The Constitution

Preliminary Chapter


CHAPTER I. Origin and Title to the Territory of the Colonies
CHAPTER II. Origin and Settlement of Virginia
CHAPTER III. Origin and Settlement of New-England, and Plymouth Colony
CHAPTER IV. Massachusetts
CHAPTER V. New-Hampshire
CHAPTER VII. Connecticut 84- 93
CHAPTER VIII. Rhode-Island 94- 102
CHAPTER IX. Maryland 103- 110
CHAPTER X. New-York 111- 114
CHAPTER XI. New-Jersey 115- 120
CHAPTER XII. Pennsylvania 121- 125
CHAPTER XIII. Delaware 126- 127
CHAPTER XIV. North and South-Carolina 128- 142
CHAPTER XV. Georgia 143- 145
CHAPTER XVI. General Review of the Colonies 146- 158
CHAPTER XVII. General Review of the Colonies 159- 197

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A History of Slavery and its Abolition: Esther Copley-1836


Introduction—Design of the work

Section I.

The Nature of Slavery—Slavery defined—Distinguished—from the subjections of childhood—apprenticeship—Imprisonment

Section II.

The Origin of Slavery—Slavery not founded in nature—nor by Divine command—nor by the constitution of society—but by human depravity

Section III.

Slavery acknowledged in Scripture—Slavery recognized and regulated, but not sanctioned—The moral law the rule of human duty—The judicial law takes things as they are, not as they ought to be—The apostolic exhortations to slaves do not imply approbation of the state

Section IV.

Moral Effects of Slavery—Slavery injurious both to the master and slave

Section V.

Sources of Slavery—Crime—War—Debt—Treachery—Parentage

Section VI.

History of Slavery—Early introduction of slavery—Nimrod—The Ishmaelites—Joseph in Egypt—The Israelites in Egypt—Pyramids—Slavery among the Greeks—Spartans—Helots—Learned slave—Athens—Carthage

Section VII.

Slavery among the Romans—Slaves obtained by war— crime—sale—birth. Employment of slaves—Power of masters—Slaves reckoned as chattels—Slaves deserted in their old age—Rome enslaved—Crusades

Section VIII.

Slavery among the Jews—Slavery denounced as a punishment for idolatry—Possession of slaves among the Hebrews—Man-stealing forbidden—Manner of acquiring slaves—Treatment—Humanity enjoined—Observance of the sabbath—Conduct to female slaves—Voluntary servitude—Year of release—The nations of Canaan—Foreign oppressors of Israel—Captivity of the Jews in Assyria—Haman—Nehemiah’s expostulation with the Jews

Section IX.

Slavery in Europe—The feudal system—The Roman conquests—Condition of the peasantry—Britain—Children sold by their parents—Saxon heptarchy—Humane Sentiments—Irish generosity—Slavery by ancestry—Enfranchisement—Ensigns of slavery—Instance of manumission—Redemption of slaves—Decay of slavery in England—Germany—Poland—Russia—Turkey—Italy—Galley slaves—East Indies

Section X.

Negro Slavery—Geography and history of Africa and the West Indies—Origin of negro slavery—Ferdinand of Spain—Las Casas—Ximenes—Charles V.—Louis XIII.—Queen Elizabeth—Sir John Hawkins—Manner of procuring slaves—Anecdotes—Employment of negro slaves—The slave voyage—Despondency and disease—Anecdotes—The slave market—Separation of families—Slave labour—Cultivation of coffee—Cotton—Sugar—Slave driving—Slave wages—Waste of life and decrease of slave population—Legal hardships incident to negro slavery

Section XI.

Degradation connected with Negro Slavery—Branding—Working in chairs—Instruments of confinement and torture—Contempt of colour—Contempt of their country—Regarded as an inferior race—Punishments—Denied the means of instruction

Section XII.

Instances of aggravated Cruelty—Affecting anecdotes

Section XIII.

Partial Amelioration of Slavery

Section XIV.

