List of Anagrams

No – On [Change the position and get a new word]

act – cat case – aces note – tone tar – rat
aide – idea earth – heart ours – sour tea – eat
ape – pea fast – fats pat – tap urn – run
are – ear flow – wolf pear – reap use – Sue
arm – ram God – dog pins – spins war – raw
bare – bear mars – rams pots – spots was – saw
beak – bake meat – team ring – grin wed – dew
best – bets meats – steam sink – skin who – how
boss – sobs nap – pan slip – lips won – now
café – face night – thing tab – bat yap – pay
care – race
abed
bade
bead
abet
beat
beta
abets
baste
betas
beast
beats
abut
tabu
tuba
acme
came
mace
acre
care
race
acres
cares
races
scare
actors
costar
castor
actress
casters
recasts
airmen
marine
remain
alert
alter
later
alerted
altered
related
treadle
ales
leas
sale
seal
aligned
dealing
leading
allergy
gallery
largely
regally
amen
mane
mean
name
anew
wane
wean
angel
angle
glean
antler
learnt
rental
apt
pat
tap
arches
chaser
search
are
ear
era
arm
mar
ram
arrest
rarest
raters
starer
artist
strait
traits
arts
rats
star
tars
arcs
cars
scar
ascent
secant
stance
ascot
coats
coast
tacos
asleep
elapse
please
asp
pas
sap
spa
aspired
despair
diapers
praised
asps
pass
saps
spas
assert
asters
stares
aster
rates
stare
taser
tears
ate
eat
eta
tea
aridest
astride
staider
tardies
tirades
auctioned
cautioned
education
awls
laws
slaw
baker
brake
break
bard
brad
drab
bared
beard
bread
debar
barely
barley
bleary
bats
stab
tabs
begin
being
binge
below
bowel
elbow
bleats
stable
tables
bluest
bluets
bustle
sublet
subtle
bores
robes
sober
brag
garb
grab
calipers
replicas
spiracle
caller
cellar
recall
canter
nectar
recant
trance
canters
nectars
recants
scanter
trances
capes
paces
space
caret
cater
crate
trace
carets
caters
caster
crates
reacts
recast
traces
catered
created
reacted
cider
cried
dicer
claimed
decimal
declaim
medical
claps
clasp
scalp
code
coed
deco
construe
counters
recounts
trounces
corset
escort
sector
cratered
retraced
terraced
cruel
lucre
ulcer
dale
deal
lade
lead
dare
dear
read
danger
gander
garden
ranged
darters
retards
starred
traders
dater
rated
trade
tread
daters
trades
treads
stared
dates
sated
stead
dearth
hatred
thread
dearths
hardest
hatreds
threads
trashed
decanter
cantered
recanted
deigns
design
signed
singed
deist
diets
edits
sited
tides
demerit
merited
mitered
denter
rented
tender
deltas
lasted
slated
demo
dome
mode
desert
deters
rested
detail
dilate
tailed
detains
instead
sainted
stained
detour
routed
toured
diaper
paired
repaid
diet
edit
tide
tied
direst
driest
stride
discounter
introduces
reductions
does
dose
odes
doters
sorted
stored
dowry
rowdy
wordy
drapes
padres
parsed
rasped
spared
spread
drawer
redraw
reward
warder
warred
dues
sued
used
duster
rudest
rusted
earned
endear
neared
earnest
eastern
nearest
earns
nears
saner
snare
ears
eras
sear
earth
hater
heart
east
eats
sate
seat
teas
elan
lane
lean
emigrants
mastering
streaming
emoter
meteor
remote
enlarge
general
gleaner
emit
item
mite
time
emits
items
mites
smite
times
endive
envied
veined
enlist
inlets
listen
silent
tinsel
enters
nester
resent
tenser
eons
nose
ones
esprit
priest
sprite
stripe
esprits
persist
spriest
sprites
stripes
ester
reset
steer
terse
trees
ether
there
three
evil
live
veil
vile
filets
itself
stifle
filter
lifter
trifle
flow
fowl
wolf
forest
fortes
foster
softer
glare
lager
large
regal
gilder
girdle
glider
gnus
guns
snug
sung
goer
gore
ogre
gory
gyro
orgy
gust
guts
tugs
hare
hear
rhea
hares
hears
rheas
share
shear
heaps
phase
shape
heros
hoers
horse
shore
hoes
hose
shoe
hops
posh
shop
ideals
ladies
sailed
inks
sink
