Ordinary Provisions for Inquiry and Trials before Criminal Courts in India

A criminal trial is a judicial examination of the issues in the case and its purpose is to arrive at a judgment on an issue as to a fact or relevant facts which may lead to the discovery of the fact issue and obtain proof of such facts at which the prosecution and the accused … Continue reading Ordinary Provisions for Inquiry and Trials before Criminal Courts in India

Constitution of the Kingdom of the Netherlands of August 24, 1815

The Netherlands is a hereditary constitutional monarchy, with a parliamentary form of government based on the principles of ministerial responsibility, with the Monarch as the Head of State. The Kingdom of the Netherlands dates from 1814. The Constitution of the Netherlands (hereinafter “NC”) was adopted in 1814 and was last amended on 7 July 2002. … Continue reading Constitution of the Kingdom of the Netherlands of August 24, 1815

Under S. 167(2) of Cr.P.C accused person is entitled to be released on bail if investigation is not completed within sixty days.

The Provision is Mandatory. In Natabar Parida v. State of Orissa, AIR 1975 SC 1465, the Court explained the mandatory character of the requirement of the proviso to S. 167(2) that an accused person is entitled to be released on bail if the investigation is not completed within sixty days. The Court said: “But then … Continue reading Under S. 167(2) of Cr.P.C accused person is entitled to be released on bail if investigation is not completed within sixty days.

Basic Law of Governance [ Constitution of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia]

Basic Law of Governance The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, King Fahd Bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud issued a Royal Decree embodying the Basic Law of Governance. The following is the text of the Decree. In the name of God, the most compassionate, the most Merciful. No: A/90 Dated 27th Sha’ban 1412 H (1 March 1992) … Continue reading Basic Law of Governance [ Constitution of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia]

Laws of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Law of the Kingdom can safely be divided into two groups. Basic Laws, which has a Constitution like effect or other Laws. In 1992 the Basic Laws were adopted by a Royal Decree.  Basic Laws  Media, Culture and Publication Laws National Security, Civil Status and Criminal Laws Commerce, Economy and Investment Laws Diplomatic Corps, Protocol, … Continue reading Laws of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

M/s. Shree Chamundi Mopeds Ltd. Appellant Versus CHURCH of SOUTH India Trust Association, Madras [ALL SC 1992 APRIL ]

AIR 1992 SC 1439 : (1992) 2 SCR 999 : (1992) 3 SCC 1 : JT 1992 (3) SC 98 : (1992) 1 SCALE 947 (SUPREME COURT OF INDIA) M/s. Shree Chamundi Mopeds Ltd. Appellant Versus CHURCH of SOUTH India Trust Association, Madras Respondent (Before: N. M. Kasliwal, M. M. Punchhi And S. C. Agrawal, … Continue reading M/s. Shree Chamundi Mopeds Ltd. Appellant Versus CHURCH of SOUTH India Trust Association, Madras [ALL SC 1992 APRIL ]

Law of Confession under Indian Evidence Act

Section 164 Code of Criminal Procedure speaks about recording of confessions and statements. It reads thus: 164. Recording of confessions and statements. (1) Any Metropolitan Magistrate or Judicial Magistrate may, whether or not he has jurisdiction in the case, record any confession or statement made to him in the course of an investigation under this … Continue reading Law of Confession under Indian Evidence Act

The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran (1979) Qānūn-e asāsī

The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran replaced the monarchical constitution of 1906 Contents PREAMBLE Introduction to the Constitution The Dawn of the Movement Islamic Government The Wrath of the People The Price the Nation Paid The Form of Government in Islam The Economy is a Means, Not an End Woman in the Constitution … Continue reading The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran (1979) Qānūn-e asāsī

Constitution is meant for all the people of the country and not for the people of their own way of thinking alone.

AIR 1973 SC 947 : (1973) 2 SCR 541 : (1973) 1 SCC 20 : (1973) CriLJ SC 370 (SUPREME COURT OF INDIA) Jagmohan Singh Appellant Versus State of U.P. Respondent (Before : S. M. Sikri, C.J.I., A. N. Ray, I. D. Dua, D. G. Palekar And M. H. Beg, JJ.) Criminal Appeal No. 173 … Continue reading Constitution is meant for all the people of the country and not for the people of their own way of thinking alone.

