation regarding the business of
the respective departments.
11.- To give such oral and written reports and explanations that either of the Houses
may request from the Executive Power.
12.- To countersign decrees about powers delegated by Congress, which shall be under
the control of the Joint Standing Committee.
13.- To countersign, together with the other ministers, emergency decrees and decrees
on partial promulgation of laws. Within ten days of their approval, he shall personally
submit these decrees to the consideration of the Joint Standing Committee.
The Cabinet Chief shall not be simultaneously appointed to another ministry.
Section 101.- The Cabinet Chief shall attend Congress at least once a month, alternating between each
House, to report on the progress of the government, notwithstanding the provisions of Section 71. He
may be submitted to questions for the purpose of considering a vote of censure, by the vote of the absolute
majority of all the members of either House, and he may be removed by the vote of the absolute majority
of the members of each House.

Section 102.- Each minister shall be responsible for the acts he legalizes; and shall be jointly responsible for
those he agrees on with his colleagues.

Section 103.- Ministers shall in no case adopt resolutions on their own account, except in relation to matters
concerning the economic and administrative affairs of their respective departments.
Section 104.- After the opening of the legislative session, the ministers of the Cabinet shall submit to Congress
a detailed report on the state of the Nation regarding the business of their respective departments.

Section 105.- The ministers shall be neither senators nor deputies without resigning their offices as ministers.

Section 106.- Ministers may attend the meetings of Congress and take part in its debates, but shall not vote.

Section 107.- They shall receive for their services a remuneration established by law, which shall neither be
increased nor diminished in favor or to the detriment of the incumbents.

THIRD DIVISION
The Judicial Power

CHAPTER I
Its nature and duration

Section 108.- The Judicial Power of the Nation shall be vested in a Supreme Court and in such lower courts
as Congress may establish in the territory of the Nation.
Section 109.- In no case may the President of the Nation exercise judicial functions, assume jurisdiction
over pending cases, or reopen those already decided.
Section 110.- The Justices of the Supreme Court and the judges of the lower courts of the Nation shall hold
their offices during good behavior, and shall receive for their services a compensation to be ascertained by
law and which shall not be diminished in any way while holding office.
Section 111.- To be a member of the Supreme Court it is necessary to be a lawyer of the Nation, with eight
years of practice, and to have the same qualifications required to be a Senator.
Section 112.- On occasion of the first installation of the Supreme Court, the persons appointed shall take
an oath before the President of the Nation, to perform their duties, to administer justice in a proper and
faithful manner, and in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution. In the future, they shall take the
oath before the Chief Justice of the Court.
Section 113.- The Supreme Court shall issue its own internal regulations, and appoint its employees.
Section 114.- The Judicial Council, ruled by a special law enacted by the absolute majority of all the members of
each House, shall be in charge of the selection of the judges and of the administration of the Judicial Power.
The Council shall be periodically constituted so as to achieve the equilibrium among the representation
of the popularly elected political bodies, judges of all instances, and attorneys with federal license . It shall
likewise be composed of such other persons from the academic and scientific fields as indicated by law in
number and form.
It is empowered:
1.- To appoint the candidates to the lower courts by merit selection.
2.- To issue proposals in binding lists of three candidates for the appointment of judges
of the lower courts.
3.- To be in charge of the resources and to execute the budget assigned by law to the
administration of justice.
4.-To apply disciplinary measures to judges.
5.- To decide the opening of the proceedings for the removal of judges, in such a case to
order their suspension and to make the pertinent charges.
6.- To issue the rules about the judicial organization and all those necessary to ensure
the independence of judges and efficient judicial services.
Section 115.- The judges of the lower courts of the Nation shall be removed on the grounds stated in
Section 53, by a trial jury composed of legislators, judges, and attorneys with federal license.
The decision, which cannot be appealed, shall have no other effect than the removal of the accused party.
But the convicted party shall nevertheless be subject to accusation, trial, and punishment according to law
before the ordinary courts.
If no judgment was rendered after the term of one hundred and eighty days since the opening of the
proceedings for removal, said proceedings are to be filed and, in that event, the suspended judge shall
be reinstated.
The composition and procedure of this jury shall be stated in the special law mentioned in Section 114.

CHAPTER II
Powers of the Judiciary

Section 116.- The Supreme Court and the lower courts of the Nation are empowered to hear and decide all
cases arising under the Constitution and the laws of the Nation, except as provided in Section 75, subsection
12, and under the treaties made with foreign nations; all cases concerning ambassadors, public ministers and
foreign consuls; cases related to admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; matters in which the Nation shall be a
party; actions arising between two or more Provinces, between one Province and the inhabitants of another
Province, between the inhabitants of different Provinces, and between one Province or the inhabitants
thereof against a foreign state or citizen.

Section 117.- In the aforementioned cases the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, with such
regulations and exceptions as Congress may prescribe; but in all matters concerning foreign ambassadors,
ministers and consuls, and in those in which a Province shall be a party, the Court shall have original and
exclusive jurisdiction.