skin
ires
rise
sire
kale
lake
leak
lair
liar
rail
lame
male
meal
lameness
nameless
salesman
lament
mantel
mantle
mental
lapse
leaps
pales
peals
pleas
sepal
last
salt
slat
late
tale
teal
leap
pale
peal
plea
leapt
petal
plate
pleat
least
slate
stale
steal
tales
teals
lemons
melons
solemn
limes
miles
slime
smile
list
silt
slit
lips
lisp
slip
lisper
perils
pliers
lister
liters
litres
relist
tilers
livers
silver
sliver
loop
polo
pool
looped
poodle
pooled
loops
polos
pools
sloop
spool
lopes
poles
slope
lots
lost
slot
lusters
results
rustles
manes
manse
means
names
marines
remains
seminar
mast
mats
tams
master
stream
tamers
mate
meat
tame
team
mates
meats
steam
tames
teams
merit
mitre
remit
timer
merits
mister
miters
mitres
remits
timers
mesa
same
seam
nails
slain
snail
naive
ravine
vainer
nape
neap
pane
naps
pans
snap
span
nets
nest
sent
tens
nope
open
peon
pone
noter
toner
tenor
notes
onset
stone
tones
now
own
won
observe
obverse
verbose
opt
pot
top
opts
post
pots
stop
tops
owns
snow
sown
paled
pedal
plead
palest
pastel
petals
plates
pleats
staple
panel
penal
plane
pares
parse
pears
rapes
reaps
spare
spear
parley
pearly
player
replay
parroted
predator
prorated
teardrop
pars
raps
rasp
spar
parses
passer
spares
sparse
spears
paltry
partly
raptly
parts
strap
traps
parse
pears
spare
spear
parsley
parleys
players
replays
sparely
part
rapt
trap
parties
pastier
pirates
traipse
past
pats
spat
taps
paste
peats
septa
spate
tapes
paws
swap
wasp
pelts
slept
spelt
pertness
presents
serpents
pest
pets
step
piers
pries
spire
pines
snipe
spine
pinto
piton
point
pintos
piston
pitons
points
pores
poser
prose
ropes
spore
potters
protest
spotter
present
repents
serpent
raps
rasp
spar
rashes
shares
shears
rattles
starlet
startle
realist
saltier
retails
recused
reduces
rescued
secured
reigns
resign
signer
singer
reins
resin
rinse
risen
siren
repaint
painter
pertain
repaints
painters
pantries
pertains
rescue
recuse
secure
reset
steer
terse
trees
resort
roster
sorter
restrain
retrains
strainer
terrains
trainers
retests
setter
street
tester
retrain
terrain
trainer
rite
tier
tire
rites
tiers
tires
tries
rosiest
sorties
stories
saint
satin
stain
salve
slave
vales
veals
seated
sedate
teased
serve
sever
veers
verse
sinew
swine
wines
wisens
skate
stake
steak
takes
teaks
skated
staked
tasked
slates
steals
tassel
state
taste
teats
steer
reset
terse
trees
stew
wets
wets
stow
tows
twos
sway
ways
yaws
taster
tetras
treats
thickets
thickest
thickset
weird
wired
wider
whiter
wither
writhe
atom – bomb meals – males saint – satin
avenge – Geneva meals – Salem sales – seals
balm – lamb mean – mane salts – lasts
blot – bolt melon – lemon salvages – Las Vegas
blow – bowl moist – omits sharp – harps
brag – grab more – Rome shrub – brush
chum – much needs – dense siren – rinse
coal – cola nerved – Denver skids – disks
counts – Tucson none – neon skill – kills
diagnose – San Diego nude – dune snail – nails
diary – dairy ocean – canoe sober – robes
domains – Madison pace – cape soils – oils
dottier – Detroit pairs – Paris solo – Oslo
fired – fried pale – leap spray – prays
fringe – finger panels – Naples stack – tacks
hasten – Athens parks – spark stick – ticks
iced – dice pools – spool strip – trips
inch – chin ports – sport study – dusty
keen – knee posts – stops team – meat
lamp – palm races – cares tooled – Toledo
last – salt reap – pear votes – stove
limped – dimple reef – free waits – waist
lion – loin robed – bored wasps – swaps
looted – Toledo rock – cork wells – swell
lump – plum room – moor west – stew
march – charm ropes – pores what – thaw
mash – hams