The period of limitation in case of Criminal complaint is to be determined on the date of presentation of the complaint to the magistrate

After referring to several decisions, the  Supreme Court held that the limitation prescribed under Section 468 of the Code should be related to the filing of complaint and not to the date of cognizance by the Magistrate or issuance of process by the Court. In Basavantappa Basappa Bannihalli and Anr. v. Shankarappa Marigallappa Bannihalli, 1990 … Continue reading The period of limitation in case of Criminal complaint is to be determined on the date of presentation of the complaint to the magistrate

Union of India & Ors. Vs. Ram Lakhan Sharma [ ALL SC 2018 JULY]

KEYWORDS:- RAPE- Removal from service- disciplinary inquiry – natural Justice- The question as to whether Inquiry Officer who is supposed to act independently in an inquiry has acted as prosecutor or not is a question of fact which has to be decided on the facts and proceedings of particular case. The disciplinary proceedings are quasi-judicial proceedings … Continue reading Union of India & Ors. Vs. Ram Lakhan Sharma [ ALL SC 2018 JULY]

List of Central Acts [India]

Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Act, 2016 Abolition of Privy Council Jurisdiction Act, 1949 Abducted Persons (Recovery and Restoration) Act, 1949 Absorbed Areas (Laws) Act, 1954 Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research Act, 2011 Acquired Territories (Merger) Act, 1960 Acquisition of Certain Area at Ayodhya Act, 1993 Acting Judges … Continue reading List of Central Acts [India]

S. A. Venkataraman Versus Union of India and another [ALL SC 1954 MARCH]

KEYWORDS:- Double Jeopardy- It is a well-established principle of English law that, except where it is otherwise provided by a statute, all public officers and servants of the Crown hold their appointments at the pleasure of the Crown. Their services can be terminated without assigning any reason and even if any public servant considers that he … Continue reading S. A. Venkataraman Versus Union of India and another [ALL SC 1954 MARCH]

Constitution of Malaysia

 As at 1 November 2010 Contents  FEDERAL CONSTITUTION 1.1PART I THE STATES, RELIGION AND LAW OF THE FEDERATION 1.1.1Article 1: Name, States and territories of the Federation 1.1.2Article 2: Admission of new territories into the Federation 1.1.3Article 3: Religion of the Federation 1.1.4Article 4: Supreme law of the Federation 1.2PART II FUNDAMENTAL LIBERTIES 1.2.1Article 5: … Continue reading Constitution of Malaysia

National Human Rights Commission vs State Of Gujarat & Ors [ALL SC 2009 MARCH ]

KEYWORDS:- SIT- WITNESS PROTECTION -FAIR TRIAL- COURT DIRECTIONS : (a) Ensuring safe passage for the witnesses to and from the court precincts. (b) Providing security to the witnesses in their place of residence wherever considered necessary, and (c) Relocation of witnesses to another state wherever such a step is necessary. IN THE SUPREME COURT OF … Continue reading National Human Rights Commission vs State Of Gujarat & Ors [ALL SC 2009 MARCH ]

Whether the Central Bureau of Investigation is empowered to conduct ‘fresh’/’re- investigation’ when the cognizance has already been taken by the Court of competent jurisdiction on the basis of a police report under Section 173 of the Code?

Supreme Court of India in Vinay Tyagi vs Irshad Ali @ Deepak & Ors decided on 13 December, 2012 2. The following two important questions of law which are likely to arise more often than not before the courts of competent jurisdiction fall for consideration of this Court in the present appeal : Question No.1 … Continue reading Whether the Central Bureau of Investigation is empowered to conduct ‘fresh’/’re- investigation’ when the cognizance has already been taken by the Court of competent jurisdiction on the basis of a police report under Section 173 of the Code?

Execution of Decree Passed by Civil Court in a Civil Suit

CONNECTED PROVISIONS UNDER CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE 2(2) “Decree” means the formal expression of an adjudication which, so far as regards the Court expressing it, conclusively determines the rights of the parties with regard to all or any of the matters in controversy in the suit and may be either preliminary or final. It shall … Continue reading Execution of Decree Passed by Civil Court in a Civil Suit

Bargadar, Law Relating To under West Bengal Land Reform Act 1955

West Bengal Land Reform Act 1955 Operation Barga was launched by Left Front Government in West Bengal in 1978 and concluded by the mid-1980s. Bargadar Means:- S 2(2) “bargadar” means a person who under the system generally known as adhi, barga or bhag cultivates the land of another person on condition of delivering a share of the produce of … Continue reading Bargadar, Law Relating To under West Bengal Land Reform Act 1955

Chiranjit Lal Chowdhuri Vs. The Union of India & Ors [ SC 1950 December]

KEYWORDS : Fundamental right of  company-eminent domain- HELD : No one except those whose rights are directly affected by a law can raise the question of the constitutionality of that law. The company and the shareholders are in law separate entities, and if the allegation is made that any property belonging to the company has … Continue reading Chiranjit Lal Chowdhuri Vs. The Union of India & Ors [ SC 1950 December]