A description of Surat and Journey into Duccan-Fryer John (1675)

Fryer, John, d. 1733.

Title: A new account of East-India and Persia, in eight letters being nine years travels begun 1672 and finished 1681 : containing observations made of the moral, natural and artifical estate of those countries … / by John Fryer

A DESCRIPTION OF SURAT, AND Journy into DUCCAN. LETTER III.
CHAP. I.

Animadversions on the City and People of Surat in the East-Indies.

SIR,

GOING out to see the City of Surat,* I passed without any Incivility,* the better because I understood not what they said; for though we meet not with Boys so rude as in England, to run after Strangers, yet here are a sort of bold, lusty, and most an end, drunken Beggars, of the Musslemen Cast, that if they see a Christian in good Clothes, Mounted on a stately Horse, with rich Trappings, are presently upon their Puncti∣lio’s with God Almighty, and interrogate him, Why he suffers him to go a Foot, and in Rags, and this Coffery (Unbeliever) to vaunt it thus? And are hardly restrained from running a Muck (which is to kill whoever they meet, till they be slain themselves) especially if they have been at Hodge, a Pilgrimage to Mecca, and thence to Juddah, where is Mahomet’s Tomb; these commonly, like evil Spi∣rits, have their Habitations among the Tombs: Nor can we com∣plain only of this Libertinism, for the Rich Moormen themselves are persecuted by these Rascals.

As for the rest,* they are very respectful, unless the Seamen or
Soldiers get Drunk, either with Toddy, or Bang (a pleasant intoxi∣cating
Seed, mixed with Milk) then are they Monarchs, and it is Madness to oppose them;* but leave them to themselves, and they will vent that Fury, by breathing a Vein or two with their own
Swords, sometimes slashing themselves most Barbarously.

The Town has very many noble lofty Houses of the Moor-Mer∣chants,*
flat at top, and Terassed with Plaster. There is a Parsy,
Broker to the King of Bantam, has turned the outside of his Pockets
on a sumptuous House, a spacious Fabrick, but ill contrived, as are
many of the Banians. They, for the most part, affect not stately
Buildings, living in humble Cells or Sheds. Glass is dear, and
scarcely purchaseable (unless by way of Stambole, or Constantinople,
from the Venetians, from whom they have some Panes of Painted
Glass in Sash Windows) therefore their Windows, except some
few of the highest Note, are usually folding Doors, skreened with
Cheeks, or Latises, Carved in Wood, or Ising-glass, or more com∣monly
Oister-shells. The greatest Commodity here is Air, which
is to be admired in the Rich Banyans, how they stew themselves out
of a penurious humour, crowding Three or Four Families together
into an Hovel, with Goats, Cows, and Calves, all Chamber-fel∣lows,
that they are almost poysoned with Vermin and Nastiness;
but surely they take delight in it, for they will fresh and fasting be∣sprinkle
themselves with the Stale of a Cow, as you behold a good
Christian with Holy-water, or a Moorman slabber his Beard with
Rose-water: Nay more, they use it as a Potion, or Philter, and
bid the Devil do his worst after it; so stupid, that notwithstanding
Chints, Fleas, and Muskeeto’s, torment them every Minute, dare
not presume to scratch where it itches, lest some Relation should
be untenanted its miserable abode.

The Habits and Customs of this place are reconcilable with them in the Kingdom of Golconda,* only the Moguls being more absolute, and of a more Puritanical Sect than the Chia’s; the Heathens are suppressed in respect of their Barbarous Rites, and reduced to a more civil Garb, being more decently Clothed.

The Moguls,* who are Lords here, differ from them of Gulconda in point of their Caliph’s Succession, he first maintaining the Sect of the Arabs, the others of the Suffean, or Persian.

They have Four Expositors of the Law,* to whom they give Cre∣dit in matter of Ceremonies, viz.

Hanoffi.
Shoffi.
Hamaleech.
Maluche.
Their great scruple is about Eating together among all sorts of these Eastern Nations.

All Musselmen (true Believers) as they call themselves of this
Persuasion, Communicate in that point; only some Punctilio’s in
respect of Marriage remain yet undecided; as for an Hanoffi to
offer his Daughter to a Shoffi, is a great shame; but if the other
request it first, he may comply without derogation.

They are distinguished, some according to the Consanguinity
they claim with Mahomet; as a Siad is a Kin to that Imposture, and
therefore only assumes to himself a Green Vest and Puckery (or
Turbat) none other being permitted to wear them. A Shiek is a
Cousin too, at a distance, into which Relation they admit all new
made Proselytes. Meer is somewhat Allied also, and Mussanne.
The rest are adopted under the Name of the Province or Kingdom
they are Born in, as Mogul the Race of the Tartars, and are esteemed,
as the Name imports, White Men; Patan, Duccan; or Schisms they
have made, as Bilhim, Jemottee, and the lowest of all is Borrah.

These Eat highly of all Flesh Dumpoked,* which is Baked with
Spice in Butter; Pullow, a Stew of Rice and Butter, with Flesh,
Fowl, or Fish; Fruits, Achars, or Pickles, and Sweatmeats: If
they invite a Christian, they order Dishes apart, and between Meals
Entertain with Coho, Tobacco, Pawn, which makes a fragrant
Breath, and gives a rare Vermilion to the Lips; and as a great
Compliment drown you with Rosewater, Senting themselves with
Essence of Sandal and Oranges, very Costly, and exquisitely Ex∣tracted.
They drink no Wine Publickly, but Privately will be
good Fellows, not content with such little Glasses as we drink out
of, nor Claret or Rhenish (which they call Vinegar) but Sack
and Brandy out of the Bottle they will Tipple, till they are well
warmed.

At the First entrance into their Houses,* for the greater Respect,
they meet at the Portal, and usher Strangers to the place of Enter∣tainment;
where, out of common Courtesy, as well as Religion,
(when they enter an Holy Place) they pull off their Slippers, and
after the usual Salams, seat themselves in Choultries, open to some
Tank of purling Water; commonly spread with Carpets, or Siturngees,
and long round Cushions of Velvet to bolster their Back and Sides,
which they use when they ride in their Chariots, which are made
to sit Cross-legg’d on, not their Legs hanging down as ours; it be∣ing
accounted among them no good breeding to let their Legs or
Feet be seen whilst sitting: In their Palenkeens, Coaches, or swing∣ing
Cotts, which they affect for Ease, are laid huge Bolsters of state,
and Quilts of Cotton to lie at length., their Ceilings and Posts
are Hung with Mechlapatan Pintado’s, and adorned with other
Gallantry.

They go rich in Attire,* with a Poniard, or Catarre, at their Girdle; as they are Neat in Apparel, they are Grave in their Carriage.

Their Women wear the Breeches,* but in a most servile condition;
yet they have their Ornaments of Head, with Bracelets of Pearl,
Ear-rings and Nose-rings, to which they hang Jewels, mostly set
in Silver, because Gold is Nigess, or Unclean.

They are strict observers of the Hours of Prayer,* when they
strip off all their Gorgeous Habiliments to their Shift, and after
Washing Hands and Feet, Prostrate themselves during the time of
Devotion, when Rising they Salute their Guardian-Angels according
to the Opinion of the Stoicks, who allotted every one his Juno and
his Genius; having made their Orisons, and Purified themselves, they
return to Company as before.

They are great Revellers by Night, in the heat of the Day they sleep and dally.

They circumcise the Foreskin of the Male,* which is performed
by a Barber, at Eight years of Age; with Feasting, and carrying the
Boy about in pomp, with Musick and great Expressions of Joy. Of
the Girls they make small account, they being instructed within doors
how to pray.

The Cazy or Judge,* after the Match is made by the Parents, mar∣ries
them; from whence doubtless our Phanaticks borrowed their
Custom of Marrying by a Justice of Peace: This is also a time of
Solemnity sometimes kept for several Weeks together with Illumina∣tions
on their Houses, their Garments tinctured with Saffron, riding
triumphantly through the Streets with Trumpets and Kettle Drums;
fetching the Bride from her Kindred, and they sending Banquets,
Houshold-stuff, and Slaves their Attendants, with a great Train
through their Streets, which is all their Dowry: But the Cazy has a
Knack beyond those Couplers of Europe, he can loose the Knot when
they plead a Divorce. They have four Wives if they can maintain
them, and as many other Women as they please; she that bears the
first Son is reckoned the Chief.

At their Labours they seldom call Midwives,* being pretty quick
that way, though there are not a few live well by that Profession;
known by Tufts of Silk on their Shooes or Slippers, all other Wo∣men
wearing them plain: At the end of their Quarentine, which is
Forty days, after the Old Law, they enter the Hummums to Purify;
and the Child, without much Ceremony, is named by the Pa∣rents.

At Funerals,* the Mullahs or Priests, make Orations or Sermons, after a Lesson read out of the Alchoran, and lay them North and South, as we do East and West, when they are Inhumed, expecting
from that Quarter the appearance of their Prophet. Upon the death
of any, in the hearing of the Outcry, which is great among the
Women, beating their Breasts, and crying aloud, they neither eat,
nor shift their Cloaths, till the Person be interred; the Relations
mourn by keeping on dirty Cloaths, and a neglect of their Apparel;
neither washing nor shaving themselves: It is usual to hire People to
lament, and the Widow once a Moon go to the Grave with her Ac∣quaintance
to repeat the doleful Dirge, after which she bestows Hol∣way,
a kind of Sacramental Wafer; and entreats their Prayers for the
Soul of the Departed; and for that reason the most store of Graves
are in Cross-ways, or High-roads, that the Passengers may be put in
mind of that Office: They never Enshrine any in their Moschs, but
in the places adjoining them; where they build Tombs, and leave
Stipends for Mullahs to offer Petitions up for them.

The Duty of the Mallahs,* besides these, is to call from the Stee∣ples
of their Maschs every Pore, that is, once in Three hours stop∣ping
their Ears with their Fingers: Allah Eckbar, Allah Eckbar, Es∣chadu
ela Hale ilallah we Eschedu, Mahmed ewesul: Cuah Fleje ala
Selah heie ula Felah, Alla Eckber, Alla Eckber, La Jelah Hallah: i. e.
God is Great, I profess, there is no Deity but God, and confess that
Mahomet is the Prophet of God. Their Priests say Prayers five times a-day, and expound the Alcheran once a-week, and that on Friday, which day they are not to lye with their Women, setting it apart for the Service of God.

Here is a Xeriff,* who is as it were their Primate, under him the
Cazys, or Judges, are the next, then the Inferior Clergy, as the
Mullahs, and Scribes, or Teachers of Youth in the Arabick
Tongue.

With these,* by the favour of the present Mogul, who lived long
in that Order, till he came to the Throne, must be numbred the
Fakiers or Holy Men, abstracted from the World, and resigned to
God, for the Word will bear that Interpretation; on this Pretence
are committed sundry Extravagancies, as putting themselves on vo∣luntary
Penances. Here is one that has vowed to hang by the
Heels, till he get Money enough to build a Mosch to Mah•met, that
he may be held a Saint. Another shall travel the Country with an
Horn blowed afore him, and an Ox it may be to carry him and his
Baggage, besides one to wait on him with a Peacock’s Tail; whilst
he rattles a great Iron Chain •ettered to his Foot, as big as those Ele∣phants
are Foot-locked with, some two yards in length; every Link
thicker than a Man’s Thumb, and a Palm in length; his shaking
this speaks his Necessity, which the poor Gentiles dare not deny to
relieve; for if they do, he accuses them to the Cazy, who desires no
better opportunity to fleece them: For they will no• stick to swear
they blasphemed Mahomet, for which there is no evasion but to de∣posit,
or be cut, and made a Moor.

Most of these are Vagabonds,* and are the Pest of the Nation they
live in; some of them live in Gardens and retired Places in the Fields,
in the same manner as the Seers of old, and the Children of the Pro∣phets
did: Their Habit is the main thing that signalizes them more
than their Virtue; they profess Poverty, but make all things their
own where they come; all the heat of the Day they idle it under
some shady Tree, at night they come in Troops, armed with a great
Pole, a Mirchal or Peacock’s Tail, and a Wallet; more like Plun∣derers
than Beggers; they go into the Market, or to the Shop∣keepers,
and force an Alms, none of them returning without his
share: Some of them pass the bounds of a modest Request, and bawl
out in the open Streets for an Hundred Rupees, and nothing less will
satisfy these.

They are cloathed with a ragged Mantle,* which serves them also
for a Matrass, for which purpose some have Lyons, Tygres or Leo∣pards
Skins to lay under them: The Civilest of them wear Flesh-co∣loured
Vests, somewhat like our Brick-makers Frocks, and almost of
that Colour. The Merchants, as their Adventures return, are
bountiful towards them, by which means some of them thrive upon it.

These Field Conventiclers at the hours of Devotion beat a Drum,*
from them called the Fakiers Drum; here are of these Strolers about
this City enough to make an Army, that they are almost become for∣midable
to the Citizens; nor is the Governour powerful enough to
correct their Insolencies. For lately setting on a Nobleman of the
Moors, when his Kindred came to demand Justice, they unanimously rose in defence of the Aggressor, and rescued him from his deserved Punishment.*

For all the Governor comes to his Seat attended every Morning
with 300 Foot with Fire-Arms,* Three Elephants in their Cloathing
(which is here also a principal Mark of the Greatness of these Men in
place, the more Elephants they keep, they are looked on as more
Honourable) Forty Horses mounted, Four and twenty Banners of
State; besides a large Retinue of the Cazy’s, who is always present
to assist him in Law Points. Moreover he has Loud Trumpets made
as big, and like our Stentoro Phonica, or speaking Trumpet, with
Thundring Kettle-Drums; yet neither the Formality of this Ap∣pearance,
nor regard due to his Office, is terrible enough to prevail
with these to submit to resign the Caitiff, and hardly is his whole
Force able to keep them from bare-faced Rebellion.

But though these Outlaws (for as such they ought to be look’d
on,* while they disown all Subjection) behave themselves thus, the
poor Inhabitants that work for their Bread, are under severer Re∣straints;
for the Governor’s Servants being upheld by as uncon∣trouled
Licentiousness, on pretence of pressing the Craftsmen from
their daily Labour into the Governor’s Service, extort continued
Fees from them, or else they are sure to be set on work, without any
thing for their Pains: Which was but even now made a Publick
Grievance, by the Resistance of a sturdy Patan, (who is sprung from
a Warlike People, of whom it is said, They never draw their
Swords, but Blood must follow): And thus it happen’d; The Patan
having employ’d a Taylor at his house, one of the Governor’s Men
seized him for his Master’s Service; but the Patan rushing in to re∣lease
him, the Soldier ran a young Brother of the Patan’s through,
naked and unconcerned in the Scuffle; which so enraged the Patan,
that forcing the Sword out of the hand of this inhuman Butcher,
he kill’d him and two more that came to his Rescue; and going in∣to
his house, slew his own Wife, and Sister, and a little Son of his
own, that they might not fall a Sacrifice to the Governor’s Rage:
The wretched Taylor, animated by the Example of the Patan (tho
but coolly), had murder’d his Wife had she not fled; but laying
hold on his Old Father and Mother, he dispatched them; and bolt∣ing
forth into the Street, set upon what Governor’s Men he and the
Patan could meet: Tidings whereof striking the Governor’s Ears, he
came with all his Power to beset the exasperated and desperate Men;
but though a Thousand Men were up in Arms, and gazing upon the
Patan standing with his Sword in his hand at the Entrance of the
House, none durst venture to apprehend him; till his Fury abating,
and Promises given by a Great Man, of Favour if he resigned; he
attending to his Parley, in the mean while two Men with Guns from
atop of the House discharged on him, and wounded him and the
Taylor mortally, but not before they had carried this false Great
Man with some of his Attendants along with them out of the
World: So that these Curs set to keep the Sheep, are the first that
worry them.

Lest therefore all Shew of Justice should be banished, now and then, when they have not Mony to buy it off, or the Emperor be informed, some Exemplary Punishments are inflicted: Some In∣stances whereof I shall relate.

The one was of an Armenian,*Chawbucked through the City for sel∣ling
of Wine. The other was of a Goldsmith who had coined Copper
Rupees; first they shaved his Head and Beard, as our Country men do
Bayliffs when they presume to Arrest in Priviledg’d Places; then
putting a Fool’s Cap on his Head, they set him on an Ass, with his
Face to the Tail, which is led by an Holencore, and one of their
Drums is beat before him, which is an Affront of the highest degree;
thus they lead him up and down the City, where the Boys and Sol∣diers
treat him but scurvily, pelting him all the way he passes: Being
brought back to Prison, they cut off his Hand, and let him lye du∣ring
the Governor’s Pleasure. The Third was of a Pack of Thieves
that had infested the Roads a long time, and after some whiles Impri∣sonment
the Banyans proffered Money for their Redemption; but the
Great Mogul sending an Express, they were led to Execution; They
were Fifteen, all of a Gang, who used to lurk under Hedges in nar∣row
Lanes, and as they found opportunity, by a Device of a Weight
tied to a Cotton Bowstring made of Guts, (with which they tew Cot∣ton)
of some length, they used to throw it upon Passengers so, that
winding it about their Necks, they pulled them from their Beasts, and
dragging them upon the Ground strangled them, and possessed them∣selves
of what they had: One of these was an Old Man with his
two Sons, the youngest not fourteen. This being their Practice,
they were sentenced, according to Lex Talionis, to be hang’d;
wherefore being delivered to the Catwal, or Sheriff’s Men, they
led them two Miles with Ropes about their Necks to some wild Date-Trees:
In their way thither they were chearful, and went singing,
and smoaking Tobacco, the Banyans giving them Sweetmeats, they
being as jolly as if going to a Wedding; and the Young Lad now
ready to be tied up, boasted, That though he were not Fourteen
Years of Age, he had killed his Fifteen Men; wherefore the Old
Man, as he had been a Leader of these Two, was first made an Exam∣ple
for his Villany, and then the two Striplings were advanced, as
all the rest were, half a Foot from the Ground; and then cutting
their Legs off that the Blood might flow from them, they left them
miserable Spectacles, hanging till they dropped of their own
accord.

The following Delinquents being of another kind,* we shall see
how they fare: The one was of a Rich Merchant of the Moors kil∣ling
his Wife, and a Child he had by her of Three Years old, upon
taking her with her Paramour in Adultery; for which Crime a Pe∣cuniary
Mulct excused him: The other was a Boy’s sticking a So∣domitish
Moor to the Heart with his own Catarre, while he attempt∣ed
upon his Body; which Fact was so far from being accused as a
Fault, that the Boy came off with Commendation; though there
is nothing more frequently committed among them, than the unna∣tural
Sin of Buggery.

There is another thing above all the rest an unpardonable Offence;*
for a Banyan or Rich Broker to grow Wealthy without Protection of
some Great Person; for it is so mighty a Disquiet to the Governor, that he can never be at ease till he have seen the bottom of this Mis∣chief;
which is always cured by Transfusion of Treasure out of the
Banyans into the Governor’s Coffers: Which makes them become
humble Suiters for the Umbrage of any of Quality, to skreen them
from this Violence.

