Light Page » Vatican City State » Pope Francis Address to Baselios Marthoma Mathews III, Catholicos of East and Metropolitan of Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church (11/09/2023)
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    • #232916

      The faith of Saint Thomas was inseparable from his experience of the wounds of the Body of Christ (cf. Jn 20:27). The divisions that have occurred throughout history between us Christians have been painful wounds inflicted on the Body of Christ that is the Church.

      [See the full post at: Pope Francis Address to Baselios Marthoma Mathews III, Catholicos of East and Metropolitan of Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church (11/09/2023)]

    • #232940

      Western Philosophy

      Classical Western: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern: Epistemology and Metaphysics

      Pre-Socratic Philosophers: Thales, Anaxagoras, Anaximenies, Ionians, Pythagoras, Parmenides, Heraclitus and Democritus,
      The Sophists and Socrates

      Plato and Aristotle:
      · Plato – Theory of knowledge, knowledge and opinion, theory of Ideas, the method of dialectic, soul and God.
      · Aristotle – Classification of the sciences, the theoretical, the practical and the
      productive, logic as an organon, critique of Plato’s theory of Ideas, theory of causation, form and matter, potentiality and actuality, soul and God.

      Medieval Philosophy:

      · Augustine: Problem of Evil.
      · Anselm: Ontological argument.
      · Thomas Aquinas: Faith and Reason, Essence and Existence, the Existence of God.Modern Western Philosophy:
      · Descartes : Conception of method , Criteria of truth, doubt and methodological
      scepticism, cogito ergo sum, innate ideas, Cartesian dualism: mind and matter, proofs for the existence of God, interactionism.
      · Spinoza : Substance, Attribute and Mode, the concept of ‘God or Nature’, Intellectual love of God, parallelism, pantheism, three orders of knowing.
      · Leibnitz : Monadology, truths of reason and fact, innateness of ideas, proofs for the existence of God, principles of non – contradiction, sufficient reason and identity of indiscernibles, the doctrine of pre -established harmony, problem of freedom.
      · Locke : Ideas and their classification, refutation of innate ideas, theory of substance,distinction between primary and secondary qualities, theory of knowledge, three grades of knowledge.
      · Berkeley : Rejection of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities,immaterialism, critique of abstract ideas, esse est percipi, the problem of solipcism; God and self.
      · Hume : Impressions and ideas, knowledge concerning relations of ideas and knowledge concerning matters of fact, induction and causality, the external world and the self, personal identity, rejection of metaphysics, scepticism, reason and the passions.
      · Kant : The critical philosophy, classification of judgements, possibility of synthetic a priori judgements, the Copernican revolution, forms of sensibility, categories of understanding, the metaphysical and the transcendental deduction of the categories, phenomenon and noumenon, the Ideas of Reason – soul, God and world as a whole, rejection of speculative metaphysics.
      · Hegel : The conception of Geist (spirit), the dialectical method, concepts of being, non – being and becoming, absolute idealism, Freedom.

      Recent Western Philosophy

      Analytic and Continental Philosophy:
      Frege: Sense and Reference
      Logical Positivism: Verification theory of meaning, Elimination of metaphysics, concept of
      Moore: Distinction between Sense and Reference, Refutation of Idealism, Defense of commonsense, Proof of an External World.
      Russell: Logical Atomism, Definite Descriptions, Refutation of Idealism
      Wittgenstein: Language and Reality, Facts and objects, names and propositions, the picture
      theory, critique of private language, meaning and use, forms of life, notion of philosophy,
      Wittgensteinian Fideism, On Certainty.
      Gilbert Ryle: Systematically misleading expressions, category mistake, concept of mind, critique of Cartesian dualism
      A. J. Ayer: The Problem of Knowledge
      W.V.O. Quine: Two Dogmas of Empiricism
      H.P. Grice and P.F. Strawson: In Defense of a dogma
      Phenomenology and Existentialism:
      Husserl: Phenomenological Method, Philosophy as a rigorous science, Intentionality,
      Phenomenological Reduction, Inter-subjectivity
      Heidegger: The concept of Being (Dasein), Man as being in the world, critique of technological civilization
      Kierkegaard: Subjectivity as Truth, Leap of faith
      Sartre: Concept of Freedom, Bad-faith, Humanism
      Morleau-Ponty: Perception, Embodied Consciousness
      William James: Pragmatic Theories of Meaning and Truth, Varieties of Religious experience
      John Dewey: Concept of Truth, Common-faith, education
      Nietzsche: Critique of Enlightenment, Will to Power, Genealogy of Moral
      Richard Rorty: Critique of representationalism, Against Epistemological method, Edifying Philosophy
      Immanuel Levinas: Ethics as a first philosophy, Philosophy of ‘other’

    • #238112

      Biden spoke with Pope Francis to discuss the latest developments in Israel and Gaza

      Readout of President Biden’s Call with His Holiness Pope Francis

      OCTOBER 22, 2023

      Today, President Joseph R. Biden spoke with His Holiness Pope Francis to discuss the latest developments in Israel and Gaza.  The President condemned the barbarous attack by Hamas against Israeli civilians and affirmed the need to protect civilians in Gaza.

      He discussed his recent visit to Israel and his efforts to ensure delivery of food, medicine, and other humanitarian assistance to help alleviate the humanitarian crisis in Gaza. They also discussed the need to prevent escalation in the region and to work toward a durable peace in the Middle East.

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