List of Homonyms

Same sounding words with different meanings

Altar – Alter
Ant – Aunt
Arc – Ark
Ate – Eight
Auger – Augur
Aural – Oral
Baize – Bays
Bald – Bawled
Ball – Bawl
Band – Banned
Bard – Barred
Bare – Bear
Baron – Barren
Be – Bee
Beach – Beech
Bean – Been
Beer – Bier
Berry – Bury
Berth – Birth
Billed – Build
Blue – Blew
Bored – Board
Braid – Brayed
Break – Brake
Brews – Bruise
Bridal – Bridle
Broach – Brooch
Buy – By/ Bye
Capital – Capitol
Cellar – Seller
Census – Sense
Cereal – Serial
Chili – Chilly
Choral – Coral
Cite – Sight / Site
Coarse – Course
Complement – Compliment
Coun – Counsel
Deer – Dear
Die – Dye
Discreet – Discrete
Doe – Dough
Done – Dun
Draft – Draught
Dual – Duel
Earn – Urn
Ewe – You
Farther – Father
Faze – Phase
File – Phial
Find – Fined
Fir – Fur
Flaw – Floor
Flea – Flee
Flew – Flu/ Flue
Flex – Flecks
Flour – Flower
For – Four
Foreword – Forward
Fort – Fought
Foul – Fowl
Gait – Gate
Gamble – Gambol
Genes – Jeans
Gored – Gourd
Great – Grate
Groan – Grown
Hart – Heart
Hear – Here
Heel – Heal
Hi – High
Him – Hymn
Hoard – Horde
Hole – Whole
Holy – Wholly
Hour – Our
I – Eye
Idle – Idol
Incite – Insight
Knead – Need
Knew – New
Knight – Night
Knot – Not
Know – No
Leak – Leek
Lessen – Lesson
Levee – Levy
Links – Lynx
Loan – Lone
Loot – Lute
Made – Maid
Mail – Male
Main – Mane
Manna – Manner
Marshal – Martial
Mask – Masque
Maw – More
Medal – Meddle
Meet – Meat
Might – Mite
Mist – Missed
Moose – Mousse
Muscle – Mussel
None – Nun
Oar – Or
Overdo – Overdue
Pail – Pale
Pain – Pane
Pair – Pear
Passed – Past
Peace – Piece
Peak – Peek
Pedal – Peddle
Plane – Plain
Principal – Principle
Profit – Prophet
Rain – Reign
Red – Read
Right – Write
Ring – Wring
Rode – Road
Role – Roll
Rouse – Rows
Rung – Wrung
Sail – Sale
Sauce – Seen
Scull – Skull
See – Sea
Shoe – Shoo
Side – Sighed
Slay – Sleigh
Soar – Sore
Sole – Soul
Some – Sum
Sort – Sought
Staid – Stayed
Stalk – Stork
Stare – Stair
Stationary – Stationery
Steal – Steel
Stile – Style
Sun – Son
Tail – Tale
Team – Teem
Than – Then
Their – There
Throne – Thrown
Tide – Tied
To – Too / Two
Toe – Tow
Vain – Vein
Vary – Very
Wail – Whale
Waste – Waist
Way – Weigh
Weak – Week
Weather – Whether
Where – Wear
Which – Witch
Who’s – Whose
Won – One
Would – Wood
You’r – Your

List of Irregular Verbs

Base Form Past Simple Past Participle 

arise

arose

arisen

awake awoke awoken
be was/were been
bear bore born(e)
beat beat beaten
become became become
begin began begun
bend bent bent
bet bet bet
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast broadcast
build built built
burn burnt/burned burnt/burned
burst burst burst
buy bought bought
can could … (been able)
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
cling clung clung
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept
cut cut cut
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fly flew flown
forbid forbade forbidden
forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
freeze froze frozen
get got got
give gave given
go went gone
grind ground ground
grow grew grown
hang hung hung
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
kneel knelt knelt
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
lean leant/leaned leant/leaned
learn learnt/learned learnt/learned
leave left left
lent lent lent
lie (in bed) lay lain
lie (to not tell the truth) lied lied
light lit/lighted lit/lighted
lose lost lost
make made made
may might
mean meant meant
meet met met
mow mowed mown/mowed
must had to
overtake overtook overtaken
pay paid paid
put put put
read read read
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
saw sawed sawn/sawed
say said said
see saw seen
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
sew sewed sewn/sewed
shake shook shaken
shall should
shed shed shed
shine shone shone
shoot shot shot
show showed shown
shrink shrank shrunk
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
smell smelt smelt
sow sowed sown/sowed
speak spoke spoken
spell spelt/spelled spelt/spelled
spend spent spent
spill spilt/spilled spilt/spilled
spit spat spat
spread spread spread
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stank stunk
strike struck struck
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
swell swelled swollen/swelled
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
understand understood understood
wake woke woken
wear wore worn
weep wept wept
will would
win won won
wind wound wound
write wrote written

List of Prepositions

aboard
about
above
across
after
against
along
amid
among
around
as
at
before
behind
below
beneath
beside
between
beyond
but
by
concerning
considering
despite
down
during
except
following
for
from
in
inside
into
like
minus
near
next
of
off
on
onto
opposite
out
outside
over
past
per
plus
regarding
round
save
since
than
through
to
toward
under
underneath
unlike
until
up
upon
versus
via
with
within
without