Section 118.- The trial of all ordinary criminal cases not arising from the right to impeach granted to the House
of Deputies, shall be decided by jury once this institution is established in the Nation. The trial shall be held
in the Province where the crime has been committed; but when committed outside the territory of the Nation
against public international law, the trial shall be held at such place as Congress may determine by a special law.

Section 119.- Treason against the Nation shall only consist in bearing arms against it, or in joining its
enemies, supplying them with aid and assistance. Congress shall by a special law determine the punishment
for this crime; but the penalty shall not extend beyond the person of the convicted, nor shall this dishonor
be transmitted to his relatives of any degree.

FOURTH DIVISION
Public Ministry

Section 120.- The Public Ministry is an independent body with functional autonomy and financial selfsufficiency, with the function of promoting the participation of justice for the defense of lawfulness and of
the general interests of society, in coordination with the other authorities of the Republic.
It is composed of an Attorney General of the Nation and a National Public Defender, and such other
members as the law may establish.
Its members enjoy functional immunities and undiminished remunerations.

TITLE II
Provincial Governments

Section 121.- The Provinces preserve to themselves all the powers not delegated to the Federal
Government by this Constitution, as well as those expressly reserved to themselves by special pacts at
the time of their incorporation.
Section 122.- They determine their own local institutions and are governed by them. They elect their
governors, legislators, and other Provincial officials, without intervention of the federal government.
Section 123.- Each Province enacts its own Constitution as stated in Section 5, ensuring municipal autonomy
and regulating its scope and content regarding the institutional, political, administrative, economic and
financial aspects.
Section 124.- – With the knowledge of the National Congress, the Provinces are empowered to set up
regions for the economic and social development and to establish entities for the fulfillment of their purposes,
and they are also empowered to enter into international agreements provided they are consistent with the
national foreign policy and do not affect the powers delegated to the Federal Government or the public
credit of the Nation. The City of Buenos Aires shall have a system which is to be established to that effect.
The Provinces have original ownership over the natural resources existing in their territory
Section 125.- With the knowledge of the Federal Congress, the Provinces may enter into partial treaties for
purposes of administration of justice, economic interests, and works of common benefit; and may promote
their industry, immigration, the construction of railroads and navigable canals, the settlement of Provincialowned lands; the introduction and establishment of new industries, the import of foreign capitals and the
exploration of their rivers, by means of laws protecting these ends and with their own resources.
The Provinces and the City of Buenos Aires may continue with their own social security agencies for civil
servants and professionals; and may promote economic progress, human development, employment creation,
education, science, knowledge and culture.
Section 126.- The Provinces do not exercise the power delegated to the Nation. They may not enter into partial
treaties of political nature; enact laws dealing with commerce, inland or foreign navigation; establish Provincial
Customs; coin money; establish banks with power to issue notes without authorization from the Federal Congress;
enact Civil, Commercial, Penal, or Mining Codes after Congress had enacted them; enact special laws on citizenship
and naturalization, bankruptcy, counterfeiting of currency or State documents; lay any duty on tonnage; arm
ships of war or raise armies, except in the event of foreign invasion or in such imminent danger that does not
admit a delay, notifying immediately to the Federal Government; appoint or receive foreign representatives.

Section 127.- No Province shall declare or make war against another Province. Their claims must be submitted
to and settled by the Supreme Court. Their de facto hostilities are acts of civil war, considered as sedition or
rebellion, which the Federal Government must suppress and punish in accordance with the law.

Section 128.- The governors of the Provinces are the natural agents of the Federal Government for the
enforcement of the Constitution and the laws of the Nation.

Section 129.- The City of Buenos Aires shall have an autonomous system of government with power of
legislation and jurisdiction, and a head of government who shall be directly elected by the people of the City.
A law shall guarantee the interests of the National Government while the City of Buenos Aires is the Capital
City of the Nation.

According to the aforementioned provisions of this section, the National Congress shall convene the
inhabitants of the City of Buenos Aires so that the representatives that are to be elected for that purpose
issue the Organizational Statute of their institutions.

TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS

First.- The Argentine Nation ratifies its legitimate and everlasting sovereignty over the Islas Malvinas,
Georgias del Sur y Sandwich del Sur and over the corresponding maritime and insular zones, as they are an
integral part of the National territory.
The regaining of said territories and the full exercise of sovereignty, respectful of the way of life of their
inhabitants and according to the principles of international law, are a permanent and unwaivable goal of the
Argentine people.
Second.- Positive actions referred to in the last paragraph of Section 37 shall not comprise less guarantees
than those in force at the time this Constitution was approved, and their duration shall be determined by
law. (Referring to Section 37)
Third.- The law regulating the exercise of the popular initiative shall be approved within eighteen months of
this enactment. (Referring to Section 39)
Fourth.- The present members of the Senate of the Nation shall hold office until the expiration of their
respective terms.
At the time of the renewal of one third of the Senate in 1995, due to the expiration of the terms of all the
senators elected in 1986, a third senator shall be appointed for the constituency of each Legislature. The
group of senators for each constituency shall be composed, as far as possible, in such a way that two seats
belong to that political party or electoral alliance with the greatest number of members in the Legislature,
and the third seat to that political party or electoral alliance that follows it in number of members. In case
of equality of votes, that political party or electoral alliance having obtained the greatest number of votes in
the immediately preceding Provincial legislature election shall prevail.
The election of senators who replace those whose terms expire in 1998, as well as the election of whoever
replaces any one of the current senators in case of application of Section 62, shall be carried out by these same
rules of election. However, the political party or electoral alliance having the greatest number of members in
the Legislature at the time of the election of senator shall have the right to have its candidate elected, with
the sole limitation that the three senators do no belong to the same political party or electoral alliance.
These rules shall also be applicable to the election of senators for the City of Buenos Aires, in 1995 by the
voters, and in 1998 by the legislative body of the City.
The election of all the senators referred to in this provision shall be carried out within a period not less than
sixty nor more than ninety days as from the date the senator must take office.
In all cases, the candidates for senators shall be proposed by the political parties or electoral alliances. The
fulfillment of the legal and statutory requirements for the nomination as a candidate shall be certified by the
National Electoral Court and reported to the Legislature.
Whenever a national senator is elected a substitute shall be designated, who shall take office in the cases
foreseen in Section 62.
The senators elected due to the application of this transitional provision shall hold office until December 9,
2001. (Referring to Section 54)
Fifth.- All the members of the Senate shall be elected as indicated in Section 54 within the term of two
months previous to December 10, 2001; after they meet, they shall decide by lot who must leave office in
the first and second biennium. (Referring to Section 56).
Sixth.- A tax-sharing system shall be stated before the end of the year 1996 according to Section 75, subsection 2,
and the regulations of the Federal tax agency, the distribution of jurisdiction, services and functions in force at the
time of the enactment of this amendment, shall not be modified without the approval of the interested Province;
nor shall the distribution of resources in force at the time of the enactment of this amendment be modified to the
detriment of the Provinces, and in both cases until the aforementioned tax-sharing system is stated.
This provision shall not affect pending administrative or judicial claims originated in differences about
the distribution of jurisdiction, services, functions or resources between the Nation and the Provinces.
(Referring to Sections 75 subsection 2).

Seventh.- Congress shall exercise in the City of Buenos Aires, insofar as it is the Capital of the Nation, the
legislative powers which it retains according to Section 129. (Referring to Sections 75 subsection 30).
Eighth.- The pre-existing delegated legislation with no specified term for its application shall expire after five
years from the effective date of this provision, except for that legislation expressly ratified by the National
Congress through a new law. (Referring to Section 76).
Ninth.- The tenure of the president holding office at the time of the enactment of this reform shall be
considered as the first term. (Referring to Section 90).
Tenth.- The term of office of the President of the Nation who shall be inaugurated on July 8, 1995 shall
expire on December 10, 1999. (Referring to Section 90).
Eleventh.- The expiration of the appointments and the limited duration foreseen in Section 99, subsection
4, shall become effective five years after the enactment of this constitutional reform. (Referring to Sections 99
subsection 4).
Twelfth.- The provisions established in Section 100 and 101, Chapter IV, Second Division, Second Part of
this Constitution about the Cabinet Chief shall become effective on July 8, 1995.
The Cabinet Chief shall be appointed for the first time on July 8, 1995; until then his powers shall be
exercised by the President of the Republic. (Referring to Sections 99 subsection 7).
Thirteenth.- Three hundred and sixty days after this reform becomes effective, lower court judges shall only
be appointed according to this Constitution. Until then the previous system shall be applied. (Referring to
Section 114).
Fourteenth.- Cases pending before the House of Deputies at the time of the creation of the Judicial Council
shall be referred to the latter for the purposes of Section 114, subsection 5. Those cases already introduced
before the Senate shall continue therein until their conclusion. (Referring to Section 115).
Fifteenth.- Until the government arising from the new system of autonomy of the City of Buenos Aires is
established, Congress shall exercise exclusive legislation over its territory, in the same terms applied until the
enactment of this Constitution.
The head of the government shall be elected during 1995.
The law foreseen in Section 129, paragraphs second and third, shall be enacted within the term of two
hundred and seventy days as from the approval of this Constitution.
Until the issue of the Organizational Statute, the appointment and removal of the judges of the City of Buenos
Aires shall be ruled according to Sections 114 and 115 of this Constitution. (Referring to Section 129).
Sixteenth.- This reform shall become effective the day after its publication. The members of the Constituent
Assembly, the President of the Argentine Nation, the Presidents of the Legislative Houses, and the Chief
Justice of the Supreme Court shall take oath in a single act on August 24, 1994, in the Palacio San José,
Concepción del Uruguay, Province of Entre Ríos.
Each power of the State and of the Provincial and municipal authorities shall provide the necessary measures
so that their members and officers swear this Constitution.
Seventeenth.- The final constitutional text, which has been enacted by this Constituent Assembly, replaces
the text existing until now.

Approved in the Hall of Sessions of the National Constituent Assembly, in the city of Santa Fe, on the twenty-second day of the month of August in the year one thousand nine hundred ninety-four.

Eduardo Menem

President of the National Constituent Assembly


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