Archeology in the U.S. is rooted in the 1700s when European settlers encountered and were intrigued by ancient mounds and earthwork complexes. Systematic archeological recording and the creation of collections began later in the early and mid-1800s spearheaded by the American Philosophical Society, the American Antiquarian Society, and the Smithsonian Institution. Myths about ancient mound builders in the midwest and southeast also spurred archeological research, particularly as a science. During the 1800s, American archeology was linked closely with cultural anthropology, linguistics, and physical anthropology since Native Americans were seen as examples of what human life had been like in prehistoric times. Near the end of the 1800s, Worlds Fair and museum exhibitions displayed American Indian antiquities, and various investigators published accounts of their archeological discoveries. Unfortunately, the growing popular appeal of American archeology was accompanied by commercial demands for authentic prehistoric antiquities and the looting of artifacts from archeological sites for private use. Scientific investigators visited and reported on the destruction and looting of prominent ruins, such as Pecos in New Mexico. These descriptions were used to argue for federal action to protect archeological sites enacted in 1906.