Words often wrongly used

  1. Acquaint for Inform or tell
  2. Advert for Refer.
  3. Adumbrate for Sketch, outline, foreshadow.
  4. Ameliorate for Better, improve.
  5. Assist for Help.
  6. Blue-print for Plan.
  7. Ceiling for Limit.
  8. Cross-section for Sample.
  9. Commence for Begin.
  10. Deem for Think.
  11. Conditioned by for Dependent on.
  12. Consider for Think.
  13. Drive (intr.) for Came, originate, spring.
  14. Develop for Take place, occur, happen, grow.
  15. Entail for Impose, necessitate.
  16. Envisage for Contemplate, face.
  17. Eventuate for Come about, happen, occur, result, turn out.
  18. Evince for Show, manifest, display.
  19. Factor for Fact, consideration, circumstances, feature, element,
    constituent.
  20. Function (verb) for Work, operate, act.
  21. Inform for Tell.
  22. In isolation for By itself.
  23. Initiate for Begin, start.
  24. Locality for Place.
  25. Major for Important, chief, main, principal.
  26. Majority, The. for Most.
  27. Materialise for Come about, happen, occur.
  28. Minimise for Under-estimate, disparage, belittle, make light of.
  29. Practically for Virtually, almost, nearly, all but.
  30. Proceed for Go.
  31. A percentage of for Some.
  32. A Proportion of for Some.
  33. Purchase for Buy.
  34. Reaction for Opinion, view.
  35. Render for Make.
  36. Reside for Live.
  37. Residence for Home.
  38. State for Say.
  39. Stress (verb) for Emphasise.
  40. Sufficient for Enough.
  41. Terminate for End.
  42. Transmit for Send, forward.
  43. Visualise for Imagine, picture.

The use of participles

The use of participles is sometimes very convenient. The following list will meet most of the cases:—

  1. Acknowledging
  2. Communicating
  3. Notifying
  4. Admitting
  5. Directing
  6. Proclaming
  7. Advising
  8. Enclosing
  9. Recommending
  10. Appealing
  11. Enquiring
  12. Reporting
  13. Appointing
  14. Explaining
  15. Requesting
  16. Affirming
  17. Forwarding
  18. Sanctioning
  19. Authorising
  20. Intimating
  21. Stating
  22. Cancelling
  23. Inviting
  24. Submitting
  25. Confirming
  26. Nominating

Precis writing for Competitive Examinations

FROM PREVIOUS PAGE

Practice Set

Men and women are of equal rank but they are not identical. They are be peerless pair being supplementary to one another, each helps the other so that without one the existence of the other cannot be conceived and, therefore it follows as a necessary corollary from these facts that anything that will impair the status of either of them will involve the equal ruin of them both. In framing any scheme of women’s education this cardinal truth must be constantly kept in mind. Man is supreme in the outward activities of a married air and therefore it is in the fitness of things that he should have a greater knowledge thereof. On the other hand, noise life is entirely the sphere of woman and, therefore in domestic affairs, in the upbringing and education of children, woman ought to have more knowledge Not that knowledge should be divided into water tight compartment’s or that so that some branches of knowledge should be closed to anyone, but unless courses of instruction are based on discriminating appreciation of these basic principles, the fullest life of man and woman cannot be developed. Among the manifold misfortunes that may befall humanity, the loss of health is one of the severest. All the joys which life can give cannot outweigh the sufferings of the sick. Among the manifold misfortunes that may befall humanity, the loss of health is one of the severest. All the joys which life can give cannot outweigh the sufferings of the sick. [word:251]


Almost every country in the world believes that it has some special dispensation from Providence, that it is of the chosen people or race and that others, whether they are good or bad, are somewhat inferior creatures. It is extraordinary now this kind of feeling persists in all nations of East as well as of the West without exception. The nations of the East are strongly entrenched in their own ideas and convictions and sometimes in their own sense of superiority about certain matters. Anyhow in the course of the last two or three hundred years, they have received many knocks on the head and they have been humiliated, and they have been debased and they have been humiliated, and they have been debased and they have been exploited. And so, in spite of their feeling that they were superior in many ways, they were forced to admit that they could be knocked about and exploited. To some extent, this brought a sense of realism to them. Three was also an attempt to escape from reality by saying that it was sad that we were not so advanced in material or technical things but that these were after all superficial things. Nevertheless we were superior in essential things, in spiritual things and moral values. I have no doubt that spiritual things and moral values are ultimately more important than other things, but the way one finds escape in the thought that one is spiritually superior simply because one is inferior in a material and physical sense, is surprising. It does not followed by any means. It is an escape from facing up the causes of one’s degradation. [word:- 278]