The next in the Executive Power is the Catwal,* the Governor of
the Night, as the other two Great Officers rule the Day; or nearer
our Constitution, the Sheriff of the City: For after the Keys are carried
to the Governor, it is the Catwals Business with a Guard of near Two
hundred Men, to scower the Streets and Brothels of Idle Companions;
to take an account of all People late out, to discover Fires and House-breakers,
and to carry all lewd Persons to Prison, which is solely
committed to his Charge: So that all Night long he is heard by his
Drums and Trumpets, shouting and hallowing of his Crew in their
Perambulation through all Parts of the City; with Lights and Flam∣beaus,
with some few of his Companions in Coaches or Palenkeens:
Moreover he seises all Debtors, and secures them, and has the care of
Punishing and Executing all Offenders.

This is a Place of great Trust,* but neither so Honourable or Pro∣fitable
as the Shawbunder’s is; who is King of the Port, or Chief
Customer, though something abated by the Mogul’s too fondly in a
Religious Vanity granting Immunity to the Musslemen lately, which
is no small detriment.

The Custom-house has a good Front, where the Chief Customer
appears certain hours to chop, that is, to mark Goods outward∣bound,
and clear those received in: Upon any suspicion of default
he has a Black-Guard that by a Chawbuck, a great Whip, extorts Con∣fession:
There is another hangs up at the daily Waiters, or Meerbar’s
Choultry, by the Landing-place, as a terror to make them pay Caesar
his due; the Punishment, if detected, being only Corporal, not
Confiscation of Goods: This Place is filled with Publicans, Waiters
and Porters, who are always at the Receipt of Custom, but are a lit∣tle
too tardy sometimes in the delivery of Goods, making the Mer∣chant
dance attendance, till a right understanding be created be∣twixt
the Shawbunder and them, which commonly follows when the
Fist is mollified.

Over-against the Custom-house is a stately Entrance into the
Mint,* which is a large Town of Offices within it self; hither re∣pair
all Shreffs or Bankers, for the proof of Silver, which in this
place is the most refined, and purest from allay, in the World; as is
also their Gold: Their lowest Coyn is of Copper.

Between these two is a crowded Buzzar of all those who come to
sell and buy Cloath; being disengaged here,* we pass the High-Streets,
with Shops on each side, not like ours in Europe, being more like
Pedlers Stalls; we crossed several Buzzars, which yielded sustinence
to the many Mouths we encountred.

Piercing thorough the City to the Walls which are building to sur∣round
it, and a Ditch accompanying it, (though but shallow, yet
the Wall is high, and of good well baked Brick) at length we came
in sight of the Castle, having a large Pomarium.

Page 99

They say it has been standing ever since Tamberlane was here;
who they give out to be its Founder:* It may be so, for it is old,
yet bears 30 or 40 stout Pieces of Ordnance, fronts the River, and
is Moated by it; to which they pass a Draw bridge, but admit no
Stranger: It is Manned by 300 Luscarries or Soldiers, armed with
Gun, Sword and Buckler, has a peculiar Governor independent from
him of the Town or Province, being as it were confined to it, not
presuming, on forfeiture of his Head, on any account to pass out of
a Garden by the Bridge, it being his farthest Walk.

Up and down the City are Remains of Seva Gi’s Fury, the Ruins
being not yet repaired; of whom they stand in hourly fear, having
their Sores still fresh in their Memory: To prevent whose Rage, they
are collecting an Hundred thousand Rupees till their Walls be finished,
when we shall see how they will defend them; having 700 Men
allotted for that Office, besides Europe Gunners at every Gate, which
are Six in number, beside 36 Bastions with half a dozen great Guns
apiece: Upon the top they have piled spiked Timber to annoy the
Scalers.

Every Gate is barbed with Iron Spikes to break the rushing in of
the Elephants;* these also are under a distinct Command.

The Governor of the Town has an Army of 1500 Men in pay,*
with Matchlocks, Swords and Javelins; Two hundred Horse with
Quivers full of Arrows at the Bow of their Saddles, Lances at their
Right Stirrup, and Swords of an unweildy bulk, with Bucklers hang∣ing
over their Shoulders; their Bows are curiously and strongly
made with Horn, and for that reason better in Dry than Wet
Weather.

Among the many Moschs to and again,* only two are famous with
long Spires by the Wall, where is a stately Dwelling for the
Xeriff.

They have Three other Places for Strangers called Caravan Se∣rawes,*
or Inns, intended by the Donors gratis, but since perverted,
and let out to Foreigners.

Near the Governor’s Stables were Forty Camels housed,* ready for
War, and half a dozen Elephants.

These Stables are rather Sheds, or Booths of Hair-cloath, to re∣move
on occasion, than any Building fixed for that purpose; and
were it not for the manner of treating their Horses, not worth the
mentioning: They have no Racks, but feed as Nature intended them,
from the Ground, if they get Hay; for their Corn, it is usually Ga∣ravance,
a sort of Pease which they put into an Hair Bag, and by a
String (clapping their Mouths into it) fastned behind their Ears, is
kept from the Ground; out of this they have their daily Allowance;
beside Butter, Sugar and Jaggaree or Mulasso’s made into Past, with
the Meal of Garavance, which fattens all their Beasts of War, and
makes them slick and fine; they cover them very warm with a
kind of Felt or Flock-work, two or three double, and tye them by
all their Feet stretched out at length; in which posture they always
stand: When they make their Beds, they sift the Dung they make,
after it is dried in the Sun, and make a soft lying for them of it;
they court them with all the gentleness and kind Speeches imagi∣nable,
Page 100

seldom or never speaking to, or using them harshly; every
Horse has one Man wholly imployed about his Service, and pretends
to no other business; so that as good Horses are chargeable to pur∣chase,
they are also chargeable in keeping.

The Governor about this time taking occasion to quarrel with the
Dutch,* offering several Abuses both of Body and Purse; the Commo∣dore
was resolved no longer to endure it, and therefore had sent for
their Fleet, and in the mean time threatned to remove the Factory
to Gogo, a Port over-against Swally; which with Diu Point makes
Swally Hole: To prevent which, a Decoy was put upon all Fringi’s,
that we could not go out of the Gates of the City, but by especial
Commission from the Governor.

CHAP. II.
Shews the Tombs, Outwalks, Ceremonies, and Austerities of the Gentiles, with the Ships and River about Surat.
HAving obtained Leave of the Governor,* we went out of the
Walls by Broach-Gate (they taking Names from the chief Pla∣ces
they lead to), where, as at every Gate, stands a Chocky, or
Watch to receive Toll for the Emperor; and which is a shame, a
Raspoot also for the Raspoots otherwise they would infest the Villa∣ges
adjacent, and drive away the Cattel; for all which it is unsafe
to be far out of the Town late at Night, unless well guarded. This
way was all strewed with Moor-men’s Tombs, and one of especial
Note of a Persian Ambassador, who returning from England with
Sir Anthony Shirley, is reported to poyson himself here, rather than
answer some ill Management of his Office to his Master: Not far
from whence, on a small Hill on the left hand of the Road, lies
Tom Coriat, our English Fakier (as they name him), together with
an Armenian Christian, known by their Graves lying East and West:
He was so confident of his Perfection in the Indostan Tongue, that he
ventured to play the Orator in it before the Great Mogul. In his re∣turn
from him he was killed with Kindness by the English Merchants,
which laid his rambling Brains at Rest.

From hence we passed over to the Dutch Tombs,* many and hand∣some,
most of them Pargetted. Adjoining to which the Armenians
have a Garden, where on a Terras (Forty Yards in Length, and Five
in Breadth) are reared several Monuments Coffin-Fashion, with a
place to burn Incense at the Head, like the Moors, only over it a
Cross: One of more Eminency had an Arch over it at the upper-end.

Thence we took a Round, though the Inclosures are contiguous,
to the English Tombs, short of which the Portugals have a Burial-Place.

The Ground the English Dead are inhumed in,* is stocked not with
so many Tombs as the Dutch; though in one of Sir George Oxendine’s
it excels the Proudest.

Page 101

The French have a separate Place to deposit their Dead, overagainst
the English, with only one single Tomb, and that a small one.

In every place up and down the Fields are Tombs of Musslemen:*
A Mile from the City, buried like Diogenes with their Heels upwards,
stand a Row of Sepulchres of the Muttany, or Burfta’s Pilgrims,
with the Soles of their Feet imprinted on the middle; some under a
Foursquare, others Round rising Tombs, by the side of a Tank, on
an ascending Mount.

A Mile and a half further is Pulparra,* a Town separated for the
Banyans to exercise their Funeral and Festival Rites. This is a Se∣minary
of their Heathen Doctors or Brachmins, many of whom
were in the River doing their Devotions, which consists in Washing
and Praying.

The Elder sate in a Row, where the Men and Women came down
together to wash, having Lungies about their Wastes only, which
before they put on, they select a Brachmin of their proper Cast to hold
their Vest; which they shift so cleaverly, that the quickest Eye can
discover nothing more than decent. At their coming up out of the
Water they bestow their Largess of Rice or Doll (an Indian Bean)
and the Brachmin his Benediction, by impressing a Mark answerable
to their Casts on their Forheads; which is the way they live, purely
on Benevolence.

Here they have Two Pagod• remaining,* but defaced by the
Moors: One of them, however, still shews a Crust of Plaster, with
Images Antick enough, but of excellent durance and splendour,
like Alabaster, made of a white Loam calcined, and then called
Arras; which they powder and steep in Water Three or Four Years
before it be fit for their purpose; the longer the better.

Here are many Monuments of their misled Zeal;* the most dread∣ful
to remember, is an extraordinary one erected by the River side,
where they Burn their Dead, in Honour of a Woman who Burnt her
self with her dead Husband. Several Corps were Flaming in their Fu∣neral
Piles; which after the Fire has satisfied its self with, they cast
the Ashes up into the Air, and some upon the Water; that every
Element may have a share. Some of the Devoutest desire to ex∣pire
in this Water, giving in charge to their Relations to lay them
up to the Chin in it at the Article of Death.

Those whose Zeal transport them no farther than to die at home,*
are immediately Washed by the next of Kin, and bound up in a
Sheet; as many as go with him, carry him by turns on a Colt-staff;
and the rest run almost naked and shaved, crying after him, Ram,
Ram, making all the haste they can to Pulparra to Burn him; which
Fire is often very costly, being maintain’d with Wood of Aloes; some∣times
they expend some Thousands of Rupees. The Relations ex∣clude
themselves all Society till the time of Mourning be over;
the Women crying, O Si, O Si, beating their Breasts violently, and
expostulating the reason of their Departure, as if he had not a kind
Wife, loving Children, good Possessions, and the like: In the time
of this Mourning they bestow largely to redeem Creatures appointed
to Die, to excuse Oxen and Buffola’s from Labour, feeding them at
their own Charges, besides purchasing Milch Kine, and giving them
Page 102

to poor People, inviting them to Funeral Feasts, with other Lar∣gesses
to the Brachmins.

Here are out acted all the boasted Austerities I ever heard of;* I
saw a Fakier of the Gentus, whose Nails by neglect were grown as
long as my Fingers, some piercing through the Flesh. Another
grave Old Man had a Turbat of his own Hair (which they all
Covet) Sun-burnt towards the ends, Grey nearer the roots, Plaited
like the Polonian Plica, but not so diseased, above Four Yards in
Length.

Others with their Arms Dislocated so, that the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 of the
Joints is Inverted, and the head of the Bone lies in the pit or valley
of the Arm; in which Case they are defrauded of their Nourishment,
and hang as useless Appendices to the Body; that unless relieved by
Charity, they are helpless in all Offices to themselves.

Others Fixing their Eyes upon Heaven, their Heads hanging over
their Shoulders, are uncapable of removing it from the Posture they
are in, being accustomed to that uninterrupted Rest, having con∣tracted
and stiffned the Tendons of the Muscles and Ligaments of the
Neck, that both those belonging to the Gullet, or the motion of
the Head, are unserviceable; insomuch that no Aliment, not Li∣quid,
can pass, and that too with much difficulty.

Others by continual Abstinence bring themselves into a strange
Emaciated habit of Body, that they seem only walking Skelitons.

All of them go Naked (some plump young lusty Fellows) ex∣cept
their Privities, and bedawb themselves over with Ashes; who
with their pleited Hair about their Heads, look like so many Maega∣ra’s;
these wait on the others. The Ancientest of them addict them∣selves
to Reading, they live Six or Eight together, as they please;
lie upon the Ground or a Matt, some of them in all Seasons abide
the open Air.

At another time a Gentu Fakier was enjoined for Forty days to en∣dure
the Purgatory of five Fires;* there being a great resort by rea∣son
of a Festivity solemnized all that while; when I came early in
the Morning (invited by the novelty and incredibility of the thing)
he was Seated on a four-square Stage or Altar, with three Ascents,
some Two Feet high, and as many Feet square, ready to shew:
While he was in a musing posture, other Fakiers (whose Duty it is
daily to salute the Sun at his Height, Rising, and Setting, with their
Musick of long hollow Canes) blew them for an hour, or Ghong;
after which he fell to his Mattins, which he continued till the Sun
began to be warm; then rising he Blessed himself with Holy Water,
and threw himself along on the lowest square, still muttering to
himself on his Knees, he at length, with one Leg bowed upright
between his Thighs, rises on the other, telling his Beads (which
both Moormen and Gentus wear) which he had in his hands a quarter
longer, and stands, like a Goose, unmoved all the time; then cast∣ing
himself down, he exercised himself, as Wrastlers do here, very
briskly, but guarding the position of his Leg, which he kept so
fixed as if it had grown in that nature, as well when he rose as gro∣velled
on the ground; acting thus a quarter more, it had the
same operation as the Stork’s Bill used for a Suppository, for it
Page 103

brought him to a Stool; he taking his Purifying-pot in his hand,
marched on one side, where he tarried not long before he returning
took up his Beads he had left; and in this Interim four Fires being
kindled (any of them able to roast an Ox) at each Corner of the
upper and least Square, he having finished some Fopperies with his
Pot, Scaevola-like with his own hands he increased the Flames by ad∣ding
combustible Stuff as Incense to it; when removing from his
Neck a Collar of great Wooden Beads, he made a Coronet of them
for his Head; then bowing his Head in the middle of the Flames,
as it were to worship, holding the other Beads in his hands, with
his Head encircled between his Arms, his Face opposite to the Sun,
which is the fifth Fire, he mounted his Body with his Feet bolt up∣right,
and so continued standing on his Head the space of three hours
very steddily, that is, from Nine till Twelve; after which he seats
himself on his Breech cross-legg’d after their way of sitting, and re∣mains
so without either eating or drinking all the rest of the Day,
the Fires still nourished, and he sweating (being one of a good Ath∣letick
Habit, and of a Middle Age) as if basted in his own Grease.

This is imagined to be an Imposture;* but if it be, it would make
a Man disbelieve his own Eyes: Others more rationally impute the
Heat from the Fires to be allayed by that overpowering one of the
Sun; which I cannot wholly incline to, since we daily when abroad
roast our Meat by Fires made in a clear Day without any shelter:
But I rather conceive Custom has inured his Body to it; for the very
Mountebank Tricks declare it a Practice; and the other I think as
feasible as to eat Fire, tread on Hot Irons, (which is here used), or
for Cooks to thrust their hands into scalding Water without Injury.

Another Devote had made a Vow not to lye down in Sixteen
Years,* but to keep on his Feet all that while; this came accompa∣nied
with two others under the same Oath, the one had passed Five,
the other Three Years; all Three of them had their Legs swoln as
big as their Bodies, with filthy running Ulcers, exposed to view for
the greater Applause: Standing, they leaned on Pillows hung in a
String from the Banyan Tree, and had a Pompous Attendance of
such ragged Fakiers their Admirers, with Musick, Flags, and Mir∣chals:
The Eldest having undergone the compleat Term, to crown
all, was intombed in the same standing Posture Nine Days without
any sort of Food; and lest any Pretext of that kind might lessen his
Undertaking, he caused a Bank of Earth to be heaped on the Mouth
of his Cave, whereon was to be sown a certain Grain which ears in
Nine Days, which accordingly being done, eared before his being
taken thence. I saw him presently after his Resurrection, in great
State raised on a Throne under a Canopy, before which was a Fire
made in the Pit he had been, where he put his Hands, being anointed
with Oyl, untouch’d by the Flames: Which whether this may dis∣cover
the Cheat of both this and the other, that such an Unction
may be to resist Fire, Naturalists have not agreed in; and therefore
I judge this rather a Delusion, I having not been present at this Ex∣periment:
But that this is none I am assured, That the Banyans gave
him Divine Honours, and saluted him prostrate, offering before him
Rice, and throwing Incense into the Fire: He had a Red Trident in
Page 104

his hand, and is enrolled one of the Heroes or Demi-Gods in their
Superstitious Kalender.

From this place of Pulparra to Surat, a Row of Trees on each
hand shade the way, it being constantly filled with all sorts of people
either for Worship or Pleasure.

The only thing of Grandeur extant of the Devotion of the Anci∣ent
Heathens,* is a great Tank without the Walls of Surat, a Mile in
Circumference, walled all about with descending Stone Steps: In the
middle an High Place of the Heathens: Many sumptuous Mauso∣leums
are erected near its Brink, with Aqueducts to convey Water,
with which were it filled, the best Ship that swims in the Sea might
ride in it: It looks now more like a Circus or Gymnaseum, able enough
to contain as many as such Spectacles would delight. In their great
Solemnities it is usual for them to set it around, with Lamps to the
Number of two or three Lecgues, which is so many Hundred thou∣sand
in our Account.

The Citizens by the King’s Favour have good store of Gardens
neighbouring Surat;* the biggest of all is the Queen’s, though some
Private Men have neater, where we often go to take the Air, and
feast in pleasant Choultries or Summer-Houses, spread after the Moors
manner with Carpets, refreshed with various Figures of the Rising
Water, out of several Spouts from square Tanks Pargetted. All the
time of our durance here Water is sprinkled, to mitigate the Fieriness
of the Sun.

Here are Grottoes descending also under Ground by huge Arches
and Stone Steps shaded by Trees on each hand,* till it come to the
deep Well at bottom, from whence by Leathern Bags drawn upon
Wheels by Oxen, the Water is carried up, and in Gutters streams
about the Gardens.

In these by the help of a Brachmin skilled in Simples,* I have found
the Silk Cotton-tree, distinguished by us from the Vulgar beneficial
one, by its being a Tree, the other a Shrub; it is most like a Maple
in Leaf and Branch, only the Bark is not furrowed; it brings forth
between three Leaves, first a Bud or Button, then a white Flower, last
of all Seed about which the Cotton grows, in three distinct Cells an∣swering
the three Leaves.

As also the Plant of which Bang is made;* it grows as our Hemp, the
Juice of whose Seed ground in a Bowl like Mustard-seed, and
mixed with any other Liquor, is that they equivocate with their Pro∣phet
instead of the Grape; and that which follows agrees to what
Mr. Ray notes out of LOB in Ado: Lacustris aqua cui cannabis inta∣buerit
tantopere viro nocet, ut epotasit praesentissimo sitientibus veneno;
this with Dutry (as has been said) is the inebriating Confection of
the Post.