History of the Abolition of Slavery

Section XV.

The early Advocates of the enslaved Africans— Ximenes—Charles V.—Pope Leo X.—Queen Elizabeth—Milton—Saunderson—Godwyn—Baxter—Tryon—Fox —Edmundson—Southern—Montesquieu—Hutcheson—Foster—Steele—The Society of Friends—Burling—Sandiford—Lay—Woolman—Churchman—Eastburne—Benezet—Whitefield—Wesley—Rush—Franklin—Dillwyn—Sharp—Pope—Thomson—Savage—Wallis—Hughes—Burke—Shenstone—Hayter—Dyer—Philmore—Postlethwaite—Jeffrey—Rousseau—Sterne—Warburton—Day—Beattie—Proyart—Smith—Millar—Robertson—Raynal—Paley—Porteus—Gregory—Wakefield—Ramsay—Smith

Section XVI.

Struggle for Freedom of Negroes in England—Jonathan Strong—Granville Sharp—Somerset

Section XVII.

Preliminary Steps towards the Abolition of the Slave Trade.—Granville Sharp’s appeal to Lord North—Petition from Virginia—Appeal of the Society of Friends—Information diffused—A society formed—Parliament petitioned—Barclay—Peckard—Thomas Clarkson—His prize essay—His convictions—His consecration to the cause—Publication of his work—Hancock—Phillips—Langton—Baker—Lord Scarsdale—Sir Charles Middleton—Hannah More—Hoare—Bevan—Sight of a slave vessel—Wilberforce—Newton—Scott—Reynolds—Boswell—Browne—Proposal to bring the slave trade before Parliament—Reflections

Section XVIII.

Active Measures of the Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade.—Clarkson’s “Summary View”— Roscoe’s “Wrongs of Africa”—Currie—Clarkson travels to collect evidence—Falconbridge—Liverpool—African specimens—Clarkson endangered—Rathbone—Manchester—Clarkson preaches—Clarkson’s illness—French correspondents—Accessions to cause of abolition—Oppression overruled—William Pitt—Lord Grenville—Temporizing—Spaarman and Wadstrom—Petitions—Publications—Charles James Fox—The question in Parliament—Fresh evidence—Hannah More— Arnold and Gardiner—Volume of evidence—Speeches in Parliament—Loss of the bill—Clarkson in France—Revolt of St. Domingo—Cowper’s Task—Sierra Leone Company—Abstinence from sugar—Petitions—Delays—Repeated defeats—False confidence—Death of Mr. Pitt—Lord Grenville’s administration—Death of Mr. Fox—Achievement of the abolition of the slave trade

Section XIX.

Measures towards the Abolition of Slavery.—Clarkson’s History of the Abolition—Other works commemorative of that event—The measure insufficient—Registry bill—Publications on slavery—Society for the abolition of slavery—Colonization of negroes—Bolivar—Steele in Barbadoes—Mr. Buxton’s motion in 1823—Mr, Canning’s modifications—Attempts at reform—Immediate emancipation advocated—Colonial contumely—Numerous petitions—Stephen’s “England enslaved by her own Colonies”—Eight successive measures—Anti slavery Society’s meeting—Brougham—Discussion in Parliament—Meetings in Ireland—Accession of King William—Attempts of pro-slavery advocates—Antislavery lectures—Meeting at Bath, at Bristol, Bury St. Edmund’s—Concurrent causes of success—Extension of knowledge—Diffusion of liberal sentiments—Reform Bill—Infatuated opposition—Popular meetings—Mr. Jeremie—Anecdotes—Proofs of negro capacity—West Indian manifesto—Liberated Africans—Negro instruction encouraged by government— Opposed by planters—Tumult excited—Insurrection in Jamaica—Charges against missionaries—Martial law—Missionaries imprisoned—Chapels destroyed—Missionaries’ memorial—Proclamation—Contumely—Intimidation—Negro testimony—Perjury recanted—Magistrates implicated—Interdicts against religion—Mr. Knibb released—Attack on Mr. Bleby—Mr. Baylis assaulted—Mr. Burchell’s departure—Negroes examined by Mr. Knibb—Conduct of religious negroes—Mr. Knibb visits England—Continued persecution in Jamaica—Results of persecution—Missionaries in England—Evidence before the Lords—Religious anniversaries—Anti-slavery meeting—Petition to the King—Mr. Buxton’s motion—Mr. Knibb’s speech—Resolutions of the Baptist Board—Official documents from the West Indies—Resolution of black freeholders—Protest of the missionaries—Speech of Mr. Watkis in the Colonial Assembly—Lord Goderich’s circular—Committee of inquiry—Calumny refuted—Persecution overruled—Lord Mulgrave in Jamaica—Whiteley’s pamphlet—Anti-slavery meeting—Meeting of delegates— Memorial—Mr. Stanley’s plan for emancipation—Objections—Simultaneous feeling—West Indian sentiments—House of Lords—Compensation and Apprenticeship—Death of Wilberforce—Passing of the bill—Provisions of the bill—Review of the bill—Grateful Acknowledgments