India has witnessed great expansion of educational opportunities since the attainment of independence. However, the disables children have not yet benefited in any substantial manner from the growth in educational facilities. Education of handicapped children, ultimately become more dependent and non productive. It is therefore believed that scarce national resources should not be wasted on them. Further, it has been our misconceived notion that the education of handicapped children requires highly specialized people and as such, it must essentially be very costly. Maybe, precisely for these wrong notions we have not been able to involve clinical and educational specialization programmers of training and education exclusively meant for handicapped children. It is encouraging to note that the new National Policy on Education has recommended the placement of such children in regular schools so as to provide them integrated education along with normal students. The integrated education will take care of the different needs of various categories and types of disabled children. The objective is to place the disabled children in ordinary schools for imparting education with the help of special teachers, aids and other resources. For fulfilling this objective an array of the necessary infrastructure by way of training of teachers, provision of equipment and book etc are some of the basic pre-requisition. Hopefully, the parents and their handicapped children will be greatly relieved when the latter are transferred to regular schools. [WORD: 231 ]


A drop of water fell out of the cloud into the sea, and finding itself lost in such an immensity of fluid matter, broke out into the following reflection: ‘Alas! What an inconsiderable creature am I in this prodigious ocean of waters: My existence is of no concern in the universe; ‘I am reduced to a kind of nothing, and am the least of the works of God’. It so happened that an oyster which lay in the neighbourhood of this drop chanced to gape and swallow it up in the midst of this his soliloquy. The drop, say the fables, lay a great while hardening in the shell, until by degrees it was ripened into a pearl, falling into the hands of a diver, after a long series of adventures, is at present that famous pearl which is fixed on the top of the Persian diadem.

ANSWER: Once, a drop of water, while falling into the sea, ruminated on its inconsequential existence in the vast ocean. Just then, an oyster swallowed it. The water drop, embedded in the shell, became a pearl in due course. A diver got it. After changing many hands, it now decorates the Persian crown.


Odisha, a small state in the east coast of India, was battered by Cyclone Philine in the last weekend. The cyclone came from the Bay of Begal. It was the result of a low pressure area developing in the sea. From a location a few hundred kilometers off the coast, Cyclone Philine gradually moved towards the land. The wind speed was nearly 220 kilometers per hour. The violent wind hit villages near the coastline with deadly force. Mud houses were flattened, trees uprooted and power lines were reduced to tangled heaps of wire. Fortunately, weather radars tracked the Philine doggedly as a result of which people were evacuated from their houses that fell in the projected path of Cyclone Philine. Millions of people were quickly moved to temporary shelters with remarkable efficiency. This reduced the death toll to negligible numbers. It was a remarkable success of disaster management in India. In another operation, the Coast Guard spotted a cargo ship at night that had tilted dangerously in the waters a few kilometers off Bengal. Responding to its SOS call, the Coast Guard rushed to its rescue and lifted out the sailors who were floating on their life boat in the dark near their ship.

ANSWER: Odisha suffers Nature’s Fury

Three days ago, Cyclone Philine coming from a low-pressure area in the Bay of Bengal tore through the coastal areas of the small eastern Indian state Odisha. With 220 kmph wind-speed, it flattened houses, and uprooted trees and power lines. Disaster management personnel evacuated millions to safety from the radar-predicted cyclone path. Also, the Coast Guard rescued some sailors from their life boat at night. Their ship had careened dizzily in the sea.


Trees give shade for the benefit of others, and while they themselves stand in the sun and endure the scorching heat, they produce the fruit of which others profit. The character of good men is like that of trees. What is the use of this perishable body if no use is made of it for the benefit of mankind? Sandalwood, the more it is rubbed, the more scent does it yield. Sugarcane, the more it is peeled and cut up into pieces, the more juice does it produce. The men who are noble at heart do not lose their qualities even in losing their lives. What matters whether men praise them or not? What
difference does it make whether they die at this moment or whether lives are prolonged?
Happen what may, those who tread in the right path will not set foot in any other. Life itself is unprofitable to a man who does not live for others. To live for the mere sake of living one’s life is to live the life of dog and crows. Those who lay down their lives for the sake of others will assuredly dwell forever in a world of bliss.

Answer : Good men live for others
The character of good men is like that of trees. They live for others and do not lose their qualities even in losing their lives. They always follow the right path. Praise is immaterial to them. To live for one’s own sake is to lead the life of beasts. Only those who lay down their lives for others will live forever in a world of bliss

 Make a précis in about 110 words of the following passage and give it a title

The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) will start working closely with banks to kick-start the government’s Start-Up India initiative in both rural and urban India. Commerce and Industry Minister Nirmala Sitharaman said the government would ensure that startups don’t run out of money and that their equity requirements don’t go unattended. The minister was talking to the media on the sidelines of a FICCI event.

The department is spearheading the Start-Up India initiative announced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in his Independence Day address. Sitharaman said DIPP would work with banks across the country, especially in rural areas. “If each of these (bank) branches gives tribal or Dalit population something to start up with, it would take the whole startup and innovate India (initiative) thought to district level,” she said.