Here he discovered to me his beloved Alluh,* the Bark of a Tree,
the present remedy against all manner of Fluxes.

Though these People delight much in Gardens,* yet are they but
rude, compared to ours of Europe; they make a noble Entrance, a
Banquetting-house in the middle eying the four Quarters of the Gar∣den,
beset with Trees like Wildernesses in every Quarter, or else
planted with Potatoes, Yawms, Berenjaws, both hot Plants, and their
Page 105

Coolers, as Pompkins, Cucumbers, Gourds, and such like; they are
only divided by Gravelly Walks and Water-courses; not curiously
adorned with Flowers; Bismalvas and some Wall-flowers or Stock-Gillyflowers
being the height of what they aim at: Only the Culga,
so famed for the Silk, in imitation of its Paint, I take it for our Ama∣rillis;
and 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, or the Tree Mallow, which is red as Scarlet
in the Morning, and at Noon faints into a pale Colour, and towards
the Evening is pure white; some few Lysimachias, which besides their
several sorts of Jessamins, is all the choice: Roses would grow here
if they would but cultivate them.

A Mile from the City grows the humble Sensitive Plant,* common
in the Fields; Eastward of Surat, two Courses, i. e. a League, we
pitched our Tent under a Tree, that besides its Leafs, the Branches
bear its own Roots, therefore called by the Portugals, Arbor de Rais:
For the Adoration the Banyans pay it, the Banyan Tree (by whom it
is held as sacred as the Oak to our Old Druids); who paint it daily,
and make Offerings of Rice, and pray to it: It has Leafs like an
Ivy, and is the same with that at Johanna, only that was incorporated
into one Body, and this by often taking Root is capable of overspread∣ing
a whole Field, so that it is said there are of them able to shade
an Army of 30000 Horse and Men singly; however it is possible to
be so contrived, if it be lookt after, to make a Wood alone of
it self.

The Hedges and Lanes are chiefly set with two sorts of Bushes,*
called by us Milk-Trees, because of a succulent Juice like Spurge,
white, and of the consistency of the best Milk; but if it comes near
the Skin or Eyes it is not so benign, according to the Experience of the
Famous Verulam, [Nat. Hist. Cent. 7. Exp. 39. Omnem succum lacti si∣milem
ex plantis incisis acrem esse.] and my Observation here; for if
by chance it stick upon any part of the Body, it frets like an Escaro∣tick;
and I have seen an unruly Horse, rushing through it, both blind
himself and Rider, both their Heads being swoln to an extraordinary
bigness. I believe it to be a kind of Tithymal, quod tenerum lac non secus
ac Manna effundit; the first sort of which has broader and jucier
Leafs, and has four or five together; not jagged, but somewhat oval,
a Finger’s length, and half as broad; one only thick Stalk arises
from the Root, and several Branches proceed from thence; they are
all Green and Tender, springing up a Man’s height, full of Prickles as
our Carduus, of whose Milk inspissated is made Euphorbium. The
other grows up into the Body of a Tree, and is Woody; above
which it sends forth several tender smooth Stalks, which sprout out
into Boughs seeming almost naked, because its Leafs are small, and
come out at its Joints, sometimes singly; it is most like a Privet, very
quick of Growth, and each of them make good Fences. The
Goats despise it not, feeding, though very cautiously, on the Leafs
and Branches of the latter, when the Heats have parched up the
Grass and other Plants.

Before we leave the pleasant Fields for the dusty stinking Town,*
Sugar-Canes and Tobacco would deserve our Remark, which are
both plentifully thriving here; had not these been already the Subject
of other Pens.

Page 106

The next diverting Prospect must be that of the River; it glides
by the Town in swift Tides,* and at Spring-Tides (which it would
always do, were they industrious to keep it in its Banks) it bears
Ships of 1000 Tun Burthen up to Surat Walls; but they unlade first,
because of the Sands, occasioned by their Sloth. They lye very thick
a Mile together, and scattering down to the River’s Mouth, reckon∣ing
more than an Hundred Sail of good Ships, besides small Vessels:
For all which they were beholden to the Poverty of some English
Shipwrights, the first of whom received the deserved Reward of his
Officiousness (being Scutica dignus) from the Moors, who appre∣hending
him stealing Customs, Chawbucked him handsomly.

The Dutch never permit the Natives to be taught any Eminent Art
whereby they may become their Competitors:* Nor is it, I think, bet∣ter
Policy to instruct them in any beneficial Science, as that of Na∣vigation,
no more than one would an Adversary how to use his Wea∣pons;
which these, had they equal Courage to their other Advanta∣ges
of Strength and Nature, might easily thereby turn the Points
of their Weapons upon us.

But for all these great Preparations,* as yet they dare not venture
out without Europe Passes, or Pilots; though some of their Ships
carry 30 or 40 Pieces of Cannon, more for Shew than Service. Be∣sides
these Merchant-Men, here are Three or Four Men of War
as big as Third Rate Ships: The other are Frigats fit to Row or Sail,
made with Prows instead of Beaks, more useful in Rivers and Creeks,
than in the Main. The Emperor also has four great Ships in Pay al∣ways,
to carry Pilgrims to M•echa on free Cost, and bring them back
from Hodge, where they prove a Crew of sanctified Varlets.

The Heir of Bantam is now here to take his Passage thither in one
of them,* with his Retinue, which are some of the Pengrims or Lords
of the Country, his Unkle and others, which were about Twenty,
with their Wives: He was first at Bombaim, where he was entertain∣ed
like a Prince, for the Obligation the Company have to their Trade
there, he having been disobedient to the King his Father, and has
not yet-shewed any kindness to the English, siding rather with the
Dutch Interest to undermine the Old King, and settle them in the
Pepper-trade, which afterwards will not be in his Power to redeem
out of their hands: Here little notice is taken of him, they all being
in miserable poor Habits, and he of little Credit, being a Giddyhead,
were it not for the English Captain that brought him, a Confident of
the Old King’s, who furnishes him with Money but sparingly, he
being indiscreet in his Expences. He is of the Java Extraction,
short of Stature, broad-fac’d, little Eyes, and less Beard, a mere
Boy; the rest wear their Beards like the Chineses, which is compa∣ratively
like a Cat’s; their Heads shaved, covered only with Skull-Caps
of Knit-Work, their Upper-Garments loose like a Frock:
When they appear before him, they prostrate themselves along,
then rising up with Respect, sit crouching on their Heels: Their
Women were covered with dark Blue Sheets.

The Old King had retired from the Cares of Government,* and com∣mitted
all to this his Son; but the Pengrims soon tired with his exor∣bitant
Sway, made Intercession for the Old King’s reassuming his Au∣thority;
Page 107

whereupon this Voyage was framed as an Expedient to set∣tle
his Mad Temper,* being intrusted to the sober Conduct of the
King’s Brother.

These Vessels that are for this Voyage are huge unshapen things,*
and bear both the Name and Model of their old Junks: They return
usually very Rich, and are at their Arrival adorned most abundantly
with Streamers. Their way of Salutes are with Even, as ours with
Odd Guns.

The Seamen and Soldiers differ only in a Vowel,* the one being
pronounced with an u, the other with an a; as Luscar is a Soldier;
Lascar, a Seaman. The Captain is called Nucquedah, the Boatswain
Tindal.

CHAP. III.
Of their Solemnities, Sports and Pastimes; their Marriages; of the Parseys, their Strength by Land and Sea, their abundant Wealth, and Fitness for Trade.
AND now having entertained you thus far, I shall continue to
you the Circumstantial or Accidental Shews, together with
their Sports and Exercises.

The first depends on the New Moon,* when, all Malice apart, the
Moors embrace one another, and at the sight thereof make a Jubilee,
by firing of Guns, blowing of Trumpets, Feasting and Praying ve∣ry
devoutly.

The next is the Day of the Week observed for the Great Mogul’s
Advancement to the Throne; which is not so generally kept, only
by the Soldiers and Officers.

But that which affects them all,* is at the end of their Ramazan or
Lent, which is always the first New Moon in November; which as
it is observed with the greatest Strictness, not swallowing their Spittle
all the Day of its Continuance, so is it celebrated when it concludes,
with the highest Expression of Joy and Solemnity.

The Governor goes in Procession,* and bestows his Largess in his
Passage to the Chief Place of Devotion, liberally scattering Rupees
as Kings do Medals at their Coronations, waited on by all the Gal∣lants
of the Town: His Son first leading a Body of Horse of the
Cavalry of the City; himself beginning the first File on the Left∣hand,
the place of highest Honour, it was as deep as the Street
would admit, observing no Rank: After whom followed the Cazy, with
Green Banners, with a Band of Foot of 100 Men; then the Cu∣stomer
with his Men and Colours, both carried in Palenkeens; whom
followed the Mullahs and Merchants, without any distinction, some
in Coaches, others in Palenkeens, with their large Troops of Serv•∣tors:
Then five Elephants in Armour, with Banners supported by
those that were in their Seats, capable of a dozen Sitters; they ma∣nage
them by one Rider sitting near his Neck, with an Iron Instru∣ment
Page 108

a Cubit in length, the Point bended downwards as long as a
Finger, ascribed by Livy to the Invention of that famous Leader’s
Brother Asdrubal, who seeing these Creatures of great Terror to
the Enemy, but if taking an heedless Course were as liable to damage
Friend as Foe, found out this Remedy; delivering a Graver to their
Masters with an Hammer, ordered them to strike it with their main
strength on the Juncture where their Head was fastned to their Neck,
if they were unruly, whereby the great Bulk fell to the Ground.
Magister fabrile scalprum, cum malleo inter aures positum, ipsâ in com∣page
quâ jungitur capiti cervix, quanto maximo poterat ictu adigebat,
But afterwards they learned by striking on the Vertebra’s of the Neck,
to rule them; which Custom I see here maintained. After these
came a Dozen Leopards on State-Hackeries with their Keepers, who
train them up to hunting. At convenient distances the Trumpets
sounded, and Camels of War with Patereroes on their Saddles,
marched with a Pace laborious to the Guiders, giving them a Dis∣ease
not much different from a Gonorrhea. Here nothing was seen
but Banners and Streamers, nor heard but Kettle-Drums and Trum∣pets;
after which followed the Governor in the middle of a Troop
of Soldiers, all in Coats-of Mail and Headpieces, armed at all Points,
both themselves and Horses; himself mounted on a little She-Ele∣phant,
with all the Trappings and Accoutrements of State. Et ad
morem antiquum quo puberes filii & jam in virili togâ, comitabantur tri∣umphantem
patrem, quod etiam ex Livio appareat de Paulo loquente.
Two or three Striplings (his own Children) rode smiling with him,
who were very White respectively; the Governor himself being a
Mogul, which is as much as Suffet in Arabic, from whence the Per∣sian
Emperor is called Suffee and this, Mogul, as being derived from
the same Parent; as also are all those descended from them. In this
State he rode to a Place set apart for this Day’s Solemnity, out of
the Walls, to the Queen’s Garden-Gate, before which it stands,
where after Prayers he receives the Compliments of the Grandees,
and returns to Feast.

At this time the Walls of the City, and Towers of the Castle,
wanted not their Adornments, being bestuck with bloody Ensigns,
and smoking with Guns of Jubilee, as well as tooting with their
Trumpets, and beating with their Drums; as the Jews on their
Sabbaths, or their solemn Feast days were wont.

The New Moon before the New Year (which commences at
the Vernal Equinox) is the Moors Aede,* when the Governor in no
less Pomp than before, goes to sacrifice a Ram or He-Goat, in re∣membrance
of that offered for Isaac (by them called Ishauh); the
like does every one in his own House, that is able to purchase one,
and sprinkle their Blood on the sides of their Doors.

About this time the Moors solemnize the Exequies of Hosseen Gos∣seen,*
a time of ten days Mourning for two Unfortunate Champions
of theirs, who perished by Thirst in the Deserts, fighting against
the Christians: Wherefore every Corner of the Street is supplied
with Jars of Water; and they run up and down like Furies in quest
of these two Brethren, laying about with Swords, Clubs, and
Staves, crying with that earnestness upon their Names, and dancing
Page 109

in such Antick Dances as resemble the Pyrrhical Saltation. Haec Ce∣lebratio
non omnino dissimilis ei generi exerceri solita à juvenibus armatis
Lacedemoniae cum Patris Achillis rogum celebraret; that a sober Man
could make no other judgment on them, than that they were di∣stracted.
This is done through the Streets, where if two Compa∣nies
encounter, they seldom part without bloody Noses; which Oc∣casion
being given like Esau’s Intentions on the Day of his Father’s
Lamentation, to revenge himself on his Brother Jacob, has been the
Cause why the Mogul has restrained it for the prevention of Out∣rages;
but yet his Mandate is not so valid to make them forsake it
here: After Sun-set they eat, and fall to singing the Psalms of Doud,
or David, in the most consonant Tone I have heard.

The last Day they prepare a couple of Coffins, and have a Man or
two on Horseback all bestuck like our Man in the Almanack, with
Arrows; these ride reeling, and ready to drop off their Horses for
Faintness, till they come to the River, where they put the Coffins
afloat with a loud Cry, and then returning, repeat with great Vene∣ration
their Names, and after this trim their Beards, wash and shift
their Cloaths, (all this while worn negligently, as Mourners) and re∣turn
to their more beastly Vomit of Luxury, than this of more than
Manly Fury.

This Religious Bigot of an Emperor Auren Zeeb,* seeks not to sup∣press
it utterly, but to reduce the Celebration, to preserve their Me∣mories
by a pious Respect, suitable to the Gravity of the Moors: For,
says he, hereby Opportunity is offered to the Cophers (Unbelievers)
to think Musslemen favour the Lewd Worship of the Heathens;
which is not only a Scandal to the Mahometan Religion, but an En∣couragement
to the Enemies thereof to persist in their own, whilst
such Licentiousness is connived at in that which should be set as a
Pattern for them to imitate: For even at this instant he is on a Project
to bring them all over to his Faith, and has already begun by two se∣veral
Taxes or Polls, very severe ones, especially upon the Brachmins,
making them pay a Gold Rupee an Head, and the inferior Tribes
proportionable; which has made some Rajahs revolt, and here they
begin to fly to the Portugal Countries, and Bombaim; though should
they make a joint Resistance they are a thousand to one more than
the Moguls can with an unanimous Contrivance fairly muster.

On an Eclipse of the Sun or Moon,* the Moors are in a lamentable
Plight, making a great Noise with Pots and Pans, and other noisy
Instruments; not omitting their Prayers, fancying them prevalent
to deliver them from their Travel. When the Heathens, instructed
by their Brachmins, by a better Philosophy, declare to them the Day
before the two great Luminaries are obscured by the Interposition
of the Moon’s, or Earth’s Globe, that they may Fast, Wash, and
Purify themselves for Twenty four Hours before the Eclipse happens,
and all the time of its lasting; after which is past, they feast and
bestow their Benevolence freely on the Brachmins, holding them for
this their profound Knowledge, in mighty Admiration.

And though the Jollity and Pomp of the Heathens is much al∣layed
by the Puritanism and unlimited Power of the Moors, inso∣much
that they are wholly forbidden to Burn their Wives with the
Page 110

Husbands; yet must not the Indians be totally denied their Feasts,
and chiefly that of their publick Nuptials, which comes in twice a
Year; as the Atticks in their 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 in January and October, so
these in the Months Fulgannau and Puxu, in January and March; to
enjoy which times of Festivity, the Governor expects large Gratui∣ties,
which they collect as every one can afford; All which times
they make Processions, and appear, (especially the Children and
young Folks) in rich Dresses of Gold and Silver, Mitres on their
Heads, and weighty Sashes about their Middles, bedawbed and
stained all over with Saffron Colour; the Married Folks riding on
Horseback, Palenkeens, and Coaches, splendidly adorned, drawn
by Oxen, Goats, and Elks, Painted over with Saffron, their Horns
tipped with Silver; Musick, Streamers, and Banners going before
them, the Women Singing Epithalamiums, the Men, following, and
a great Attendance with Pageants, Mirchals, and Kitsols, giving
Pawn and Coco-Nuts frankly, as they pass.

The Ceremonies after Washing and Cleansing,* conclude by their
Sitting Two Hours Tied by the Neck, while the Priest Prays, the
Woman being then Manacled with Gold or Silver Shackles about her
Wrists and Ankles, a white Sheet being held over them Unvailed, a
Coco Nut exchanged to confirm the Bargain, and Corn scattered upon
them; all Emblems of the Matrimonial Bands, Chastity and a firm
resolution to comply with one anothers Fortunes; and then dismis∣ses
them, by sprinkling Water on the Married Couple, that they
may Increase and Multiply. The Women are never Married more
than once, the Men are under no such Obligation.

The first New Moon in October,* is the Banyans Dually, a great
Day of Celebration to their Pagan Deities, when they are very kind∣hearted,
presenting their Masters with Gifts, as knowing they
shall be no Losers, and Entertain one another with mutual Mirth and
Banquetting.

The next Moon their Women flock to the Sacred Wells;* where,
they say, it is not difficult to persuade them to be kind, supposing
their Pollutions not to remain after their Washing in these Holy
Waters.

March begins with a Licentious Week of Sports and Rejoycing,*
wherein they are not wanting for Lascivious Discourse, nor are they
to be offended at any Jest or Waggery. And to shew their Benefi∣cence
at the beginning of the Rains, they Treat the Ants and
Flies with Sweatmeats and Wafers, studiously setting Hony, Syrups,
or any thing that may entice them to their own death, out of their
way; allowing them Sugar, or any other dried Confects for their
Repast, instead of them.

They are constant Benefactors to the Dogs,* which are many, the
Bitches littering in the Streets; but avoid touching them, as they
would an Holencore, whom if their Garments chance to brush, they
hie them home, Shift, and Wash.

And now we enter upon the Agonalia,* first of the Moors: They
love to outdo one another in Feats of Activity, as Riding full speed,
and to stop with a Jerk, or motion of the Body, their Horses be∣ing
well managed; Tilting and Greeding, that is, Casting of
Page [unnumbered]

[illustration]
Page [unnumbered]
Page 111
Darts, both for Utility and Recreation; Shooting with Bows and Arrows, which is near at hand, not far off, as we at Rovers; Running on Foot, which belongs to the Pattamars, the only Foot-posts of this Country, who Run so many Courses every Morning, or else Dance so many hours to a Tune called the Patamars Tune, when they labour as much as a Lancashire Man does at Roger of Coverly, or the Taran∣tula of their Hornpipe; these wear Feathers in their Turbats.
The Wrestlers Anoint with Oil,* and are Naked, only a Belt about
their Wastes, in which they weary one another only by pure
Strength and Luctation, not by Skill or Circumvention; these two
last use Opium to make them perform things beyond their strength;
and it is incredible to think how far these will Travel before the vir∣tue
of it be worked off.

