Reserve Bank of India
The Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934, provides the legislative mandate to the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to operate a modern monetary policy framework and, therefore, the RBI has adopted flexible inflation targeting (FIT) as the framework for monetary policy. The primary objective of monetary policy is to maintain price stability while keeping in mind the objective of growth. The Government of India, in consultation with RBI, sets the inflation target in terms of the Consumer Price Index (CPI) every five years (current target applicable from April 2021 to March 2026).
To achieve the objectives of monetary policy, the RBI uses an interest rate framework with the overnight call money market rate, measured by the weighted average call money rate (WACR), as the operating target. A Monetary Policy Committee (MPC), with the Governor of the RBI as its chairperson, determines the policy rate, i.e., the repo rate, required to achieve the mandated inflation target. The RBI endeavours to anchor the operating target, i.e., WACR, to the policy repo rate through the instruments available under monetary policy implementation framework.
A semi-annual Monetary Policy Report (MPR) is issued by the RBI, elucidating the macroeconomic framework, analysis of developments along with forecasts of inflation and output, liquidity conditions and financial market developments along with global environment and outlook.
Key features of the monetary policy implementation framework
The monetary policy framework aims at setting the policy repo rate at an appropriate level to achieve the monetary policy objectives based on an assessment of the current and evolving macroeconomic situation. Liquidity management is the operating procedure of monetary policy which envisages modulation of liquidity conditions, aimed at anchoring the WACR to the policy repo rate. Within its implementation framework, the RBI undertakes repurchase operations under Liquidity Adjustment Facility (LAF) and Open Market Operations involving outright sale and purchase of eligible securities, offers standing facilities and requires banks to hold minimum reserves in their current accounts with it. The current minimum reserve requirement has been set at 4 per cent of the net demand and time liabilities (NDTL) of banks and the reserves are held in the form of Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) by banks in their current account with the RBI. These reserves are not remunerated. RBI allows limited averaging of reserves within the maintenance period, i.e., a fortnight, to allow banks to absorb liquidity shocks at their discretion and to help in stabilising short-term interest rates in the money markets.
Reverse-repo is a standing facility for deposit of funds by the eligible entities with the RBI. In addition, the RBI has provided standing lending facility viz., Marginal Standing Facility (MSF), which eligible entities can access to meet their overnight reserve requirements arising out of unforeseen frictional factors. The liquidity management corridor has the MSF rate as its upper bound (ceiling), currently 25 bps above the repo-rate and the fixed rate reverse repo rate as the lower bound (floor), which is 65 bps below the repo rate with the policy repo rate, which is set by MPC, in between. Thus, the MSF together with the fixed rate reverse repo rate constitute the corridor for overnight money market rates. To further strengthen the operating framework, an uncollateralised Standing Deposit Facility (SDF) has been notified but this is yet to be operationalised.
The Reserve Bank introduced the revised liquidity management framework in February 2020. As part of this framework, the RBI conducts a 14-day variable-rate term repo/ reverse repo as the main liquidity operation to coincide with the CRR maintenance cycle for managing frictional liquidity requirements. The main liquidity operation is supported by fine-tuning operations, overnight and/or of longer duration, to tide over any unanticipated liquidity changes during the reserve maintenance period. In addition, the Reserve Bank can conduct, if needed, longer-term variable rate repo/reverse repo operations of more than 14 days. Outright Open Market Operations (OMOs) and long-term FX swap auctions are conducted for supplying/withdrawing liquidity for longer duration to steer liquidity conditions consistent with the monetary policy objective. All the liquidity management operations of the RBI are collateralised by eligible collateral notified by the RBI from time to time.
Institutional setup of monetary policy decisions and operations
Overview of key features
Monetary policy communication
Reserve requirements: ratios and size
Main features of reserve requirements
|Maintenance period||2 weeks|
|end (day)||Reporting Friday of every fortnight|
|Calculation period||2 weeks|
|end (day)||Reporting Friday|
|Lag before maintenance||2 weeks|
|Framework last changed||04/16|
Liquidity position and forecasting
Standing facilities: lending / market ceiling
|Name||Marginal Standing Facility (MSF)|
|Form||Collateralised against government securities|
|Pricing method||MSF Rate (25 bps above the policy Repo Rate)|
|Access limited by/to||(i) Collateral; Scheduled commercial banks
(SCBs), select Urban Cooperative Banks (UCBs), Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) and select Scheduled State Cooperative banks (SSCBs).