DIPP is also working on ways to reach out to the urban educated and the deprived section of the society to build entrepreneurship. “All over the country, youngsters are coming up with ideas of entrepreneurship. They don’t have time to wait, we don’t have time to lose,” Sitharaman said. The commerce minister said there is a need for greater participation of industry in driving ahead the movement of Skill India. “India needs an ecosystem where talent and skills can be nurtured. Through our 10,000 crore fund of fund for startups, we will provide soft loans, capital to those who want to start fresh enterprises,” she said.

The skill development and entrepreneurship ministry currently offers certified training in 31 different sectors under the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana. Sitharaman, in another event organized by the Confederation of Indian Industry, said India, which ranked 142 in the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business Report this year, is likely to fare better next year since the government has initiated certain reforms to improve the standing. [WORD: 302]

Title- ‘Entrepreneurship: The Future of India’

Answer: The government has understood the importance of entrepreneurship and development of new ideas to make the country industrially developed. It has launched several programmes to support the youngsters financially by helping those getting loans without much hassle as well as with skill development in various disciplines. The government is also ensuring that both the rural and urban areas get the benefit of these schemes. This will make the new ideas sustainable in the long run because the young generation will be encouraged to take up entrepreneurship initiatives with fresh ideas. This approach of the government is expected to make India a better destination in the world to do business.


Precis Writing for Judicial Examinations

A  précis is a clear, concise, and logical summary of a passage preserving its essential ideas.

What to do

  1. Read the paragraph and count the words
  2. Write important points and link them
  3. Start writing the paragraph and review them
  4. While writing, don’t go back and read the paragraph again
  5. Edit and modify
  6. Number of words in Precis should of 1/3 of the actual paragraph
  7. Don’t change the central idea of the paragraph
  8. Retain the keywords of the paragraph
  9. Don’t waste your time in counting words, instead count lines.
  10. Your precis should be completed in one paragraph only
  11. Avoid weak sentences
  12. Don’t give your personal opinion
  13. Don’t use any idiom of your own
  14. Never conclude anything of your own
  15. Never assume anything
  16. Give a name of the Precis, reflecting the theme.

Examples

1.

There is an enemy beneath our feet – an enemy more deadly for his complete impartiality. He recognizes no national boundaries, no political parties. Everyone in the world is threatened by him. The enemy is the earth itself. When an earthquake strikes, the world trembles. The power of a quake is greater than anything man himself can produce. But today scientists are directing a great deal of their effort into finding some way of combating earthquakes, and it is possible that at some time in the near future mankind will have discovered a means of protecting itself from earthquakes.An earthquake strikes without warning. When it does, its power is immense. If it strikes a modern city, the damage it causes is as great as if it has struck a primitive village. Gas mains burst, explosions are caused and fires are started. Underground railways are wrecked. Buildings collapse, bridges fall, dams burst, gaping crevices appear in busy streets.If the quake strikes at sea, huge tidal waves sweep inland. If it strikes in mountain regions, avalanches roar down into the valley. Consider the terrifying statistics from the past 1755: Lisbon, capital of Portugal – the city destroyed entirely and 450 killed. 1970: Peru: 50,000 killed.In 1968 an earthquake struck Alaska. As this is a relatively unpopulated part, only a few people were killed. But it is likely that this was one of the most powerful quakes ever to have hit the world. Geologists estimate that during the tremors, the whole of the state moved over 80 feet farther west into the Pacific Ocean. Imagine the power of something that can move an entire subcontinent! This is the problem that the scientists face. They are dealing with forces so immense that man cannot hope to resist them. All that can be done is to try to pinpoint just where the earthquake will strike and work from there. At least some precautionary measures can then be taken to save lives and some of the property. (330 Words)’

Earthquake – the deadly enemy of mankind.
Damage caused by an earthquake in general.
Damage caused by an earthquake-in particular,
What can the scientists do?

Earthquake – The Great Destroyer

Earthquake is the mankind’s deadly enemy. Earthquake strikes all without a distinction of nationality or political affiliation. The power of a quake is greater than that of any man-made weapon of destruction. An earthquake strikes mankind without a warning. A modern city when struck is reduced -to a nibble. A quake strikes plains, seas and mountains causing all round destruction. The quake struck Lisbon in 1755 killing 450; Peru in 1970 killing 50,000; Alaska in 1968 moving it 80 feet into the Pacific Ocean. Scientists are trying to find out means to combat earthquakes, to predict the origin of the quake so that precaution can be taken to save man and property from destruction.(115 words) 

Write a Precis of the following passage.

One of our most difficult problems is what we call discipline and it is really very complex. You see, society feels that it must control or discipline the citizen, shape his mind according to certain religious, social, moral and economic patterns.