Hunting of Tigers is sometimes a Pastime,* at others a Tragy-Co∣medy;
for besetting a Wood where Tigers lurk, with Men and Hor∣ses,
and putting a Set of their loud Musick to strike up in the middle
of it; they rouze at the unaccustomed Noize, and rushing forth seize
the first in their way, if not Shot or Launced, to prevent them:
Wild Bulls and Buffola’s are as dangerous, nor is the Boar less fierce
than any of them.

Antilopes are set upon by Leopards on this wise; they carry the Leo∣pards
on Hackeries, both for less suspicion, and to give them the advan∣tage
of their Spring; which if they lose, they follow not their Prey, be∣ing
for a surprize; wherefore the Hackeries wheel about at a distance,
till they come near enough to apprehend them, they feeding fearless
of the Hackeries; then with three or four Leaps, after a small Chace,
seize them, and easily become their Masters.

The Great Men have Persian Greyhounds, which they Cloathe in
Cold Weather, and some few Hawks; a Colum may be Hunted with
a Greyhound, as we do Bustards, being a great Fowl and long in
Rising.

Buffola’s animated by their Keepers,* fight with great fury; their
Horns, being reversed, are useless; but they knock Foreheads with a
force adequate to such great Engines, till they are all of a gore, and
follow their blow with such vigour, that the strength of their Backs
exert themselves into their Natural Parts, which they brandish as if
stimulated to Venery; the stronger will hardly permit the weaker
to go back to return with his force, but pressing on him, endeavours
to bear him down; thus foiling one another, they are a long time
before they will yield.

Persian Rams set together in this manner, are not parted without
a bloody Catastrophe, which are kept on purpose for the sport of
their Great Men; as likewise are Elephants, who engage at the
Will of their Masters.

Here are no Gladiators, but at Cudgels they will play as at Back∣sword,
till they warm one another.

The chief Pleasure of the Gentiles,* or Banyans, is to Cheat one
another, conceiving therein the highest Felicity, though it be
Cuckolding, which they are expert at. They will play at Chess,
or Tables; but their utmost Fewds are determined by the dint of
the Tongue, to scold lustily, and to pull one anothers Puc∣keries,
Page 112

or Turbats off, being proverbially termed a Banyan
Fight.

Nevertheless they are implacable till a secret and sure Revenge
fall upon their Adversary, either by maliciously plotting against their
Life, by clancular Dealings, or Estate, by unlawful and unjust Extor∣tions:
Then you shall have them with this Prayer in their Mouths,

—Pulchra Laverna
Da mihi fallere, da justum sanctumque videri;
Noctem peccatis & fraudibus adjice nubem.
Example is more than Precept,* and the Youth have no other Edu∣cation
besides their Parents, more than some mean Pedagogue’s, who
teaches the Children first their Letters or Cyphers on the Ground, by
writing on the Dust with their Fingers, which is their Primer;
where when they are perfect, they are allowed a Board plastered over,
which with Cotton they wipe out, when full, as we do from Slates
or Table-Books; when they arrive to Paper, they are presumed to
be their Crafts-masters, and to earn it.

The Moors,* who are by Nature slothful, will not take pains; being
proud, scorn to be taught; and jealous of the Baseness of Mankind,
dare not trust their Children under tuition, for fear of Sodomy;
whereby few of their Great Men or Merchants can read, but keep a
Scrivan of the Gentues: On which account it is the Banyans make all
Bargains, and transact all Money-business; and though you hear, see,
and understand them, yet you shall be choused, they looking you in
the face; for as a piece of Superstition, they must put their Hands
under a Ramerin, or Mantle, when by their Fingers they instruct one
another, and by that slight often contradict their Tongues: Such a
subtile Generation is this, and so fitly squared a Place is Surat to ex∣ercise
their Genius in.

In February the Bussorah Ships,* and in August the Juddah Fleet
from the Red Sea, each of which, beside our Europe Ships, export
vast quantities of Indico, Cotton, Cotton-Yarn, and Silks; and vend
them to the Caphalay, waiting on them over-land; so that returning,
they are forced to ballast their Ships with Dates, Persian and Arabian
Drugs; and freight with Horses from each Place: But the main is
brought back in Gold, Silver and Pearl, which does in a manner
center here: For though it circulates all the World over, yet here
it is hoorded, Regis ad exemplum, both by King and People, he having
Tanks thereof unsealed for many Ages, and the Gentiles hide it for
Eternity. So that though it be not of the growth of this Country,
yet the innate Thrift of the Gentiles, and the small occasion of Fo∣reign
Expences, and this humour of laying up their Talent in a Nap∣kin,
buries the greatest part of the Treasure of the World in India:
There being a far greater urgency for Cloathing, than that of Super∣fluity;
which is the Spice-Trade of the South Seas, which only pays
for what it carries off here, all the rest loading their Beasts without
the Money returned in their Sacks Mouths; and for all that the
Hollanders return Money from hence, yet it is swallowed up again
Page 113

by the Trade of the Bay, and a great deal more consumed there for
their fine Cloath.

This Year the Bussorah Fleet brought the Bassa of that Place hi∣ther,* who is now encamped on a pleasant Green by the River’s side;
the Great Mogul condescending to have the Title of Sanctuary to the
Distressed inserted among his other Aiery ones, as King of the World
where-ever the Sun shines, being the Inscription on his Rupees in
Persian Characters (the Court Langague.)

Dergs hau sic casud chubadera moneir
Paudshaw Aureng zeeb Allum Geir.
For which sake he dispatched Five hundred Horsemen, and Three
hundred Camels, to receive the Bassa, his Family and Retinue, ashore;
who being Governor in Mesopotamia for the Grand Seignior, grew
powerful, and was therefore suspected; which drew the Forces of
the Sultan his Master upon him; but knowing the Sea open, he sues
to the Mogul for Protection, who promised not only to receive him,
but imploy him honourably; and as a Testimony of his sincere In∣tentions,
has sent these to attend him to Court.

The Trade of Jewellers is no small addition to the Profit of this
Town,* which I shall not now specify, intending to treat of them
apart, both for yours and my own satisfaction, together with a ge∣neral
Collection of Coins and Weights, as time and opportunity
shall make me better acquainted: In the mean time, telling you what
I saw at the House of an Hindu that wrought in Coral, where was
to be wondred the Tools he worked with, more than his Art, because
we see it surpassed in Europe; but with far more invention of Instru∣ments:
Here Hands and Feet being all the Vice, and the other Tools
unshapen bits of Iron: From whence I went the same day to a Moor∣man
that cuts all sorts of Stones, except Diamonds, with a certain
Wheel made of Lacre and Stone ground and incorporated, only to
be had at Cochin, and there the Name is known.

They cut Diamonds with a Mill turned by Men, the String reach∣ing,
in manner of our Cutlers Wheels, to lesser that are in a flat
Press, where under Steel-wheels the Diamonds are fastned; and
with its own Bort are worn into what Cut the Artist pleases: These
are sold most in the Country, they coming short of the Fringies in
Fancy; wherefore they are sent rough into Europe, where they are
both set and cut to more advantage.

A Banyan that seemingly is not worth a Gosbeek (the lowest Coin
they have) shall pull out of his Puckery some thousand Pounds∣worth
of these for sale; when all the Wariness in the World is re∣quired,
and so I dismiss them.

This City is very nasty by their want of Privies,* and their ma∣king
every Door a Dunghill; yet never had they any Plague, the
Heats evaporating, and the Rains washing this Filth away.

The Diseases reign according to the Seasons;* the North blowing,
Bodies are rendered firm, solid and active by exhausting the Serous
Humours, ad Hyp. 17. Aph. Lib. 3. for which cause Dry Weather is
Page 114

more healthy than Moist, it hastening Digestion, and facilitating
Excretion, when no Fevers that are treacherous root themselves in a
deep Putrefaction. About the Variable Months they are miserably
afflicted with Coughs and Catarrhs, Tumors of the Mouth and
Throat, Rheumatisms, and intermitting Fevers; Also Small Pox
invades the Youth, as in all India, so here: In the extreme Heats,
Cholera Morbus, Inflammations of the Eyes by Dust and the fiery Tem∣per
of the Air: In the Rains, Fluxes, Apoplexies, and all Distempers
of the Brain, as well as Stomach; to correct which, the Natives eat
Hing, a sort of liquid Assa Foetida, whereby they smell odiously.
For all Lethargick Fits they use Garlick and Ginger, given in Oyl
or Butter.

To Cup they use Ventosoes,* without Scarifications. They have
good Escaroticks and Vesicatories, made by a certain Nut, the same
they chop or mark their Calicuts black with instead of Ink.

They apply Cauteries most unmercifully in a Mordisheen, called
so by the Portugals, being a Vomiting with a Loosness; the like is
done in a Calenture.

Physick here is now as in former days, open to all Pretenders; here
being no Bars of Authority, or formal Graduation, Examination or
Proof of their Proficiency; but every one ventures, and every one suf∣fers;
and those that are most skilled, have it by Tradition, or former Ex∣perience
descending in their Families; not considering either altera∣tion
of Tempers or Seasons, but what succeeded well to one, they
apply to all.

In Fevers their Method is to prescribe Coolers, till they have ex∣tinguished the Vital Heat; and if the Patients are so robust to con∣quer
the Remedies used to quench the Flame of the Acute Disease,
yet are they left labouring under Chronical ones, as Dropsy, Jaun∣dice,
and Ill Habits, a long while before they recover their Pri∣stine
Heat.

They are unskill’d in Anatomy, even those of the Moors who fol∣low
the Arabians, thinking it unlawful to dissect Human Bodies;
whereupon Phlebotomy is not understood, they being ignorant how
the Veins lye; but they will worry themselves Martyrs to death by
Leeches, clapping on an hundred at once, which they know not how
to pull off, till they have filled themselves, and drop of their own
accord.

Chirurgery is in as bad a plight, Amputation being an horrid
thing: Yet I confess it is strange to see, that what Nature will effect
on such Bodies, Intemperance has not debauch’d.

Pharmacy is in no better condition; Apothecaries here being no
more than Perfumers or Druggists, at best; for he that has the bold∣ness
to practise, makes up his own Medicines, which are generally
such Draughts, that if their own Energy work not, yet the very
Weight must force an Operation.

They pretend to understand the Pulse, but the Urine they will
not look on.

I have seen a Barber undertake the Cure of a Bloody Flux, by
pretending the Guts were displaced, and laying the Patient on his
Back, and gently tickling his Reins, thrust on each side the Abdo∣men
Page 115

with all his strength; then placing a Pot filled with dried Earth,
like that of Samos, upon his Navel, he made it fast by a Ligature;
and on some Bodies thus treated he had gained Credit, but this died.
Prosper Alpinus mentions something like this among the Egyptians.

Here they will submit to Spells and Charms, and the Advice of
Old Women.

Here is a Brachmin Doctor who has raised a good Fortune; they
pretend to no Fees, but make them pay in their Physick; and think
it Honour enough if you favour them with the Title of your Phy∣sician
only.

This Brachmin comes every day,* and feels every Man’s Pulse in the
Factory, and is often made use of for a Powder for Agues, which
works as infallibly as the Peruvian Bark; it is a Preparation of Na∣tural
Cinnaber. Midwifry is in esteem among the Rich and Lazy
only; the Poorer, while they are labouring or planting, go aside as
if to do their Needs, deliver themselves, wash the Child, and lay it
in a Clout or Hammock, and return to work again.

The Mixture of Casts or Tribes of all India are distinguished by
the different Modes of their binding their Turbats;* which cannot
be found out presently, there being such variety of Observation.

Amidst which it is time to return,* to see what Grace we are in
among this divided Multitude: Our Usage by the Pharmaund (or
Charter) granted successively from their Emperors, is kind enough,
but the better, because our Naval Power curbs them; otherwise
they being prone to be imperious, would subjugate us, as they do all
others that are harness’d with the Apron-strings of Trade: Suppo∣sing
us then to bear the Face of Ministers of State, as well as the sly
Visage of Mechanicks, they depose something of their Ferity, and
treat with us in a more favourable Stile; giving us the Preference
before others here resident, and look on us with the same Aspect as
they do on their great Ombrahs.

In Town there are many private Merchants that bear a Port equal
to our Europe Companies, being only Vockeels or Factors for mo∣ney’d
Men up the Country, that drive as great a Trade as the Com∣pany,
yet dare not assume that Liberty allowed us: We fortify our
Houses, have Bunde•s or Docks for our Vessels, to which belong
Yards for Seamen, Soldiers, and Stores: To that which belongs to
the Dutch is a sweet Garden, shor’d up with Timber from the in∣croaching
River, with Arbors and Beds after the Europe Mode.

Among the Rarities of our own House I saw an Unicorn’s Horn,*
not that of the Rhinoceros, of which Cups are made and profered
for Sale here, and are relied on to discover Poyson, if poured into
them.

—Quod Reges Indorum protinus aureis
Orbibus includunt, & vina liquantia potant,
Actum nec morbos tuti sentire feruntur,
Nec quae inter mensas occulta hausere venena.
As also two Skins of Saboean Asses, highly valued among the Eastern
Princes both for their Swiftness and Beautifulness, being streaked
Page 116

with a dark Grey upon a White Ground, upon the Back direct, in
other Parts waving towards their length: As also Pigeons tumbling
in the Air, attributed to the Indisposition of their Brain; but to me
it appears a voluntary Action, they not falling at all upon it, but
after three or four Turns would fly, and repeat it as often as they
listed, without any interruption in their Course, and when they seem∣ed
to direct themselves to any place, without any Inclination to it, as
an Irregularity, but rather out of Affectation; which notwith∣standing
cannot be taught any, but only those of this kind; no more
than any other besides Carriers, (which were here with blubber’d
Noses, and of a Brown Colour) to carry Letters: Others walked
on the Ground, with their Breasts bearing out, and the Feathers of
their Tails spreading like Turkies, bridling their Heads so that they
were even with their Rumps; this also is a peculiar Species, and not
Artificial; they propagate their own kind, and are of a pied Colour.

From Siam are brought hither little Champore Cocks with ruffed
Feet, well armed with Spurs, which have a strutting Gate with
them, the truest mettled in the World; they are generally White,
with an Eye of Yellow. Here were Milk-White Turtles from Bus∣sorah,
Cockatooas and Newries from Bantam, as also a Cassawar that
digests Iron.

From Amidavad small Birds, who, besides that they are spotted
with White and Red no bigger than Measles, the principal Chorister
beginning, the rest in Consort, Fifty in a Cage, make an admirable
Chorus.

And also for Vermin, the strongest huge Rats, as big as our Pigs,
which burrow under the Houses, and are bold enough to venture on
Poultry, and make them their Prey: A Mongoose is a-kin to a Ferret:
Spuirrels delicately streaked White and Black, run about the House,
and on top of Terrasses. Musk-Rats of the same Colour, short∣feeted,
but a Span in length, their Bodies no thicker than a Mouse;
they infest the Houses and Water-Jars with their Scent; from which
last all Care is taken to preserve them. Guiana, a Creature like a Cro∣codile,
which Robbers use to lay hold on by their Tails when they
clamber Houses.

For Insects,*Centipedes, Scorpions, and vast Spiders; these lye
perdue, and often set upon People unawares; for the Venom of the
two former, they have Oyl made of each; the first is the worst, and
often deadly; the other works off after a burning Fit of Four and
twenty hours. Abroad in the Fields and Rivers are poysonous
Snakes; and here was lately a Woman, as she went to fetch Water
at the River, devoured by an Aligator or Crocodile, though the
Brachmins pretend to Charm them that they shall do no Mischief in
this their Sacred River; and this was given out to be a Judgment
not otherwise to be expiated.

And now the Dutch Fleet being arrived at the River’s Mouth
(after having demolished the City St. Thomas,* near Fort St. George,
the French yielding on Discretion), they restored us the Prisoners
taken in the Engagement, having treated them very civilly: And
the Governor was forced to go from Surat to Swally (to the Dutch
Page 117

Commodore, removed thither) to intreat an Agreement; the Cla∣mours
of the Merchants being instant, the Bussorah Fleet was in
jeopardy, which they threatned to seize; but on his Appearance,
and Assurance of Satisfaction, all was salved. Lest therefore this
should be judged too mean a Compliance, he paid a Visit with all
his Pomp to our Deputy-President, still at Swally, though the Eu∣rope
Ships were gone, others from the South-Seas being expected.

Thus repassing the River after this Great Man, in order to repair
aboard Ship, I beheld whole Droves of all Sexes and Ages coming
to wash in the River, which is done twice a day; and the Finest
Dames of the Gentues disdained not to carry Water on their heads,
with sometimes two or three Earthen Pots over one another for
Houshold service; the like do all the Women of the Gentiles.

On this side the Water are People of another Off-spring than
those we have yet mentioned;* these be called Parseys, who were
made free Denizens by the Indians before the Moors were Masters,
and have continued to Inhabit where they first set Footing, not being
known above Forty Miles along the Sea-coast, nor above Twenty
Mile Inland. It is likely these upon the overflow of the Scythians,
and their Irruption into Persia, were driven from thence as Fugitives
to seek fresh Habitations; which, those furnished with Boats from
the Persian Gulf, might easily escape thither; where they comply∣ing
with some Propositions, as not to Kill any Beasts or living Crea∣tures,
and Conform to many of the Gentue Ceremonies, were Enter∣tained
and allowed to live among them.

Since the Moors have Subdued the Country, they think themselves
not obliged by the former Capitulation, they Feeding on both Fish
and Flesh; and for that reason were in hopes of exemption from
the present Poll, pretending their Law agreeable to the Moors, but
that would not free them from the Tax. These drink Wine, and
are of the Race of the Ancient Persians.

They Worship the Sun,* and keep at Nunsarry, a Delubrium,
where is always a Fire (first kindled by the Sun) kept alive as the
Holy Vestal Nuns were wont; they Adore all the Elements, and
if at any time they go a Voyage, will not exonerate in the Sea, or
on the Water, but have Jarrs on purpose; if their Houses be on
fire, they quench them not with Water, rather chusing to load them
with Dust or Sand.

These Bury not their Dead,* but expose them in round Tombs made
on purpose, (open on top, and walled high around, in distinct Apar∣titions)
to the Vultures and ravenous Fowls to Entomb them; and
to that end, in the middle of this Enclosure is a Well for the Filth
to drain away; the next of Kin, after the Body is put in, Watch
aloof, to know what Part these Birds of Prey lay hold on, and
from thence make their report of the future Bliss, or ill State of the
Deceased.

These are somewhat Whiter,* and, I think, Nastier than the Gen∣tues;
and Live, as they do, all of a Family together; as if the Fa∣ther
be Living, then all the Sons that are Married, and Men grown,
with their Wives and Children, house it with the Father, and have
a Portion of his Stock; if he die, or be absent, the Eldest Brother
Page 118

has the Respect of the Father shewn, and so successively; they all
Rising up at his Appearance, and Sit not till he be Seated.