Section XX.

Anticipations.—Lord Mulgrave—Marquis of Sligo—Sir James C. Smith—Measures of Government—Return of missionaries—Restoration of chapels—The voluntary system—Benevolent expedients—Celebration of Aug. 1—Antigua, Dominica, Jamaica

Section XXI.

Duties resulting.—Christians’ obligations—Restitution—Missionary efforts—Moravians—Baptist missionaries—Wesleyan mission—London Missionary Society—Church Missionary Society—The London Central Negro’s Friend Society—The Ladies’ Society for promoting the education and improvement of the children of Negroes and people of colour in the West Indies.

Section XXII.

Concluding Observations.—The duty of extending religious instruction among the negroes—Of promoting the utter annihilation of Slavery—The evangelization of Africa





All we know of Arrian is derived from the notice of him in the Bibliotheca of Photius, who was Patriarch of Constantinople in the ninth century, and from a few incidental references in his own writings. We learn from Suidas that Dion Cassius wrote a biography of Arrian; but this work is not extant. Flavius Arrianus was born near the end of the first century of the Christian era, at Nicomedia, the capital of Bithynia. He became a pupil of the famous Stoic philosopher Epictetus, and afterwards went to Athens, where he received the surname of the “younger Xenophon,” from the fact that he occupied the same relation to Epictetus as Xenophon did to Socrates. Not only was he called Xenophon by others, but he calls himself so in Cynegeticus (v. ); and in Periplus (xii. ; xxv. ), he distinguishes Xenophon by the addition the elder. Lucian (Alexander, ) calls Arrian simply Xenophon. During the stay of the emperor Hadrian at Athens, a.d. , Arrian gained his friendship. He accompanied his patron to Rome, where he received the Roman citizenship. In consequence of this, he assumed the name of Flavius. In the same way the Jewish historian, Josephus, had been allowed by Vespasian and Titus to bear the imperial name Flavius.

Photius says, that Arrian had a distinguished career in Rome, being entrusted with various political offices, and at last reaching the supreme dignity of consul under Antoninus Pius. Previous to this he was appointed (a.d. ) by Hadrian, Governor of Cappadocia, which province was soon after invaded by the Alani, or Massagetae, whom he defeated and expelled. When Marcus Aurelius came to the throne, Arrian withdrew into private life and returned to his native city, Nicomedia. Here, according to Photius, he was appointed priest to Demeter and Persephone. He died in the reign of Marcus Aurelius.