Now, is discipline necessary at all? Please listen carefully. Don’t immediately say YES or NO. Most of us feel, especially while we are young, that there should be no discipline, that we should be allowed to do whatever we like and we think that is freedom. But merely to say that we should be free and so on has very little meaning without understanding the whole problem of discipline.

The keen athlete is disciplining himself the whole time, isn’t he? His joy in playing games and the very necessity to keep fit makes him go to bed early, refrain from smoking, eat the right food and generally observe the rules of good health. His discipline and punctuality is not an imposition but a natural outcome of his enjoyment of athletics. [171 words]

Hints: Though discipline seems to be a problem, it is necessary for all. Discipline shapes our mind and regulates our habits. Some want to be free and think that it is not necessary. Discipline and punctuality give enjoyment to athletes.

TITLE:-  DISCIPLINE IS IMPORTANT

Write a Precis of the following passage.

There are different types of forests in India. So, the products received from these forests are also several. The following are some of the forest products which are important in the growth and development of industries.

Forest products and the industries based on them:

(i) Timber : Timber from the forest are utilised in building activities, industries and in carpentry workshops. In Andaman Islands, Asia’s largest saw mill has been in operation.

(ii) Rubber : Rubber trees are grown in large numbers on the Western Ghats. As a consequence, there are a large number of industries dependent on rubber in the Peninsular India.

(iii) Wood Pulp : Wood pulp is made from the wood of the forests and paper is manufactured from the pulp. Paper mills are large in number in the States of Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh. In the city of Nepa in Madhya Pradesh, there is a newsprint industry.

(iv) Lac and Wax : Lac and Wax are forest products and they are used in manufacturing paints. Thus a number of industries make use of forest products.

(v) And for the growth of the cottage industries the forests have been responsible in many an instance. [197 WORDS]

FOREST PRODUCTS

Many forest products are useful to man. Timber, rubber, Wood pulp, Lac and Wax are some of them. Timber is used for building activities. Rubber is useful for making many things. Wood pulp is used for making paper. Lac and Wax are used in making paints. There are many industries in India which depend on forest products.

Write a Precis of the following passage.

Prevention is better than cure. It is recognised that the only way to get rid of malaria completely is o get rid of the mosquitoes which cause it. Malaria is always associated with damp and marshy land. This is not because the land is damp, but because the static water is the breeding place of the mosquitoes which begin their life as a larva in the water. Malaria does not frequently occur in dry desert countries because mosquitoes can not breed there. The only way to destroy mosquitoes is to prevent their breeding in static water. This can be done by draining all ponds and pools. And by keeping them covered in the breeding season with a film of kerosene oil which by depriving the larva of air, kills them.

Points 

  • Prevention is better than cure.
  • Mosquitoes cause malaria.
  • We should get rid of malaria.
  • The static water is the breeding place of mosquitoes.
  • If the land is dry, the mosquitoes will not breed there.
  • WE should destroy the mosquitoes by draining all ponds and pools.
  • Another way to destroy the mosquitoes is to cover the ponds and the pools with a layer of kerosene oil.
  • The larvas get air and ultimately die.

TIPS

  1. Summarize each section. Use your notes to write a brief summary for each section or paragraph, restricting the length to one or two sentences.
  2. Review and revise. Read through your précis. It should clearly express the original meaning of the text while retaining the same basic tone.
  3. Write in the present tense and maintain that tense throughout the paragraph.  Use active voice instead of passive voice.

2

Write a Precis of the following passage.

In her essay “Cyberspace and Identity” (1999), Sherry Turkle argues that “today’s life on the screen dramatizes and concretizes a range of cultural trends that encourage us to think of identity in terms of multiplicity and flexibility” . Turkle supports her assertion by juxtaposing theories of cyberspace and identity formation with older understandings of identity found in psychology, sociology, and philosophy. Her purpose is to show readers that theories on cyberspace and identity, which claim that identity is multiple and cyclical, do not overturn, but rather add to our understandings of identity in order to encourage her audience “to rethink our relationship to the computer culture and psychoanalytic culture as proudly held joint citizenship” (278). Turkle’s tone assumes a highly educated audience who is familiar with theories not only of cyberspace and identity, but sociology and psychology as well.


TIPS

MAINTAIN THE FOLLOWING WHILE WRITING A PRECIS

  • Clarity, which means your reader should understand what a writer intended to convey. Achieve it through using simple language and structure of your precis.
  • Correctness, which means you should watch spelling, grammar, and punctuation you use, as well as facts, figures, and dates you address.
  • Coherence, which means the logical interconnection of the original’s ideas. Your audience shouldn’t lose their interest while reading.
  • Conciseness, which means avoiding unnecessary details in your précis. Don’t omit essential facts but avoid wordy expressions, repetitions, wateriness, etc.