These are rather Husbandmen than Merchants, not caring to stir
abroad; they supply the Marine with Carts drawn by Oxen, the
Ships with Wood and Water; the latter of which is excellent,
drawn out of a Well at old Swally; where, and at others, the
Women put me in mind of Jacob’s Well, and the Custom of old for
them to draw Water, which though here it is fetch’d up by Oxen,
yet elsewhere the Women draw in Jarrs, or Earthen Pots. The
Moors have it brought on Buffola’s Backs, or else on Oxen; which
here also they use, as all over India, instead of Pack-horses, their
greatest Caphala’s consisting of them, Horses being only for War or
Pleasure, and the best of them Foreigners, and of great Prices;
so that 300 l. is but an easy Rate for a good Persian or Arab.

Here are brought up large gallant Milk-White Oxen with Circling
Horns,* artificially Modelled in Cases, which they Tip with Silver,
Gold, or Brass, and make them shine like Jet; putting a Rope
through their Nostrils, and an Headstal on them of London Cloath, sur∣rounding
their Necks with Collars for Bells, Feeding them delicately
as their Horses; and one of these fitted for a Coach, will Sell for
30 or 40 l. The other Oxen are Little, but all have a Bunch on
their Neck; and how they become Oxen is on this manner; Their
Religion not allowing them to Castrate them, they Bruise their
Testicles, not Geld them by Cutting them off when Young;
which answers the intention as fully as the other. This kind of re∣straint
upon Nature is exercised on no Brutes but these, they never
offering to deprive their Horses of their Stones or Tails, which they
alway suffer to grow; a Bobtailed Nag, or Gelding, being as rare
here, as a Crop-eared Horse, which never was seen.

A Buffola is of a Dun Colour,* and are all as big as their largest Oxen;
they love to wallow in the Mire like an Hog; there are of them
Wild, which are very Fierce and Mischievous, Trampling a Man
to Death, or Moiling him to Pieces with their Foreheads; their
Horns are carelesly turned with Knobs around, being usually so
ordered, or rather disordered (for they retain no certain Form) that
they lie too much over their Heads to do any harm with them. Their
Flesh is reckon’d Hotter and Courser than Beef, which is the most com∣mon
Sustinence of the Moors; as their Milk and boiled Butter is of
the Gentues; for did they not boil their Butter, it would be Rank,
but after it has passed the Fire, they keep it in Duppers the year
round: On which Dr. N. G. in his Account of the Rarities of the
Royal Society, has sufficiently enlarged.

Here in the Marshes are brought up great store of Cattle of all
sorts;* and though there lie store of Aligators to and again, they
are seldome known to Prey either on them or their Young; so that
what stir they make of Charming them, is but a pious Fraud of the
Brachmins, they being a lazy sort of Amphibious Creature, feeding
on Grass as well as Fish, and I question whether ever their Appetite
stand towards Flesh.

The Mutton here is not much inferior to the Mutton of England,
for the Pallat, though as to its Wool, there is no compare. Cows
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Butter sometimes will be hard in the Cold Season, and look yellow,
but they arrive not to the making of Cheese, unless it be soft Cheese,
which pickled, our Seamen keep a good while, as they do their
Achars.

Here grow Carrots,* Turnips, Rhadishes; Cabbage rarely, though
Coleworts frequently; Melons of all sorts, and Betes: Wheat as
good as the world affords; Rice, Barley, Millet, and Nuchanny;
Pease and Beans; Oyl-Trees, and Rape for Lamp Oyl; (only
Wax-Candles for the Rich, by reason of the warmth being to be
used).

Herbs for Salading are Purslain, Sorrel, Lettice, Parsley, Taren∣tine,
Mint, and Sog, a sort of Spinach.

Here Asparagus flourish, as do Limes, Pomegranates, Geni∣tins;
Grapes in abundance; but the Moors suffer no Wine to be
made.

Fish, Oisters, Soles, and Indian Mackerel, the River yields very
good, and the Pools and Lakes store of Wild Fowl; peculiarly
Brand-Geese, Colum, and Serass,* a Species of the former; in the
Cold Weather they shunning the Northern rigid Blasts, come yearly
hither from Mount Caucasus; what is worth taking notice of, is
their Aspera Arteria, wound up in a Case on both sides their Breast∣bone
in manner of a Trumpet, such as our Waits use; when it is
single it is a Serass, when double a Colum, making a greater Noise
than a Bittern, being heard a great while before they can be seen,
flying in Armies in the Air.

As we came nearer Swally,* Groves of Brabb-Trees present them∣selves;
from whence the Parseys draw Wine a kin to Toddy, which
after the Sun is up, contracts an Eagerness with an heady Quality;
so that these places are seldom free from Soldiers and Seamen of the
Moors, which sometimes meeting with ours, there happen bloody
Frays, especially if the Quarrel be about Strumpets, who here ply
for their Fares: The like disputes are sometimes among the Euro∣peans
themselves, and then they make sport for the Parseys upon the
Trees, who have the diversion of the Combatants; as Boxing
among the English; Snicker-Sneeing among the Dutch; ripping one
anothers Bellies open with short Knives; Duelling with Rapiers
among the French; Sword and Dagger among the Portugals.

Coming to the Marine,* beside the Dutch Fleet and English Ships,
were Four Arabs with Red Colours, like Streamers, Riding in the
Hole. These are true Rovers both by Sea and Land; they are con∣stantly
upon the Plunder with the Portugals, but care not to engage
where nothing is to be gotten but Blows, wasting those Places that lie
most open on the Sea-coast and Unguarded.

These have lately fitted themselves with good stout Ships at Surat,
their own Country supplying them with no Materials for Building;
the non-payment whereof, according to the Contract with the Go∣vernor,
at present has put a stop to their increase that way in Ship∣ping;
and has kindled matter for farther alarming the Merchants:
For the Governor, for his security, has seised the Imaum’s Vockeel,
nor intends he to enlarge him till the uttermost Gosbeek be paid.

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On this Pretence they begin to interrupt the Merchants on the
Seas, seising their Vessels, and furnishing themselves at cheaper
Rates.

Nor does their late Enterprize over the Portugals make them less
formidable; so that if they be not checked by these Knights of
Lisboa, they will infect this Ocean, no less than the Moors of Algiers,
Tunis and Tripoly, do the Narrow Seas in the Mediterranean, especially
the Gulf of Persia, in whose Mouth they are conveniently seated, and
villainously inclined; in which it concerns them to omit no Dili∣gence.

Having staid here since the close of the Rains,* all the Cold
Season, and beginning of the variable Winds, which are sent hither
to qualify the Heats before the fall of the Rains (they blowing very
high) I left the most frequented Port in India, and the only one
on this Coast the Mogul has.

It is a Corporation exempt from any Jurisdiction but the Empe∣ror’s;
though it be but the second City of the Province, and within
this last Century, by the concourse of the Europeans, advanced from
a Fishing Town to be so great an Empory.

Ro Neal, a Mile beyond it on Swally side, was once before it, now
abandoned to Seamen and Washermen: The Customers then paid
half to the Portugals, who once a-year came with their Provoes and
received their Levies; since this is become of more note, it is better
looked after by the Mogul, than that was by the Emperor of
Cambaia.

It has for its Maintainance the Incomes of Thirty six Villages;
over which the Governor sometimes presides, sometimes not, being
in the Jaggea or Diocess of another; who fail not once a-year to send
to reap the Profit, which is received by the Hands of the Desie or
Farmer, who squeezes the Countryman, as much as the Governor
does the Citizen: Corn being distributed among them for so much
Earth as they Till, which at the time of Harvest is not carried home,
before the Desie hath taken Three parts, leaving no more for their
pains, and to sow the Land again, than One.

The Business of the Customs, as we have already said, is ordered
by the Chief Customer, who has Chockies in all Inland Parts to re∣ceive
Toll, and is responsible to none, only the Emperor.

To govern the Province,*Mahmud Emir Caun is entrusted, the Son
of Emir Jemla, who established Aurenzeeb in his Throne.

His Metropolis is at Amidavad, the Chief City of Guzerat: Who
notwithstanding he has vast Forces, Wealth and Territories, is not
able to quell the Coolies from pilfring, Seva Gi from plundring, and
the Outlawed Raspoots from dispoiling, where-ever they please to
descend in Companies from the Mountains, or Troops out of the
Desart of Sinda: Though none of these, nor all joined together, can
cope with him in a pitched Field, but only by Thievery and Surprize:
Wherefore when any Caphala or Treasure passes, they hire Soldiers to
guard it, otherwise they are liable to be made a Prey.

Were these Difficulties removed, Surat, as if Nature had designed
her both by Sea and Land the Seat of Traffick, would have nothing
to hinder her from being the compleatest Mistress thereof in the
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whole World:* If the Disposition of the People be considered, what
Masters they are of this Faculty, of Buying at small, and Vending at
great Rates, both Native and Exotick Wares! The sordid Penury of
the Banyans that live poorly and meanly, yet worth a King’s Exche∣quer;
and notwithstanding the Governor often finds occasion to
fleece them, yet by the quickness of Merchandise passing thorough
this City, they recruit on a suddain.

The commodiousness of the River serving to bring Goods in from
Europe, Asia, Africa and America; the long continued Current from
the Inland parts through the vast Wildernesses of huge Woods and
Forests, wafts great Rafts of Timber for Shipping, and Building;
and Damar for Pitch, the finest sented Bitumen (if it be not a Gum
or Rosin) I ever met with.

And if the King’s Fleet be but ordinary, considering so great a
Monarch and these Advantages, it is because he minds it not; he
contenting himself in the enjoyment of the Continent, and styles the
Christians Lions of the Sea; saying that God has allotted that Un∣stable
Element for their Rule.

They have not only Cair-Tarn made of the Cocoe for Cordage, but
good Flax and Hemp; and Iron from the Mountains of the South:
So that it may be concluded, for the Benefit of an Harbour, for the
Dispositions of the Natives, for a convenient Supply (or more truly
Abundance) of all things, for a due imployment of them; but
above all, for the Commodities Exported, and the Riches Im∣ported,
Surat cannot be fellowed in India.

CHAP. IV.
Brings me with a New Deputy-Governor from Surat to Bom∣baim, and sends me to the Mogul’s General at Jeneah.
THE Fourth of April 1675. arriving at Bombaim with Mr. Gyf∣ford,
he was reinstated Deputy-Governor of that Island;
Captain Shaxton in this interim having his Sword demanded from
him by the Governor, and had been under Confinement; being
bound to answer an Indictment, wherein he was accused of Abet∣ting
the Mutinous Soldiers.

For whose Trial,* after a long endeavour to bring him to acknow∣ledgment,
was erected a select Court of Judicature, and an Attorny
ordered to impeach him, who with some borrowed Rhetorick en∣deavoured
to make him appear a Second Catiline; but he cleared
himself so handsomely of all Objections (being sick at that time the
Stirs were, and having no reference to him, their Complaints being
of another nature, as the taking Money for more than could be pas∣sed
current again, and other like pretended Exactions) that they had
no more to answer, than that it should be referred to the Company;
before whom he must personally appear, and therefore was ordered
home, but was prevented by Death at the end of his Voyage: Other∣wise
Page 122

he would have made it plain, Envy had underhand worked,
what she durst not attempt boldly on a Man of Honour; and for
no other Reason, than that he understood himself as a Soldier, and
in that point would be known.

By this Man’s Misfortune might have been seen the dislike that
the Company’s Servants bear towards any of equal poise with
themselves, and not of that Rank; for thereby they count they are
injured, having others put over their heads, as ’tis termed; but if by
chance they convince them of their Folly, it becomes a Crime un∣pardonable:
The first ground of this Quarrel being upon unnecessary
Appendices to the Fort, as Pallisadoes in Mud, so contrived, that
they were rather a means to take than defend it, which afterwards
were all washed away by the Rains; to these some Despight being
added (he being a Man sharp in his Jests, and blunt in Counsel) it
never ended, till it proved as fatal as Remus’s leaping over his Bro∣ther
Romulus his Ditch, cast for a Trench about Old Rome.

Few days had been spent afore a Sea-Tortoise was brought to the
Fort,* in Length Six Feet, the content of his Hut near two Bushels,
reckoning only that part with which his Back is shielded, being an
huge Shell of a brown Colour; never to be made transparent as those
come from the South-Seas are, nor easily to be crackt by any weight;
for Experiment, I and two more got upon it, and the Tortoise un∣concerned
carried us: Its Head is loricated with Scales, the Neck
reaching as far as the Hut, soft and undefensible; the Fins are
four, placed instead of Legs, by which it crawls as well as swims;
the Belly is covered with a Breast-plate called the Callapee, soft and
whitish in respect of the Back-piece or Callipet; its Tail is short and
wreathed like a Serpent’s; altogether it is as lovely as a Toad: It
sighs like a Woman, and weeps like a Child; being taken and turned
on its back, it is shiftless.

I caused it to be opened,* and examined its Heart, which (con∣trary
to the Opinion of the Vulgar) is but One, they affirming it to
be Three, grounded on this Mistake; the Auricles being larger than
in other Creatures, equalling almost the Ventricles and whole Body
of the Heart, which is bigger in proportion than belongs to such an
Animal, being as large as an Ox’s; which might be the reason of
its Pusilanimity: The Veins and Arteries were filled with Currents
of cold black Blood: It participates more of Flesh than Fish, of a vi∣viparous
than oviparous Offspring, yet lays imperfect Eggs without
a Crust (only covered with a Membrane, being most Yolk) buried
by it in the Sands, to receive from the Sun’s heat the perfection of
their Hatching (as the Eggs of Egypt from Furnaces, or others
from Dunghills): It spawns them as Fish do, in huge quantities, as
much at one time as will more than fill a Seaman’s Bonnet (every
one being as big as an Hen’s Egg) By them aboard Ship they are or∣dered
like buttered Eggs of a Fowl, though nearer akin to a Ser∣pent’s,
hanging together as those do.

For this end they come ashore, and when pursued, cast up with
their Claws a Cloud of Sand to blind their Enemies; when overtaken
some are so big, four men can hardly turn them.

Page 123

It is supposed they feed on the Grass or Oaz on Land, or at the
bottom of the Ocean; and from the Fable of the Three Hearts, springs
the Conceit of its Tripartite Community, of Fish, and Flesh, and
Fowl; the outward Covering being Shelly, the inner Meat Carnous,
its way of preserving its kind being by Eggs, as the Feathered Fowl
do: To me it seems (though the Flesh be highly extolled for the
taste and colour of Veal) neither Fish, nor Flesh, nor good Red
Herring.

It bears the Vogue for altering the Blood;* wherefore good in Scur∣vies
got by bad Air and Diet in long Voyages, and for the Running
of the Reins by impure Copulation; for which ’tis used as an un∣doubted
Cure, purging by the Genitals an Oily viscous Matter of a
Yellow hew, if fed upon constantly for thirty days; restoring the
decayed Vigour of the Body, and giving it a grace and lustre as ele∣gant,
as Viper Wine does Consumptive Persons, or worn-out Pro∣stitutes.

About this time the President put in execution a Project for the
advancing the Island Bombaim; wherefore an Envoy was sent to ex∣plore
the Passage through Seva Gi’s Country into the Confines of
Duccan; but returned with a fruitless Account, only making farther
work for me.

One of the Mogul’s Generals over Seventeen thousand Horse, and
Three thousand Foot, and Governor of Jeneah (the Chief City of that
Kingdom) having occasion for one of my Function, on St. George’s
Day I was commanded by the Honourable Gerald Aungier, with only
Oral Instructions, to embarque on a Bombaim Boat of Twelve Oars
and a Steer’s-man, waited on by two of the Governor’s Servants,
four Moor Peons, a Portuguez, my own Servants, a Brachmin for Lin∣guist,
an Horse-keeper, eight Coolies to my Palenkeen, a dozen
Frasses for Lumber, and one Horse.

Thus equipped,* I left Bombaim about Three in the Afternoon,
and the same Night about Nine Anchored on this side Tanaw, where
in our passage were visible a great way off, on the tops of the Moun∣tains,
several Fortresses of Seva Gi’s, only defensible by Nature,
needing no other Artillery but Stones, which they tumble down up∣on
their Foes, carrying as certain destruction with them as Bullets
where they alight: The next Morning, with only sending my Ser∣vant
ashore to acquaint the Rendero, I quitted the Pass; and a Mile
beyond the City deserted Baçein River on the left, and took our
Course up a spacious Navigable River, which makes the Island of Ba∣çein,
the Banks of which are low and fruitful; on both sides are
placed stately Aldeas, and Dwellings of the Portugal Fidalgos; till
on the Right, within a Mile or more of Gullean, they yield possession
to the Neigbouring Seva Gi, at which City (the Key this way into that
Rebels Country) Wind and Tide favouring us, we landed at about
Nine in the Morning, and were civilly treated by the Customer in his
Choultry, till the Havaldar could be acquainted of my arrival; who
immediatly ordered me a great Mosch for my reception, whence I
sent the Brachmin to complement him, and deliver the Presidents
Letter.

Page 124

Who understanding my Business, desired the favour of me to visit
him,* and there should attend on me some of his Friends that were
diseased; I easily condescended, thinking to procure my Dispatch
with more speed; which succeeded alike, I receiving his Chitty or
Pass, with two Guides to direct us through the Country.

Early therefore the next Morning I left the most Glorious Ruins
the Mahometans in D•••an ever had occasion to deplore: For this City,
once the chief Empory, excelled not only in Trade, but the general
consequent, Sumptuousness, if the Reliques of the Stately Fabricks
may add Credit to such a belief; which Reliques, notwithstanding the
Fury of the Portugals, afterward of the Mogul, since of Seva Gi, and
now lately again of the Mogul, (whose Flames were hardly extinguish∣ed
at my being here, and the Governor and People on that score being
prepared more for Flight than Defence at present) are still the extant
Marks of its pristine Height: The remaining Buildings having
many Stories of square facing Stones, and the Mosques, which are
numerous, of the same, abating little of their ancient Lustre, being
all watered with delicate Tanks; about which are costly Tombs
with their distinct Chappels or Mosques, where formerly the Mul∣lahs
had fat Pensions to pray for the departed Souls, which is main∣tained
by them as efficacious; wherefore they covet Funerals in the
most conspicuous Places, which the Pleasant Summer-houses hanging
over here, cause these Places to be; the unemploy’d People of the Town
daily wasting their time in these inviting Varieties; which is the on∣ly
thing pleads for their continuance, Seva Gi as a Gentu being other∣wise
inclinable to raze them; yet purposely to pervert them from
the use of the Donors, and Intention of the Founders, orders them
to be converted into Granaries, especially those within the City.

The Houses the present Inhabitants kennel in are mean, the Peo∣ple
beggarly, by reason of these Hostile Incursions.

By Twelve at Noon having journey’d over Rocky,* Barren, and
Parched Ways, I came to Intwally, Three Course, or Seven Mile and
an half; the Season of the Year (the Heats being now most vio∣lent)
as well as the Time of the Day not permitting us any longer
to endure their Extremity, I never staid for License, but shaded my
self under a Wooden Mosque, the only Structure standing in the
Town, it suffering the same Fate with Gullean, and was then reaking in
its Ashes, the Moguls Army laying waste all in their Road, both Villages,
Fodder, and Corn; and for their Cattel they drive them along with
them, and take them, their Wives and Children for Slaves; so that
none escape, except those that can fly fastest, or hide themselves in the
Woods, which they also set on fire, to leave them destitute of those
Recesses. This Gom or Town stood in a large Grove of Mangoes, on
the Bank of a deep Creek, which though at this time fordable, yet I
believe the Rains may swell into a Torrent.

