Author Archives


Advocate, adviser and educator

Madhu Limaye Vs State of Maharashtra-31/10/1977

By a rule of harmonious construction, we think that the bar in sub-s. (2) of S. 397 is not meant to be attracted to such kinds of intermediate orders. They may not be final orders for the purposes of Art. 134 of the Constitution, yet it would not be correct to characterise them as merely interlocutory orders within the meaning of S. 397 (2). It is neither advisable, nor possible, to make a catalogue of orders to demonstrate which kinds of orders would be merely, purely or simply interlocutory and which kinds of orders would be final, and then to prepare an exhaustive list of those types of orders which will fall in between the two. The first two kinds are well known and can be culled out from many decided cases. We may, however, indicate that the type of order with which we are concerned in this case, even though it may not be final in one sense, is surely not interlocutory so as to attract the bar of sub-sec. (2) of S. 397. In our opinion it must be taken to be an order of the type falling in the middle course.

Municipal Corporation of Delhi  Vs Ram Kishan Rohtagi and ors-01/12/1982


Section 482 of the present Code is the ad verbatim copy of Section 561 A of the old Code. This provision confers a separate and independent power on the High Court alone to pass orders ex debito justitiae in cases where grave and substantial injustice has been done or where the process of the Court has been seriously abused. It is not merely a revisional power meant to be exercised against the orders passed by subordinate Courts.

Power of Sessions Judge to summon persons other than the accused to stand trial in a pending case

Sarabjit Singh and Another Versus State of Punjab and Another-Criminal Procedure Code, 1973—Section 319—Summoning of additional suspect to face trial—Power under Section 319 is an extra-ordinary power which is required to be exercised sparingly and if compelling reasons exist for taking cognizance against whom action has not been taken—Materials brought before Court must also be such which would satisfy Court that it is one of those cases where its jurisdiction should be exercised sparingly—An order under Section 319 should not be passed only because first informant or one of witnesses seeks to implicate other person(s)—Sufficient and cogent reasons are required to be assigned by Court so as to satisfy ingredients of the provisions—Mere ipse dixit or mere existence of a prima facie case may not serve the purpose—Impugned judgment set aside—Appeals allowed. Error! No text of specified style in document. vs. Error! No text of specified style in document.

Reputation of the spouse if sullied amongst his colleagues amounts to mental cruelty-SC-26/02/21

whether the conduct of the respondent would fall within the realm of mental cruelty. Here the allegations are levelled by a highly educated spouse and they do have the propensity to irreparably damage the character and reputation of the appellant. When the reputation of the spouse is sullied amongst his colleagues, his superiors and the society at large, it would be difficult to expect condonation of such conduct by the affected party.


The multilateral trading system embodied in the World Trade Organization has contributed significantly to economic growth, development and employment throughout the past fifty years. We are determined, particularly in the light of the global economic slowdown, to maintain the process of reform and liberalization of trade policies, thus ensuring that the system plays its full part in promoting recovery, growth and development. We therefore strongly reaffirm the principles and objectives set out in the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, and pledge to reject the use of protectionism.

Ask Not What Your Country Can Do For You-John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural Address-1961


We dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first revolution. Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans — born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage — and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this Nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today at home and around the world.

Emancipation Proclamation-1863


That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive Government of the United States, including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom.

Mayflower Compact-1620

for the glory of God, and advancement of the Christian faith, and honour of our king and country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the Northerne parts of Virginia, doe by these presents solemnly and mutually in the presence of God and one of another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civill body politick,

Columbus’s letter to Luis De Sant Angel Announcing His Discovery -1493

Therefore I hope that their Highnesses will decide upon the conversion of these people to our holy faith, to which they seem much inclined. I have already stated how I sailed one hundred and seven leagues along the sea-coast of Juana, in a straight line from west to east. I can therefore assert that this island is larger than England and Scotland together, since beyond these one hundred and seven leagues there remained at the west point two provinces where I did not go, one of which they call Avan, the home of men with tails.