Write a Precis of the following passage

Water is the basis of all life. Every animal or every pliant contains a substantial proportion of free or combined water in its body and no kind of physical activity is possible in which water does not play an essential part. Water is necessary for animal life, while moisture in the soil is equally imperative for life and growth of plants and trees, though the quantity necessarily varies enormously from plant to plant.
The conservation and utilization of water is thus fundamental for human welfare. The main source of water is rainfall or snowfall. Much of Indian agriculture depends on seasonal rainfall and is therefore, very sensitive to any failure or irregularly of the some. During the rainy season large quantities of rain water flow down into the streams and rivers and ultimately find their way to the sea, and are, therefore, lost to the country. The harassing of our rivers is, therefore, it great national problem to be dealt with no national lines. Vast areas of land which at present are mere scrub, jungles could be turned into fertile and prosperous country by harassing this source of water.

Title: – Conservation and Utilization of Water.

Precis: – Water being so necessary for animal and plant life should be harnessed to our own use. The main source of water is rain. Most of
the rain water goes into rivers. This water must be used for making our barren land fertile. The conservation and utilization of water is,
therefore, a great national problem to be dealt with at the national level.

Write a Precis of the following passage

As early as the sixth or seventh century B.C. Panini wrote his great grammar of the Sanskrit language. He mentions previous grammars and already in his time Sanskrit had crystallized and become the language of an ever-growing literature. Panini͛s book is something more than a mere grammar. To has been described by the Soviet. Professor Th. Stcherabatsky, of Leningrad, as one of the greatest productions of the human mind Panini is still the standard authority on Sanskrit grammar. Through subsequent grammarians have added to it and interpreted it. It is interesting to note that Panini mentions the Greek script. This indicates that there were some kind of contacts between India and the Greeks long before Alexander came to the East. The study of astronomy was specially pursued and it often merged with astrology. Medicine had its textbooks and there were hospitals. Dhanwantri is the legendary found of the Indian science of medicine. The best known old textbooks however, date from the early centuries of the Christian era. These are by Charka on medicine and Sushruta on surgery. Charka is supposed to have been the royal court physician of kanishka who had his capital in the north-West.
These text books enumerate a large number of diseases and give methods of diagnosis and treatment. They deal with surgery, obstetrics, baths, diet, hygiene, infant feeding, and medical education. The approach was experimental, and dissection of dead bodies was being practiced in course of surgical training. Various surgical instruments are mentioned by Sushrutas, as well as operations including amputation of limbs, abdominal, caesarean section, cataract, etc. Wounds were sterilized by fumigator. In the third or fourth century B.C. there were also hospitals for animals. This was probably due to the influence of Jainism and Buddhism with their emphasis on non- violence. [300 WORDS]

Title:- India advancement in the Ancient Ages.

Precis:- Panini wrote his great grammar of Sanskrit in the 6th century B.C. This grammar is the standard grammar of Sanskrit language. In ancient India, the study of astronomy was merged with astrology. Medicine was also much developed at that time, Charka wrote books on medicine and Shushruta wrote on surgery. These books deal with many diseases and the methods of their treatment. They also deal with surgery, obstetrics, hygiene and medical education. Surgery was also much developed. The sterilization of wounds was known to physicians of that time. Due to the influence of Jainism and Buddhism, there were hospitals for animals in India in the third or fourth century.[109 WORDS]

Write a Precis of the following passage

It is physically impossible for a well-educated or brave man to make money the chief object of his thoughts, just as it is for him to make his dinner the principal object of them. All healthy people like their dinners, but their dinner is not the main object of their lives. So all healthy minded people like making money—ought to like it and enjoy the sensation of winning it; it is something better than money. A good soldier, for instance, mainly wishes to do his fighting well. He is glad of his pay—very properly so, and justly grumbles when you keep him ten years without it—still his main notion of life is to win battles, not to be paid for winning them. So of clergyman͛s object is essentially to baptize and preach, not to be paid for preaching. So of doctors. They like fees no doubt, — out to like them; yet if they are brave and well educated, the entire object of their lives is a not fee. They, on the whole, desire to cure the sick, and, if they are good doctors, and the choice were fairly put to them, would rather cure their patient and lose their fee than kill him and get it. And so with all the other brave and rightly trained men; their work is first, their fee second – very important always, but still second.[233 WORDS]

Duty First, Fee afterward

Precis: Moneymaking is not the sole object of the well educated, intellectual, or brave men. A brave soldier͛s main notion of life is to fight to win battles, not to be paid for winning them. A noble clergyman is concerned more with the welfare of the humanity than his pay. A good doctor desires far more to cure his patient than to get his fee. Thus, for all cultured people, their duty comes first, then their fee. [76 Words]

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