Having refreshed my self and Coolies,* I hired an Ox, they com∣plaining
they had too much Burthen, travelling more advisedly by
Moonshine, (through a better Soil, and more exchange, as Arable
Ground, Heaths, Forests, and Woods, some of which were on Fire
two or three Miles together) from Six till Twelve, when we took
up our Rest at a poor Village called Moorbar, six Course from
Page 125
Intwally: This place was not able to afford us an House or Shed, but
we were forced to creep into one of their Cottages, half finished,
they thatching it with Bents shelving from the Ridge down to the
Bottom on both sides, no bigger than a Man might carry.

I kept the Coolies to their Watch,* notwithstanding their hard
Days labour, as well to keep Tigres and Wild Beasts from us, as
Thieves and Robbers: The day following I staid here till Four in
the Afternoon to avoid the Soultriness of the Weather, which I could
hardly do where I was lodged, there being no Air; which caused me
to remove out of the Town at Sun rise to the left of two pitiful
Tanks belonging thereto; they being all here ignorant Idolaters, and
Husbandmen, every one chusing his own God; no Family being
without some Pan Daemon, or Incubus; which they paint with hide∣ous
Forms, bedaub with stinking Oil, and offer the Fruits of the
Earth to: Most Abominably Superstitious, that an ill Augury shall
detain them idle a whole day, though they and their Houshold must
starve, if they work not; such as an Hare crossing the Way, or a
Crow on the Left hand. They have no publick Pagod, or Place of
Worship, besides these Tanks, where they wash and burn their Dead,
giving me a Nosegay of one of their Carkases, before I got my Break∣fast,
as I lay to repose under a Tree; which made me range for
Game, and disperse my Servants for Provant, being otherwise likely
to go without; they living upon Batty, or Seeds of Grass, eating
neither Fish nor Flesh, neither indeed have they any, unless by
chance; for after my Purveyors had made diligent search, with much
ado they purchased one Hen, tho several Villages were in sight, and
all of them greedy enough to take Money, had they had Provi∣sions.
It is all Plowed Land hereabouts, but Seva Gi commonly
reaps the Harvest, leaving hardly so much to the Tillers as will
keep Life and Soul together.

And now going to set out,* I began by the murmurings of the Coo∣lies
to understand that the Guides, being jealous of falling into the Ene∣my’s
hands, had a design to lead us about; (but every one besides the
Cauns Peons being Strangers, and they fearful to discover themselves,
we were persuaded to resign our selves to their Conduct) over Hilly,
but none of the worst Ways; two or three Miles together they are
all burnt, bearing nothing but withered Benty-Grass, which burning
afore the Rains, benefits the Ground much; and are now out of distrust
the Moguls should Forrage their Army here.

Below this, we passed over a fine Meadow checquered with Pur∣ling
Brooks, and three Villages, much about an equal distance one
from another: And now the broken Ribs of these lofty Mountains
seen so far off at Sea all along from Cape Comory, as if founded for an
Ascent unto the Skies, begin to be discovered by our near approach;
when Night interposing her black Vail between our Eyes and them,
they became vested with a more benighted Darkness than hung over
us; which served as a sable Cloud to direct us to Dehir, by Eleven
a Clock at Night, nine Course from our last Stage, seated at the end
of a large Plain, at the foot of that Chain of Hills supposed to cross
the Taurus, trending through the Continent North and South, as that
Page 126

does East and West; it is by most Geographers concluded to be
Mount Sephir, here called the Gaot.

We found them all in Arms,* not suffering their Women to stir out
of the Town Unguarded to fetch Water, being accustomed to
continual Alarms; which cautiousness obliged them to usher me
into the Market-place, by a small Party which lighted on me in their
Rounds; when I sent my Gulleon Peon, one of our Guides, with
his Masters Chitty, or Pass, to the Governor, who received it
kindly, and gave me leave to be my own Quartermaster (little
Complements being expected from Soldiers).

My Company,* as well as my self, being Tired, and now stiff with
a little Rest allowed them till the return of the Peon, we were not wil∣ling
to be at more pains to seek for a better Inn, than what a Fakier
had taken up before us; but we rouzed a Lion, who had just been
lain asleep with Bang, who opened with such a Clamour, that I was
afraid it would have brought all the Watch about us, had they not
been in the same tune, calling on one another, as Children when the
Light is out, do for fear; beating their Drums, and sounding their
Trumpets (Shriller than the Moors, and more Tuneable) all Night
long; by which means, and my Quarrelsome Inmate, I could
compose my self to no Quiet; though for the latter, at length I
thought of an Expedient, plying him with Arack till his Tongue re∣solved
its self in Silence, which was much more grateful than his
Bawling.

The next Morning when Day had cleared our Eyesight, I saw the
Idol, this Drunken Priest Adored, hard by me; it was thick and
short, Carved in Stone, of a Monstrous Visage, whisking his Tail
over his Head; the upper Parts to the Waste, were Painted with Red;
it insulted over another ugly Creature it trod on; it was of a Sooty
Colour, and Swam in streams of Oil; yet it called in a great many
Devotes, who came to pay their Salams.

I sent to the Havaldar,* to know when he would Pass us up the
Gaot; word was brought he was not awake, having been up all
Night; in the interim therefore, I Walked about the Town, which
is Crowded with People, but miserably Poor, and of no Note, were
it not that Seva Gi Stables his choicest Horses here, for the conveni∣ency
of this Plain to supply them with Hay and Corn, which cau∣ses
them to have the greater Force, and makes it the Residence of
an Havaldar, who is a kind of petty General: Changing the Town
for the open Fields, I was led to a Grove of Mangoes and Thamarinds,
at the end of which, was a Mosque, and a great many Tombs of ex∣cellent
Stone, Demolished; one of which they remember with Re∣spect,
by the Name of Melech-Bury, a great Warrior; however,
that which pleased me most of all, was a sudden surprize, when they
brought me to the wrong side of a pretty Square Tank, or Well,
with a Wall of Stone, Breast high; where expecting to find it cove∣red
with Water, looking down five Fathom deep, I saw a clutter of
Women, very Handsome, waiting the distilling of the Water from
its dewy sides; which they catch in Jarrs, and constantly carrying
it away, leave it only weeping: It is cut out of a firm Black Marble
Rock up almost to the Top, with broad Steps to go down.

Page 127

Now we could not only see their Forts, but hear also the Watch∣men
from their Garisons aloft, some Five hundred, some more, some
fewer Men,* to and again among the Hills, the main strength of this
Prince consisting in these; coming back I found my troublesome
Comrade very Merry, and packing up his Housholdstuff, his Bang-bowl,
and Hubble Bubble, to go along with me, before I had got∣ten
leave from the Havaldar, who had newly sent word he was
ready to receive me.

I made him not tarry long, following the Messenger, who brought
me into the middle of a ragged Regiment, distinguishable from the
Mogul’s on that score, but more peculiarly by their Hair appearing
on both Ears under their Puckeries; their Weapons are much alike,
though to me they give more cause of Laughter, than Terror
(considering the awkwardness of their wearing them) notwith∣standing
they are the Instruments of Death.

When I came before the Governor,* I found him in State, though
under an Hovel; where were many Brachmins with Accompt-Books,
writing at some distance; nearer, his Privy-Council, with whom
he seemed to Advise: I was placed on his Left hand, and desired
my Interpreter to acquaint him my Errand, withal intreating his Fa∣vour
for my secure passing the Hill: He made it a piece of difficulty,
and told me I must return to Bimly for Orders, to whose Havaldar
he was accountable, not to him of Gulleon; which was within half a
days Journy from whence I set forth. Hearing this I bore my self as
sedately as I could, having been informed of the advantage they take
of a disturbed Countenance; and sweetned him with his own Au∣thority
being sufficient, telling him of his Master’s Kindness to the
English, and their Friendship towards him; which worked him to a
yielding Temper; yet he scrupled my Canister, or Trunk, might be
lined with Pearl, my Horse sold to the Enemy, hoping to suck some∣what
out of me; I replying, What I had brought were at his liberty
to search, and that I went only on an amicable account to Cure a
Sick Person, and should be as ready to serve him, if required, his
Fury was quite pawled; but perceiving an hungry look to
hang on them all, and suspecting lest they should serve me
some Dog-trick, I made a small Present, and he signing the
Pass, dismissed me with a Bundle of Pawn, the usual Ceremony at
Parting.

Being clear,* I could not so readily shake off my Fakier, he would
march with me; when we were not gone above two Course, or
three Miles, the Liquor working out by his Walking, he began to
grow weary, and called out for the Horse, which I had caused the
Portugueze to Mount, which he took in such dudging, seeing him∣self
on Foot, and him on Horseback, that he turned Tail, and
went back again to his Vomit, without bidding adieu.

And now our mighty Task began to try our Feet,* as well as weary
our Eyes: I not caring to hazard my self longer in my Palenkeen,
alighted, and though I thought it a work impossible to conquer, I
put the best face on it I could, tarrying till they were all together, the
better to chear them. The Coolies providing themselves with Staves,
distrusted not only their own Legs, but the Ground they went on,
Page 128

it having forsaken many a tall Tree around us; some holding by the
mouldring Earth with half their Roots bare, others half buried in
Pits they never grew in, lay expecting their quondam Neighbours
downfal.

The busy Apes,* the Forlorn hope of these declining Woods,
deeming no place safe where they beheld us, made strange Levaltoes
with their hanging Brats from one Bough to another, Chattering an
Invasion; but these saw us presently exalted beyond their Bowers,
and feared us from above, as much as we to salute them below:
Thus far was passable enough, when the Sun levelled himself unto
our Steps, and we looked for Day beneath us. Here I made a second
pause, and promised them Nectar in the Skies; this proved but a
faint Cordial to the Frasses, who failed afore they got a quarter up;
for whom after I had provided (the Moon assisting us with a less
parching Light) I found my Hands as necessary to Clamber as my
Feet, Travelling on all Four; the Stones were laid step by step, but
in little order; and now so steep, that it differed little from Perpen∣dicular,
only by the winding of the Mountain; and so Narrow, that
Two Men could not pass abreast; where chiefly were laid Trees
and Timber to make work for the Army, should they attempt this
Way; which sorely increased our trouble, being the first Adventurers,
beside the danger we incurred of being Assaulted from above, they
not yet knowing who we were. To look down made my Brains turn
round; over my Head pendulous Rocks threatned to Entomb me.

We had not gone long thus,* before the Cry came, the Ox was
fallen; ’twas well he chose not the place where I was in, for the
least lapse had irrecoverably whirled him to the bottom: Arguments
were too weak to persuade the Coolies to go back to him to help him;
I therefore proceeded to Threats, which made Two of them return
to his Aid: I confess the sense of their hard Labour urged me to
pity; the Anguish of which extorted Tears from some, unseasonable
at this time to take notice of to them; we had only this Comfort,
the Even was Calm and Serene, and we were mounted beyond the
humble Mists, which we could discern fluctuating against the impe∣netrable
Promontories; which may be the reason sometimes (they
say) Men and Oxen are hurled down the Precipice by sudden Gusts,
when they are exalted to the Clouds, and they break with too great
an Impetuosity: For all this Light we seemed Obscured, the splen∣dour
of the Moon being shaded by the sides of the Mountains, which
appeared here all Marble.

The Horse (being a Turky one) made the best shift of all, and was
more forward than convenient, pelting us with great Stones his
Hoofs had removed, which caused us to retard his haste, and leave
him to come last.

About Nine a Clock at Night the Moon shone over our Heads,
more joyful at her presence, than her feignedly beloved Endimion:
An hour after we came tired to the Brow, through a narrow Cavern
cut out of the main Rock; here being no Guard, the noise of the
Army being over, I was the second Man Trampled on the Top, half an
hour after the Palenkeen came, and all the rest within two hours more:
Here I was as good as my word, and distributed Arack among them,
Page 129

which made them, for all their tedious Tug, run amain to the next
Town Oppagaot; where early in the Morning I crowded under an
Old Shed.

This Gur or Hill is reckoned four Course up (every Course being
a Mile and half):* From whence is beheld the World beneath all fur∣led
with Clouds, the Caerulean Ocean terminating the Horizon, the
adjacent Islands bordering on the Main, the Mountains fenced with
horrible Gulphs, till strange Vertigoes prejudicate Fancy, not daring
longer to be made a Spectator: The bandying Eccho still persecutes
with terrible repeated Sounds, meeting fresh Objects to reundulate
it, though at the greater distance, being yet enclosed with Moun∣tains,
which they maintain as Fortresses; and I can give no reason
why they do not this Entry also, unless because it is so contrived that
Ten Men may keep down Ten thousand.

Here is a sensible alteration of the Air:* The Dawn of the Morning,
and latter part of the Night, ’twas sharp, cold, and piercing; so
that all I gathered about me would scarce keep me warm; and all
the Day there were fine cool Briezes, though below we were almost
choaked with soultry Heats: The Reason whereof I judge to be, be∣cause
the High Mountains reverberate the flowing Particles of the
Atmosphere; as we see the Rocks do Water more strongly, by how
much more force the Waves assail them; so here the Air (which is
thicker below) driven against these Hills breaks off in Flurries, which
seeking to retire into their own Ocean, mitigate the violence of the
Heat in their passage, by fanning as it were the Air; by which means,
and the Sun’s rarifying the Misty Vapours, they are left pure, and fall
at Night in more limpid Dews to cool and refresh the Earth: To
which Sense sings Lucan,

Fulminibus proprior terrae succenditur aër,
Imaque telluris ventos tractusque coruscos
Flammarum accipiunt: Nubes excedit Olympus.
Moreover, Bogs and Fens are rarely found to soil the Air, or pen in the Heat for want of ventilation.
This is a sad Starvling Town;* to it belongs a Subidar, or Cu∣stomer;
who blown up with the confidence of half a dozen Bill-men,
thought to have compell’d me to stay till the Governor of the Castle
should examine my Cocket, which he had sent him by the Haval∣dar:
I ordered him to send it with one of the Gulean Peons; but he
made Answer, the Governor having been up all Night, was not
then at leisure. While we were talking, a Drove of Combies (Hinds)
passed with Provisions on their Heads for the Castle; and I having
staid till Three in the Afternoon, not getting any other Answer, I
commanded the Coolies to march, though the Subidar prohibited
and kept them from following them with my Men and Arms, as
Carbines and Blunderbusses; and the Governor not coming as he
told my Peons they would, by Four, I dismissed the Gulean Peons,
they daring to go no farther; and if there were farther occasion for
a Pass, to bring it after me; thereby frustrating their Intention,
which was to retard me, whereby to make their Booty of me.

Page 130

They durst no more than curse, for all I departed without leave,
taking my Course into a deep Valley, which winded and turned like a
River,* and I believe is one in the Rains: Half way we met another
Caphala of Oxen laden with Provisions, hardly escaping the Mogul’s
Army, which they told us was not far afore us: My Coolies more
jealous of the Villany of Seva Gi’s People than my self, made haste,
and by Ten at Night arrived at Aumbegaum, Ten Course.

From whence Mucklis Caun’s Men had driven all away with a Par∣ty
of his Horse,* only one Fakier, who had set up his Standard in a
Shop in the Buzzar, next to whom I shrowded my self under one of
the same Stalls: Before Five in the Morning, for fear of farther In∣terruption,
I posted hence, up Hill and down Hill, not having
Rice for my People to eat (all being fled) we came to a neat Stone
Well of good Water; hard by which was an excellent Fig-tree, on
whose Fruit, yet Green, my Indians fed heartily, and trouped by
three or four wretched Towns, up another Mountain, not altoge∣ther
so bad as the first, yet on the account of their wanting their
wonted Food, it went hard with the Coolies to foot it to Beelseer,
two Course short of Jeneah, where we baited; it being high time,
they having gone near Fifty Miles without eating more than a few
squashy Figs: They unloaded at Noon under a Row of spreading
Mangos, on the side of a Brook; and provided themselves with Vi∣ctuals
in an adjacent Village, liable to continual pillaging on both
sides; but being reduced to the Condition of having little or nothing
to lose, it is the better born.

Hence it is plain to Jeneah,* the Hills keeping their distance from
its Invincible Gur: The length of whose Bottom fills most of the
space from this Place to the City, which is the Frontier of the Mogul’s
Territory this way; and has been for many Years the Seat of War
to the South, which is the signification of Duccan.

I sent the Governor’s Peon to acquaint him of my approach (I
not arriving till Sun-set) when he met me with others that were
appointed at a Garden short of the Town, with the Governor’s Com∣plement;
and conducted me to a Palace in a Compleat Garden,
adorned with Cypress Trees (not usual in India) Hummums, Tanks,
Choultries and Walks, with Water-Courses: When I was asleep, the
Nabob or Governor sent me a Service in Plate covered with Em∣broidered
Velvet over Noble Surpooses or Covers, ushered with two
Silver Staves, and a Trumpet sounding afore it; which Course was
observed as long as I remained there.

The last day of April, being Friday, and the next after my arri∣val,
he sent to excuse himself, because it was his day of Devotion;
when after a Princely manner he rides on an Elephant to the Mosque;
and thence divertises himself in some place of Delight within his Se∣raglio
till high Night.

Page 131
CHAP. V.
Introduces me into the Nabob’s presence;* my Business with him; a Prospect of the Gur (Seva Gi’s Birth-place); the Army and Country of Duccan: Of the Pass of Tanaw, and benefit thereof, were it in the hands of the English.
IT was the first of May therefore before I waited on him; when
he ordered a Guard of Horse to attend me to the Castle, which
was large, but rude, and the Wall of raw Brick; serving as well to
secure Cattle as Men from the Enemy.

His own Apartments in the middle encompassed a verdent Qua∣drangle
of Trees and Plants;* in whose chief Choultry were assembled
all his Great Men on his Right hand, he being enclosed in a Seat of
State, boulstered up with Embroidered Cushions, smoaking out of a
Silver Hubble bubble; afore whom lay a rich Sword and Buckler, with
a Crescent Moon instead of Bosses, his Page bearing his Bow and Ar∣rows,
much after the Turkish manner, as Busbequius reports of the
Grand Segnior, Sedebat in Solio humili instrato; juxta autem arcus &
sagittae. All the Floor was spread with a soft Bed, over all a fine
white Calicut; the Pedestals were Massy Silver, where I put off my
Shooes, and after Respect paid, delivered the President’s Letter, and
was received immediatly next to him on his Left hand, all that side
being kept void for my entertainment: The result of this Visit was,
after he had acquainted me who were to be my Patients, to tell me
I must be patient till a good day presented, and then I should be
called again; it remaining a Custom still in the East to defer im∣portant
Affairs till a Lucky Day, totis haerentia fastis. I only intreated
he would be mindful the Rains were at hand, falling earlier here
than in the Low Countries.