Standing facilities: deposit / market floor
|Name||(i) Reverse Repo;
(ii) Standing deposit facility
|Pricing method||(i) Repo rate 65 bps
(ii) Yet to be operationalised
(ii) Yet to be operationalised
|Access limited by/to||(i) Eligible collateral; Scheduled commercial banks (SCBs), select Urban Cooperative Banks (UCBs), Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) and primary dealers, select Scheduled State Cooperative banks (SSCBs).
(ii) Yet to be operationalized
|Function(s)||(i) Liquidity management
(ii) Yet to be operationalised
Open market operations: repo or reverse repo
Open market operations: central bank bills
|Restrictions on possible maturities|
|Access limited by/to|
|Discretion left to operational desk|
Open market operations: FX swaps
|Access limited by/to||Authorised dealer category-1 banks|
Other significant liquidity management means
Settlement systems and intra-day liquidity facilities
Dissemination of operational information: liquidity forecast
Dissemination of operational information: open market operations
|Volume and price published?||Yes|
|Channel(s)||Press release on RBI website|
|Timing||(i) Information on all Liquidity Adjustment Facility operations published on RBI website at 9 AM on the next working day
(ii) Press release on the same day after the operation for 14 day variable rate auctions, variable rate fine-tuning operations (FTOs), special open market operations and outright purchase/sale auctions
Dissemination of operational information: standing facilities
|Lending facility usage: Channel(s)||Press release on RBI website|
|Lending facility usage: Timing||Next working day, at 9 am|
|Deposit facility usage: Channel(s)||Press release on RBI website|
|Deposit facility usage: Timing||Press release on RBI website|
Other information dissemination
|Type||(i) Cash balances of scheduled commercial banks with RBI; volume and average rate in call / Triparty Repo / market repo / notice / term segments of the money market (one-day lag)
(ii) Government of India surplus cash balance reckoned for auction
(iii) Level and Variation in FX Reserves (one-week lag)
(iv) FX Intervention during a month (about one-month lag)
(v) Net durable liquidity that includes Govt. balances (one fortnight lag)
|Channel(s)||(i) Press release
(ii) Press release
(iii) Weekly Statistical Supplement (WSS) to the RBI Bulletin
(iv) RBI Bulletin
(v) Press release
|Timing||(i) 9.00 AM, Daily
(ii) 9.00 AM, Daily
(v) 9.00 AM, Daily
1 Describe as well the legal status of the mandate and involvement of government
2 Policy corridor around the repo rate made asymmetric in March 2020 and further widened in April 2020.
3 RP = reversed purchase (repo, inject liquidity), RS=RRP=reversed sale (reverse repo, absorb liquidity), RT=reversed transaction (repo or reverse repo).
4 For instance, economic and inflation forecasts related to policy decision.
5 If applicable, describe the publication of any fan-charts or uncertainty bands around the forecasts/projections.
6 With effect from May 22, 2021.
7 Nominal GDP figure as on 31 March 2021 and reserves figures as of 30 June 2021.
8 Nominal GDP figure as on 31 March 2021 and reserves figures as of 30 June 2021.
9 Stance was changed by the MPC from Neutral to Accomodative in June 2019 policy.
10 RP=Reversed purchase (“repo”), RS=RRP=Reversed Sales (“reverse repo”), RT=Reversed transaction (RP or RRP).
11 OT = Outright Transaction, DB = Direct Borrowing, DL = Direct Lending.
12 CCIL started the settlement of cross currency deals of banks in India through the CLS Bank in April 2005. Through this arrangement, CCIL aggregates trades reported by all Member banks and enables banks to collectively enjoy the benefits of cross currency settlement through CLS Bank. This is a unique experiment whereby cross border settlement of an entire country is being achieved through a third party arrangement. Settlement through the CLS mechanism is on a payment versus payment basis.
13 Discretion of the central bank to expand collateral types, and list of additional collateral types that the central bank can take on a discretionary basis. Also, additional information such as delays required if discretionary collateral changes.
14 Discretion of the central bank to expand collateral types, and list of additional collateral types that the central bank can take on a discretionary basis. Also, additional information such as delays required if discretionary collateral changes
15 Discretion of the central bank to expand collateral types, and list of additional collateral types that the central bank can take on a discretionary basis. Also, additional information such as delays required if discretionary collateral changes.
16 RBI has the discretion but it has so far not diluted the collateral.