Our Discourse being ended,* a Couple of Singing-men began their
Songs of Praise, which they pride themselves in, not being content
with moderate Flattery; a thing odious to a generous Spirit, ac∣counting
those that do it, servile; and those that admit it, impru∣dent
to be deluded by Fawning Knaves: But here are not only those
that profess it for Lucre, but it is the general strife who may impose
most obsequiously. Adulandi certamen est, & unum amicorum omnium
officium, quis blandissimè fallat; as Seneca observes in the corruption
of his Age, de Benef. Cap. XXX.

Such as appear before him make a Salam or Bow before they ascend
the Choultry,* when if he allows them Conference, leaving their Slip∣pers
below, they mount the Buchanna, where they bow, by first
putting their Hands to their Heads, then to their Feet, which Sa∣lute
they call Pervenau, used to Cauns or Dukes. Above their Head,
cross their Breast to the Foot is Pharmau, only for Kings; the most
familiar is a Bow with the Head: If they are permitted to sit in his
Presence, those only of Consular Dignity have liberty to sit (as they
call it at ease) cross Legged; but an European, before he is accustomed,
will not be reconciled to that Term: Others of inferior Rank kneel,
Page 132

sitting on their Heels, to which Posture, though I was not tied, I
was thankful when he sent me a Bundle of Pawn, and had leave to
make use of my Legs; being led out, as I was conducted in, by
Two Virgers, and a large Train following, with a Master of Cere∣monies
accompanying.

In my passage through the Castle they seemed rather Encamped
than Fortified;* wherefore if Seva Gi brings any Power, they betake
themselves to speedy Flight, or retire to the Body of the Army un∣der
Badur Caun, Generalissimo in these Marches; being ill provided
to endure a Siege, and more able to defend themselves, joined to an
Host of Forty thousand Horse always at Pergom, three Days Journy
hence.

Curiosity invited many Spectators, and Courtesy some of Quality
to be my Harbingers at my Lodgings; which at my return I found
pestered, as I had the Streets all the way I came: They were very
Civil, making no Intrusion before they had requested leave; and
then interrogating the State of Europe, the Government, Policy, and
Learning; nodding a satisfaction in the account I gave them: Nor
were they less communicative in their Relations, of those Occurren∣ces
which wheeled in their Sphere, being highly concerned to shew
they had Book-men as well as Sword-men.

A good Day coming,* the Governor sent for me to Visit his Lady
in the Haram, which was opposite to a Chamber he sate in, Accom∣panied
only with one pretty Wanton Boy, his Only Son by this
Woman; upon which account he had the greater kindness for her:
An Old Gentlewoman with a Tiffany Vail, made many trips, being,
I suppose, the Governant of the Womens Quarters; at last I was
called and admitted with my Linguist.

At our being ready to enter,* she Clapped with her Hands to give
Notice; when we were led through a long dark Entry, with Dor∣mitories
on both sides, the Doors of which Creeked in our passage
(but I was cautious of being too Circumspect) till we came to an
aiery Choultry; where was placed a Bed hung with Silk Curtains;
to which being brought, I was Commanded to place my self close by
it, from whence I might conveniently Discourse and Feel her Pulse,
putting my Hand under the Curtains. It was agreed among them
to impose upon me; wherefore at first they gave me a Slaves Hand,
whom I declared to be Sound and Free from any Disease, nothing
contradicting the true Tenor and Rythme of Pulsation; when they
began to be more ingenuous, telling me, it was done to try me:
Then was given me another Hand, which demonstrated a weak
languid Constitution; and collecting the Signs and Symptoms, I
feared not to give Sentence; which met with their Approbation, and
so I was sent back the same way I came.

The Caun had been acquainted with what had passed, and seemed
pleased; whereupon I must visit the Haram again the next day to
Bleed another of his Wives, he being tolerated Four, though he keeps
more than Three hundred Concubines.

And now the Curtain was extended athwart the Choultry,* and an
Arm held forth at an hole; but this was a slight fence for such Ani∣mals,
who leaning too hard as they peeped, pulled it down, and disco∣vered
Page 133

the whole Bevy, fluttering like so many Birds when a Net is
cast over them; yet none of them sought to escape, but feigning a
shamefacedness, continued looking through the wide Lattice of their
Fingers: The Lady I had by the Arm was a Plump Russet Dame,
summoning the remainder of her Blood to enliven her Cheeks (for
among the darkest Blacks, the Passions of Fear, Anger, or Joy,
are discernible enough in the Face) and she bearing a command,
caused it to be hung up again; pouring upon her extravasated Blood
a Golden shower of Pagods, which I made my Man fish for.

In this Interview they appeared to me not altogether unimployed,*
there lying pared Mangoes, and other Fruits for Confection, and
Achars, or Pickles; some Samplers of good Housewifry in Needle∣works;
and no indecent decorum in managing their Cloystered way
of living, making it agreeable to the choice of Custom rather than
Restraint: But here are foulmouthed Homers that Stigmatize them,
how deservedly I dare not say.

〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉.
Nil gravius nil improbius quam foemina vivit.
And a Man would guess no less, to see the number of Spies upon
them, of Toothless Old Women, and Beardless Eunuchs, that they
are incontinent in their Desires, for which reason they debar them
the sight of any thing Male, but their Lord; they Waiting, as well
to hand them Necessaries, as Wood, Water, Meat, and the like,
taking them at the Door, as to prevent unlawful Intruders.

These have their Singing Wenches;* exercise their Ears and Noses
with weighty Jewels, as the Gipsy of Old did her Hair and Neck.

—Colloque comisque
Divitias Cleopatra gerit, cultuque Laborat. Lucan.
And are Cloathed like the Men, only they go in their Hair within,
and abroad with Vails.

Gaining by these steps a nearer intimacy with the Nabob,* he cut
me new Business out every day; he advised me of the intention of
the Governor of the Castle on the Hill, to commit his Brother to
my Care; and I in a private Conference, according to my Instructi∣ons,
propounded the Commodity might arise from an intercourse of
Commerce between this place and Bombaim, from thence to Bussorah,
Persia, and Maecha, for to provide the Army with Horses; in re∣turn
of whom might be exchang’d the same Goods procurable at
Surat and better Cheap, should they succeed in their Conquests
over the Low Countries; which is not a matter of such impossibi∣lity
should they earnestly set upon it, considering the Avenues are
open: But by that proceeding, it would take away a powerful ob∣stacle
to the maintaining so vast an Army as is always in Duccan,
whereby a main Body of the Soldiery would be out of pay; which
is absolutely against the Generals interest, and therefore he would
never consent: This I soon saw was the main Argument, though he
coloured it with pretext, that ’twas a work of more pains to reduce
Page 134
Seva, than was represented, in respect of his Situation, being im∣powered
not only to make Excursions, but to bid them Defiance.

Whereupon I told him, If the latter was not feasible, it was in
vain to propose any thing in relation to the former, for that all Ac∣cess
was stopped if the Low Lands were not cleared; the Havaldars
being unconscionable in their Customs, and without doubt would
interrupt what might be serviceable to their Enemies, or bring pre∣judice
to their Prince; whereas were the Ways free, it would enrich
his Jageah beyond the Bunder at Surat, and tie the English to a per∣petual
Truce, who were known in these Parts addicted to Traffick,
and Friends to Peace: He asked further, How far we desired to ex∣tend
this Liberty? I replied, beyond the Portugal Dominions, which
would front the Island of Bombaim about Tull; otherwise we must
be at the charge of double Custom, to them as well as the Mogul.
He said all this had been moved to Badur Caun, but those to whose
hands the Presents for him had been entrusted, had defrauded him of
them, on whom nothing was to be wrought without liberal Piscashes,
he bearing it as high as the King himself, and at this juncture he was
an unfit Mediator to him, having lately had some jarrs with him
(the Governor of Jeneah undervaluing his Authority in an Expe∣pedition,
not long enough ago to be thoroughly forgot); however
did the President immediately apply himself to him, he was incli∣nable
enough to let him Settle Factories; which I gave him to un∣derstand,
without a mutual Benefit on both sides, was not the pre∣sent
Design; but for the esteem we bore to Men of Honour, and that
made account of their Word, it was wished the Moguls were posses∣sed
of those Parts; which was never to be cultivated, either with
good Manners, or Profit, whilst Perfidy reigned there.

This being the substance of our Discourse, after he had related
the Business to his Council (he replied) he would intimate what
might be effected in it, to the President, in answer to his Letter.

At Night it was dismally Tempestuous,* Killing Two of the Watch
on Duty, and carrying a Tower of the Hill at one Clap; below, it
brake one Man’s Arm, the Prologue to the Rains.

The Day after the Nabob’s Brother,* of the Castle, was received
kindly here, bringing a noble Train, and Piscash to bespeak his
Welcome; he was Lodged in a Palace adjoining that where I was.

The Eleventh of May I went abroad to a Garden left by a common
Strumpet,* in which was a noble Tomb built in remembrance of her,
with a Well belonging to a lovely Spring, which by Aqueducts sup∣plied
the City with Water.

Who when she died, like Flora Fair,
Did make the Commonwealth her Heir.
Hence we went to a ruined Palace,* where Auren Zeeb, the present
Emperor, was hospitably received in his Father’s Reign, and lived a
pretended Fakier.

Cotton in its season is Planted all hereabouts:* The Fields produce
Wheat in abundance, and other Grain; but are often served as the
Philistine’s were by Sampson, the Foxes from the Mountains with Fire∣brands
Page 135

consuming them; which made us bethink of retiring, they
descending sometimes in Parties to Prey on Straglers, that often
Troopers are sent home disrobed and dismounted, to be laught at for
their Misfortune.

Having tarried now till the Rains had made their first onset Four∣teen
days together,* with horrid Thunder; at the end thereof I set
apart a day to take notice of the adjacent Rarities; among which is
a City called Dungeness, of like Antiquity and Workmanship, as
Canorein, cut out of a Mountanous Rock, with a Temple and other
spacious Halls, by no means inferior to it both for Water and other
Refreshments, and much more entire; Time having not dealt so
cruelly with it, but the Lines of its ruined Beauty are still legible,
though in old Characters; however it is left a desolate Habitation
for Batts and Wasps; to disturb which it is dangerous, being over∣grown
and desperately revengeful, following their Aggressors till
they have Whealed them into Contrition for their unadvised Provo∣cation:
To be out of the Noise of these buzzing Hornets, and to se∣cure
our selves from the surprize of any disturbed Idolater, who
might bellow the report of our being here, we hasted to the safer
Plain, and ended the rest of the day in a pleasant Garden, on the
brink of the River which glides hence to Surat.

The Governor of the Gur hearing I was preparing for to return
to Bombaim,* requested before my departue to accept of my choice,
either to ascend the Gur, or else to meet him at his Garden below,
being the prescribed Limits of his Walk: I signified my readiness to
comply with the former, wherefore he sent Four Palenkeens, his
Kinsman, an Ingenuous Mogul, and his Brother to attend me.

We Travelled Two Miles before we came to the Foot of it,* where
is a Garison, or Fortified Town, walled with strong Chockies, or
Watches, and a Troop of Five hundred Horse, and as many Camels
of War; here are great Stacks of Hay and Corn, all their Droves of
Beasts being sheltered here anights. Seva Gi has distressed this often,
and put them to the rout; but that, whose Top we are endeavouring
to gain, is inaccessible, unless by Seven winding Gates, which are ve∣ry
strong, and able to clear one another as they rise, the Way being
lined with Murtherers, and they themselves defended with good
Pieces of Ordnance: The last is a Piece of excellent Work and
Strength, and the place filled with Soldiers.

Hence it is painful Riding,* and requires a strong Back to keep
State in a Palenkeen, it being carried almost bolt upright, over
slippery Marble steps, cut out of the shining Rock, as smooth as
Glass, and reflecting the Sun-beams as much: After we had mounted
near an Hundred Stairs, we were received into the Neck of the
Castle, which is collared about with a Wall, rather to keep them
from falling down, than needful to prevent Assailants; from whence
an easy Ascent leads to a Level, which is the Circus to train the In∣fantry;
where are conspicuous Tombs of their former Kings, being
firmly Built, and a Mosque of polished Marble, which on Festivals
only they repair unto: No Houses here are able to resist the Storms
of Wind, or the Sun’s Heat, for which conveniency they have
made the Eastern side of the Hill most Inhabited, it serving instead
Page 136

of a Bank; where they live in little low Huts, the Governor’s not
exceeding in height, (though a pretty neat Dwelling, fenced with
Trees, no where else to be found) who had expected me Two whole
Hours; but being impatient of delay, and the Sun growing too hot, he
betook himself to his Haram, having ordered his Kinsman (whose
Civil Deportment met with his Commands) to Entertain me; he is
but Poor (so that he threatens the Nabob to turn Fakier) yet Ge∣nerous,
of a free open Temper, neither Jealous nor Lazy, as the
Moors most are; but applying himself to several Handicrafts, which he
has learned of the Europeans; he is learned too in the Persian and Ara∣bick
Languages, though not to Vain-glory; being so Humble, Face∣tious,
and Merry, that nothing but Spight and Envy can disagree
with him: His Name is Nishambeak; such another I have not met
with, so general a lover of Franks; which he specified in an espe∣cial
manner to me, receiving me in an Airy Banquetting-house,
Embellished and Adorned on purpose; and notwithstanding the Go∣vernor’s
Son was to pay his Compliments, would not suffer me to
give him Place, but diverted me with several Interludes of Morisco
Dancing. That which took most with them I perceived, was a Jester,
or Mimick, the Ancient Salt at publick Banquets, as we may gather
from Statius:

Non ego Mercatus Phariâ de puppe Loquaces
Delicias, doctumque sui convicia Nili
Infantem, Linguâque simul salibusque protervum.
And from Lucan to Piso:

Sed Miserum (clientem) parvâ stipe numerat
—ut pudibundas
Exercere sales inter convivia possit.
Having feasted the Fancy,* he contends to cloy the Stomach, with
loads of Viands stowed in Plate, serving me with his own Hands,
his Friends and he being content to feed on the desire they had to
satisfy me, not being to be courted to fall to till I had done; they
served me with variety of Stews and Baked Meats, but offered me
Sherbet only for Drink; I had provided against this chance by fil∣ling
my Metarrah with Beveridge, which passed for Water, being
drunk out of a Leather Bottle Tipped with Silver, for Travel.

After Dinner they made their loud Musick proclaim my going
to the Governor (whereat flocked all the Gur) and after formal
Salutes,* present him with a Glass of Chymical Spirits. As the
Parthians were wont not to receive Visits without a Gift; Et exem∣pla
in Oriente plura sunt, interea & Magorum in sacris qui Christum ado∣raturi,
munera attulerunt. So here the like Custom prevails.

I was placed close by him,* he like an Hermit, having the Court
brought to him, admired the Splendour as well as the Novelty of
our Europe Dress; asking my Servant if I lay in them, because it is
their fashion not to undress to go to Bed, but lye in the same Clothes
they wear in the day; he made me declare the use of my Rapier, at
Page 137

first not apprehending it so serviceable as their Broad Two-handed
Swords; ’twas a Question out of my road, yet I made him under∣stand
our Custom in War was to appear all armed Cap-a-pee, where
their Broad Swords would find a rebate; whereas these Sharp-pointed
Weapons would pierce the Junctures of the Harness, or the Pleats of
a Coat of Mail (they denying a Stab to be more mortal than a
Slash). He was very inquisitive about our Military Discipline; and
heard it with pleasure. He called all his Male Children about him,
who sate at his Feet, and gave me an History of their Maladies; as
most here did that durst speak, there being an infinite number of
Captains and Grave Fellows: The Old Men mended their Eyes with
Spectacles, the young marred theirs with staring.

The Choultry was hung with Green and Red Velvet checkered;* his
Pawn Boxes were large, and of Massy Gold; his Retinue grave, his
Carriage affable; he gave me a Bow-Ring off his Thumb, of Cash∣mire
(of equal value as Vertue, being a Charm against Thunder)
and the liberty to take a Round about the Castle, never before granted
any not listed in his Service: A Portuguez Mestizo, Chief Gunner
of the Castle, was very officious, though I was entrusted to the
charge of his prime Eunuch.

The first Object busied me,* was a Place Seva Gi’s Men had at∣tempted
to scale, by me esteemed a desperate Design, and very im∣probable;
yet two Men got up, and a Stone casually tumbling, de∣terred
their Accomplices, leaving them a Sacrifice to the Governor
and Women, who being left alone to the defence of the Castle (all
the Men deserting on the approach of a vast Army of Seva Gi’s)
hurled them down the Mountain for their rash Adventure; con∣firming
to me by a great Stone let fall, the unavoidableness of their
destruction; it running with that force where-ever it came, that it
beat all a-fore, till it rested in the middle of the Valley.

It is stored with Granaries hewed out of Stone,* I suppose for Re∣ligion’s
sake at first, being too delicately engraved for the present
use; though there be several Tanks filled with Butter of 400 years
standing, prized by the Gentiles as high as Gold, prevalent in Old
Aches, and Sore Eyes, one of which was opened for my sake, and a
Present made me of its black stinking and viscous Balsom: There
are other Tanks or Cisterns for Water, which look nastily, Green,
Yellow, and Red, being distilled in the Rains, and in the Heats
evaporated to a Consistency; in some of these Gurs the Water is so
bad, that they use Onions to correct its unsavoriness. (Garlick in∣deed
with us is called the Countryman’s Treacle).

They have Provisions for a Seven Years Siege for a Thousand Fa∣milies,*
but no other Ammunition than Stones, excepting two un∣shapen
Sakers of Two and twenty Foot long, with a narrow Bore of
Brass of Gentu Mould, at each end one, on huge winding Carriages; one
of which at random killed a Rajah some four Months ago, when Seva
was encamped about Jeneah slinging a Bullet two Course off; which
Shot caused a Bonfire of a couple of his Ladies, beside other Dome∣sticks;
one of each sort to attend him in another World, as his
Chief Physician, Barber, Washerman, Horse-keeper, and the like,
to the number of Twenty odd; a thing as customary at the death of any great Rajah, as ’tis for the Wife of every Gentue of note at the death of her Husband.

By this fatal Instrument of Mortality stood the remaining part of
the Tower the Thunder had cleft in twain: Near where a Dutch
Apostate has a wretched Dwelling, enjoying a Pair of Wives, the
miserable Tools who induced him to this lamentable Condition, that
he is despised and slighted by them all; few of those that endure Cir∣cumcision
meeting with better fortune.

Having taken my full view,* and returning to give the Governor
Thanks for this freedom, I met him as he came from Prayers
through a Lane of Soldiers, followed by a Crowd of his Domesticks,
when taking my leave, he ordered my release, being ushered with
the same State down as I came up, leaving him Prisoner in his strong
Hold.

Hence might be beheld many Dens and Caverns, fondly believed
to be carved and cut out of the Rocks by some Divine Power; having
no account of their original. Indeed they are miraculous; And I am
apt to judge, the pious Zeal of former Ages, when undisturbed in
their Tranquility, thinking the greatest labour too little to express
their love to a Deity, set them upon such imployments, more than
that they could promise to themselves any security from these Places;
which though the Passages to them be difficult, yet they are gene∣rally
unprovided of Human Necessaries; This Hill being only inde∣pendent,
whereby it stands out against all the opposite Forts of Seva
Gi, many of whom in a still Night may be heard by Voice, but more
by Trumpets.

Here are a Thousand Sword-men in pay,* no Horse or Elephant be∣ing
able to climb it: It was never fairly taken, the Governor is one
of approved Fidelity; the Mogul having not the like Fort in all his
Kingdoms, and is of main concern to the Frontiers; putting a stop
to Seva Gi’s progress, otherwise likely to overrun Duccan. His name
is Hagiess Caun, originally a Brachmin, now a strict Musleman; some
years past Governor of the City, when oppressing the Poor, their
Cries reaching the King’s Ears, he was translated hither, in conside∣ration
of his good Service; where he receives a liberal Pension, and
is at no Expence, which agrees well enough with his covetous Hu∣mour;
which Humour of his Seva Gi being informed of, left no
means unattempted to gain the Surrender of his Trust; promising
Mountains of Gold in exchange of this, which he scrupled not to
receive; appointing a day for the delivery of it to Seva Gi, if he
sent 7000 to take possession; who keeping touch, met with the
same measure he had meated to others, they being all surprised by
an Ambuscado from Badur Caun, whom the Governor had advertised
of all the Transactions.

That which makes Seva Gi so intent on this more than the fore∣mentioned
Advantages,* is, because it was his Birth-place; to whom
that of Virgil is applicable,

Non tibi diva parens generis, nec Dardanus author
Perfide: Sed duris genuit te cautibus ingens
Jenneah; Duccanaeque admôrunt ubera tigres.

What makes it more famous, it was anciently the Seat Royal of the Duccan Kings, under whom Seva Gi’s Father was Keeper; but Auren∣zeeb in his Conquest of this Kingdom (after he had fled hither for protection) had it surrendred unto him: It is reckoned two Course and an half in height; is surrounded, though a good way off, with Hills, all but towards the North, where it seems to stand Captain of the Mountains.
The Moguls I perceive are inclinable to the like Credulity the
Gentues are,* pointing out a Mount where undoubtedly Solomon gave
Audit to the two Women claiming the same Child, and pronounced
Judgment in favour of the true Mother; and it still bears the name
of Tecta Schelimon, Solomon’s Throne; I brought Night with me to
Jeneah, being too well guarded to suspect any Attempt; though
notable enough by the multitudes of Oily Flambeaus.

This Day gave me occasion to take notice of the sneaking Offici∣ousness
of the Banyans, who pressed on my Heels, and where-ever I
went, waited like Lacquies, which put me in mind of that Distich
of Martial’s,

Lecticam sellamque sequor, nec ferre recuso
Per medium properans, sed prior ire tutum.

The New Moon brought the Soldiers to their several Standards,*
against the Governor’s House, by their Salam to refresh his Memory of
their Pay, being Fourteen Months behind-hand. Pay, says Tacitus, is
the Cause of Soldiers, and Money is the Cause of Pay; which is not
wanting to the Muster-masters, who abuse the common Troopers in
retarding it; to the end, that having run into debt, they might
compound for half their Wages in ready Money; for all which they
leave not often their Side, for they are sure of something with ease,
whereas Seva Gi is a kind of Free-booter, whose Maxim is, No Plun∣der,
no Pay; which comes with pain and hazard: Yet it is common
for him to have Moors in his Army; for the Liberty of their Country
is not stood so much upon, as Whose Salt they eat (their own
Phrase); so that you may see Gentues in the Mogul’s Army, as well
as Moguls among the Gentues: For the most part of the Body of the
Cavalry consists of Moguls, the Infantry of Gentues, with Match-Lock Muskets.

In order to this Convention every Petty Officer brings the number
of his Men and Horse along with him,* who first salute him, and he
the Governor, owning none else for their Commander, though they
fall off under such an Ensign as they are ordered to march with: They
are taught little more than the Grand Paw, and to make a Salam:
They ride in wide Saddles as our War Saddles, but hold with the
Calves of their Legs, not fasten themselves to their Saddles by their
Thighs, as we do; by which slight they raise themselves to mow
down their Enemies, and will cast a Spear, and take it up from the
Ground on full speed: They stop with a jerk, not taking their Horses
up by degrees, which they laugh at us for, as well as our riding with
our Feet at length: They have no Spurs to their Heels, but in their Bridle-bit is one to stop the most untamed Horse, or bore his Mouth through, pointing out of a Circle upon their Tongues.

They have other excellent Qualities; as he that runs fastest, is the best Soldier: Besides, their Arms are kept so bright, they are afraid to handle them for fear of soiling them: Their Leaders are good Carpet-Knights, loving their Buchannos better than the Field.

The old Roman Discipline takes place,*viz. Commanders of Tens,
so of Hundreds, thence to Legions; and accordingly receive their
Salary, making their own Terms with those under them: The Go∣vernor
distributing to the Officers, and they to the Soldiers, every
one having their Snips; that never was more truly verified that Pro∣verb,
Half the King’s Cheese goes away in Parings.

The Grandees of the Army appear with their Furniture of Silver
and Gold,* on Persian, Arab, or Turkish Steeds; the rest rarely get
any other than the Race of the Country, which are Fiery and Met∣tlesome,
but very Flashy, probably because they pinch Their Bellies
to put into their Own.

And now the Rains began to urge me to take my Leave of the
Caun of Jeneah,* which I did in a full Assembly convocated for the
purpose; where I was informed Two hundred of Seva Gi’s Men had
pursued me almost to Ambegaum, with a resolution to have carried me
back, but durst come no further, for the Report of the Army being
in Motion; wherefore the Naibob advised me to take another way,
and a select Guard of his should attend me to the utmost Extent of
his Territories; after which he dismissed me very honourably, with
a Letter to the President, which is not sealed on the Paper, but in a
Neat Bag of Cloath of Gold or Silver.

This Naibob Mucklis Caun lives not in that Splendor the Governor
of Surat does, though he have ten times the Salary, being liable to
the daily Assaults of Seva Gi; but he exceeds in Command, being
Absolute, without any Dependance on the General; which causes
an Emulation on either side, and the more, because the Mogul has
lately heaped new Honours on Badur Caun, doubling his Stipend,
and giving him the Title of Foster Brother, his Mother nursing the
King: But this Governor, to equalize him in Wealth, keeps but half
the alotted Number in Pay, and lives sparingly, which makes him
take Sanctuary with regret sometimes under Badur Caun, he being
always upon the Forlorn Hope.

This Cheat is practi•• all over the Realm,* notwithstanding here
are Publick Notaries placed immediately by the ••gul, to give No∣tice
of all Transactions; which they are sure to represent in favour
of the Governors where they reside, being Fee’d by them, as well
as Paid by the Emperor; so that if a Defeat happen, it is extenua∣ted;
if a Victory, it is magnified to the height: Those in this Of∣fice
are called Vocanoveces.

The Government of this Place is as in all other Cities of the Mo∣guls.*
The Walls are broken down, but the Gates are still remain∣ing:
With the City’s Safeguard Trade is fled, though it be commo∣diously
feared, and furnished with course Chints, fine Lawn, and
plenty of Cotton-Grounds; but the Plowmen and Weavers have
followed the Merchants, a Rich one not being to be heard of in se∣ven
or eight days Journy from hence.

The Buzzars therefore consist chiefly of Provisions, which they
compel the Country to bring in, and sometimes take them by Force,
by reason of the general Poverty reigning among them.

Wherefore the 22d of May I left them,* and took my Way by
Nunny Gaot, or the Little Hill in respect of the other, which we
saw mounted a prodigious height above us: Hither I came by twelve
a Clock at Noon, a far shorter and easier Way than the other: It is
ten Course from Jeneah, wherein we travelled between a Couple of
Seva Gi’s Castles; and overlooking the Gaot, is a third very like Je∣neah
Gur, which hailed us; I sent one to answer them, but kept on
my Course till I came to the Gaot, where I was constrained to bestow
more time th•n I was willing, 300 Oxen laden with Salt (which is
so precious up the Country, as to be proverbially preferred to Bread,
they saying, Whose Salt they eat, as we, Whose Bread,) stopping
the Gap; but with a little Intreaty, after an hour’s standing still in
the Sun, I got them, by sending my Peons, to desist below, till we
had widen’d the Pass above; after which it is feasible, being sup∣plied
at fit distances with charitable Cisterns of good Water, and to∣wards
the bottom adorned with beautiful Woods, delighting as well
as refreshing us with the Shade: By Sunset I was in the Plain, where
an honest Subidar that took off his Liquor, let me pass without trou∣ble,
being more like a Scout than a Set-Watch.

Nor do I believe the Mogul’s Army dare venture to advance be∣tween
these Streights,* which are so well maintain’d; but farther
North the Hills seem to stoop more to the Plain, and it may be that
Way they may pass; though this Way be tolerable for Caphala’s and
Merchants who have their Passports.

We reckon to have measured this Day Fifteen Course, most in
the Heat of the Day, to the side of a poor Village called Wesnure,
where we rested under a Tree, the Coolies being unprovided for;
nor could they purchase any thing here, the Inhabitants being hared
out of their Wits, mistrusting even their own Countrymen as well as
Strangers, living as it were wildly, betaking themselves to the Thick∣ets
and Wildernesses among the Hills, upon the approach of any new
Face; for my Horse by chance breaking loose, set a whole Gom or
Town upon the hoof, they thinking Auren Zeeb’s Luscarry at hand;
thus unhappily live these, a Prey to every one.

The Clouds had spread themselves over the Tops of the Hills,
that they seemed to make a Ne plus ultra, or the World’s-End.

The next Day at Twelve a Clock at Noon we struck into our old
Road at Moorbar,* from whence before we were misguided; we
packed hence by Five in the Afternoon, and left our Burnt Wood on
the Right-hand, but entred another made us better Sport, deluding
us with false Flashes, that you would have thought the Trees on a
Flame, and presently, as if untouch’d by Fire, they retained their
wonted Verdure. The Colies beheld the Sight with Horror and
Amazement, and were consulting to set me down, and shift for them∣selves;
whereof being informed, I cut two or three with my Sword,
and by breathing a Vein, let Shitan▪ (the Devil) out, who was crept
into their Fancies, and led them as they do a startling Jade, to smell
to what their Wall-Eyes represented amiss; where we found an Host of Flies, the Subject both of our Fear and Wonder, which the sultry Heat and Moisture had generated into Being, the certain Prodromus
of the ensuing Rain, which follow’d us from the Hills.

This gave my Thoughts the Contemplation of that Miraculous
Bush crowned with Innocent Flames, that gave to Moses so pleasant
and awful a Prospect; the Fire that consumes every thing, seeming
rather to dress than offend it.

Thus we came to Barfta,* a despicable Country Town, Seven
Course more; it is in possession of the Combies, who are not strong
enough to aid their Herds against the devouring Jaws of the Wild
Beasts, a young Buffola being seized the Night before, out of the Ta∣bernacle
they lodged me in; wherefore they caution•• me to keep
Fires all Night, lest the Horse might lose one of his Quarters, or
our Oxen might serve them for a Supper; I added to the Fires a
strict Watch, whose mutual answering each other in an high Tone,
was deafen’d by the Roarings of Tigres, Cries of Jackals, and Yel∣lings
of Baloos, or over-grown Wolves: At Cock-crow (the Lions
Charm) we parted hence, and observed the Sheds here were round,
thatch’d, and lined with broad Leaves of Teke (the Timber Ships
are built with), in fashion of a Bee-hive: These Combies are the
Wood-men. About Seven we overtook our deep Creek, and being
somewhat swelled by the Rains, we followed its Current till we
found it passable; about Eleven we returned to Gullean.

The Hardship these poor Combies undergo was obvious to the sense
of the very Coolies,* who often in this Journy would reflect on their own
Happiness under the English Government; those being all so harass’d,
that they dare not Till the Ground, never expecting to reap what
they sow, or remain in their Houses, but seek lurking-Places in De∣serts
and Caverns, being naked to the Violence of the Plunderer,
and therefore both unsafe and uncomfortable Journeying for Tra∣vellers.
I took up my Station where I was before, and sent my Man
to the Havaldar to complain of the Treachery of the Guides; he
professed he was asham’d, but a new Governor being since put over
his Head, with the Command of a Party of Horse, he was incapable
of punishing them; yet for what further Courtesy he was able to do
he was ready, and to that end sent to the Subidar for his License for
a Boat, which now are all pluck’d up and housed ashore, the Rains
more than approaching, so that it was troublesome procuring one;
but by their joint Power it was at last atchieved; which a cross∣grain’d
Brachmin, supported by an outlaw’d Portugal, contradicted in
despight of both, seizing it by Force with Three Files of Soldadoes.

For which cause I was tied to the Consort of croaking Frogs,* ma∣king
so hideous a Noise, that I took little Rest this Night: When
Day broke I could hardly believe my Eyes, for Bulk, or Ears, for Sound,
exceeding ours incredibly; and to raise the Wonder, this Night was
the first of the Rains, before which none were heard: Wherein Pliny may
be trusted, better than in some other Reports; for speaking de Ranis,
he says, Mirum semestri vitâ resolvuntur in limum, nullo cernente, & rur∣sus
vernis aquis renascuntur, quae fuere natae, proinde occultâ ratione cum
omnibus annis id eveniat. Et Aristot. de Gen. Anim▪ cap. 4. Generantur
autem in terrâ & humore animalia & plantae; quoniam humor in terrâ, spiritus in humore, calor animalis in universo est, ita ut quodammodo ani∣maum plena sunt omnia.

Sic Ovidius.

Semina limus habet virides generantia ranas. Who all consent to the possibility of the thing, the prolifick Virtue lying hid in the slimy Matter, till a conjunction of fit Causes dispose it for suddain Action.

Walking the Quarters of my Lodgings,* a more delightful, and
as unusual a Prospect attracted my Animadversion; a great Tree full
of stringy red Flowers, set in open Calices upon a long Stalk, like
budding Grapes; which before the Sun had collected much force,
I saw begin to fall in showers upon the Ground; desiring to handle one
Bough, I observed them fixed; still they upon the Tree dropped till
all was shedded, and the Ground strewed with them, which a Brach∣min
carefully gathered up to reserve for a Physical use; but more
truly out of Superstition, paying Rent for the Privilege: This
Wonder is renewed daily, they Blossoming in the Night, and con∣trary
almost to all other Plants, are disgusted with the Sun-beams,
drooping in the day; which is like the Arbor Tristis at St. Thomas
his Mount, only the Flowers of that are White and Sweet, and this
Red and indifferently Scented; the Leaves of the Tree resemble
those of a Walnut; in the Country Nomenclature it is called Nure; of
what Virtue I cannot learn.

Discharging here my Oxen,* which I hired of a Gentue, who
though they will not Kill their Neat, make no Conscience to Work
them to Death, allowing them hardly Food to keep them alive.

Neither are they less Inhuman toward their Sick,* a Woman being
brought to die among the Tombs in my sight; pretended to be done
to avoid the Governor’s troubling the Family (where she lived a
Dancing Wench) for Money; they making themselves Heirs to
their Estates when they die: Non ad eundem finem quem Herodotus
ait, uti Antiquiores Aegyptii aegrotos suos non ad medicos, sed in compita,
& publicas vias deferebant, populum praetereuntem pro morborum cura∣tione
consulturi: Not for that purpose, as Herodotus presumes; the
Egyptians brought not their Sick to Physicians, but laid them in the
Streets and publick Passages, that the People passing by might be consulted for their Cure.

Every Third Hour I had the din of a Man of God of the Moors,*
permitted to come hither to call them to Prayers; as he cried aloud
he stopped his Ears with his Fingers, that he might emit his Voice
with the more strength, and less disturbance to himself; experience
thereby directing us to hear our own Sounds the better; and some
Anatomists tell us, Nature has framed a Cartilaginous passage from
the hollow of the Drum of the Ear, to the process of the outward
part of the cuneal Bone reaching to the Palat, which being open
may possibly divert the Noise; but whether this do help, or is un∣derstood
by them, yet this they do Practise; and this Afternoon
their Sanctum Sanctorum was open, the Priest entring in Barefoot and
Prostrating himself on the Mats spread on the Floor, whither I must not have gone, could his Authority have kept me out; the Walls were white and clean, but plain, only the Commandments, wrote in
Arabick in the West-end, were hung on a Table over an Arched Place,
where the Priest Expounds on an Ascent of Seven Steps, railed at top
with Stone very handsomely: It is supported within with Four sub∣stantial
Pillars of Timber well carved, the Roof all Wood, with a square
Hole over the Pulpit: Underneath are fine cool Vaults, and Stone
Stairs to descend to a deep Tank, where this Priest was following the
Occupation of making such Paper as they use; which after he had
steeped Cotton Rags in Water, he by beating brought it into the form of
Paper; and cutting them, or slicing the Mass into Sheets, was past∣ing
them up on the Stone-sides of the Mosque, next the Sun, to dry;
after which they are polished and glazed, and so made fit for their use.

In the Evening I saw the reason of our stay this day;* a Pragma∣tical
Portugal fled to this Place, for designing the death of a Fidalgo
in the front of 40 Men marching to the Governor’s; his Name Pedro
Sylvio, a Rich Lout, no Gentleman: Besides these he keeps as a
Guard to his Body, he has a Bloudy Leash of Cofferies imployed to be
revenged on his Antagonist at Baçein; here he acts without Controle,
and is about to accept of Pay under Seva Gi, he being courted there∣to,
because he is a bold desperate Fellow, the fitter Instrument to ruin his Nation.

In the mean time here arriving a Bombaim Boat,* she was presently
disburthened of her Lading, and I Embarqued, and the 26th of May
came abreast of Tanaw, the Pass here being another main Impedi∣ment
to the intended Trade up the Country with the Moors; which,
had we in our possession, according to the Contract with Portugal,
we might the easier make Seva Gi comply; and more than that,
find Lordships for Englishmen, where they might live contentedly,
and not be beholden to Foreign Supplies for Provisions: By Three
the next Morning I Anchored against the Bunder at Bombaim, and
Landed presently after Travally-Beat, delivering my Letter from the Caun to the President.

Here rode an Europe Ship called the Fleece;* which lost her Passage
last Year, coming too late out of England; and about Noon the Rain∣bow
arrived, they being both forced to put in at Bombass, an Island
of the Portugals on the Coast of Melinda, which produces excellent
Ivory, and other Miracles, from whence they failed together; till
just on this Shore a Storm separated them, the Fleece gaining this
Port; the Rainbow fell first in with Surat, and to Day came to an Anchor here.

Thus if I have been too prolix in this Narrative,* I must beg your
pardon for endeavouring to satisfy you on two Scores, which none
but one of my Profession must pretend to; the one relating to the
Women, and the other to their Fortified Gurs or Castles; and if it
find your Acceptance, it is all the Aim I have, and my Pains is there∣by sufficiently rewarded.

Bombaim 1675.
Sept. 22.


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