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Principia Ethica-G. E. Moore 1903


It appears to me that in Ethics, as in all other philosophical studies, the difficulties and disagreements, of which its history is full, are mainly due to a very simple cause: namely to the attempt to answer questions, without first discovering precisely what question it is which you desire to answer. I do not know how far this source of error would be done away, if philosophers would try to discover what question they were asking, before they set about to answer it; for the work of analysis and distinction is often very difficult: we may often fail to make the necessary discovery, even though we make a definite attempt to do so. But I am inclined to think that in many cases a resolute attempt would be sufficient to ensure success; so that, if only this attempt were made, many of the most glaring difficulties and disagreements in philosophy would disappear. At all events, philosophers seem, in general, not to make the attempt; and whether in consequence of this omission or not, they are constantly endeavouring to prove that Yes or No will answer questions, to which neither answer is correct, owing to the fact that what they have before their minds is not one question, but several, to some of which the true answer is No, to others Yes.

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A proposal to pay off the debt of the nation – Jonathan Swift 1740

If a person already a bishop, be removed into a richer see, he must be content with the bare revenues, without any fines, and so must he who comes into a bishopric vacant by death: And this will bring the matter sooner to bear; which if the Crown shall think fit to countenance, will soon change the present set of bishops, and consequently encourage purchasers of their lands.

A proposal to pay off the debt of the nation

 Jonathan Swift

A proposal for an Act of Parliament, to pay off the debt of the nation, without taxing the subject The debts contracted some years past for the service and safety of the nation, are grown so great, that under our present distressed condition by the want of trade, the great remittances to pay absentees, regiments serving abroad, and many other drains of money, well enough known and felt; the kingdom seems altogether unable to discharge them by the common methods of payment: And either a poll or land tax would be too odious to think of, especially the latter, because the lands, which have been let for these ten or dozen years past, were raised so high, that the owners can, at present, hardly receive any rent at all. For, it is the usual practice of an Irish tenant, rather than want land, to offer more for a farm than he knows he can be ever able to pay, and in that case he grows desperate, and pays nothing at all. So that a land-tax upon a racked estate would be a burthen wholly insupportable.

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An Essay on Modern Education-Jonathan Swift-1740

The current opinion prevails, that the study of Greek and Latin is loss of time; that public schools, by mingling the sons of noblemen with those of the vulgar, engage the former in bad company; that whipping breaks the spirits of lads well born; that universities make young men pedants; that to dance, fence, speak French, and know how to behave yourself among great persons of both sexes, comprehends the whole duty of a gentleman.

An Essay on Modern Education

From frequently reflecting upon the course and method of educating youth in this and a neighbouring kingdom, with the general success and consequence thereof, I am come to this determination: that education is always the worse, in proportion to the wealth and grandeur of the parents; nor do I doubt in the least, that if the whole world were now under the dominion of one monarch, (provided I might be allowed to choose where he should fix the seat of his empire,) the only son and heir of that monarch would be the worst educated mortal that ever was born since the creation; and I doubt the same proportion will hold through all degrees and titles, from an emperor downwards to the common gentry.

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Anatomy of an Illness -Norman Cousins

Anatomy of an Illness : As Perceived by the Patient

Reflections on Healing and Regeneration


Norman Cousins

Norman Cousins is senior lecturer at the School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles,

and consulting editor of Man & Medicine, published at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University.

For almost all his professional life, Norman Cousins has been affiliated with the Saturday Review.

He became its editor in 1940, a position he held for more than 30 years. He is presently its editorial chairman.

Mr. Cousins is the author of eleven books, including Dr. Schweitzer of Larmbarene, The Celebration of Life, Present Tense, In Place of Folly, The Good Inheritance, and Modern Man Is Obsolete.

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CAIN-A MYSTERY: Lord Byron`s Apocalyptic Anti-Christian Drama 1821

“Man walketh in a vain shadow”

“If Cain be blasphemous, Paradise Lost is blasphemous” (letter to Murray, Pisa, February 8, 1822)

Goethe said that “Its beauty is such as we shall not see a second time in the world” (Conversations, etc., 1874, p. 261)


The following scenes are entitled “A Mystery,” in conformity with the ancient title annexed to dramas upon similar subjects, which were styled “Mysteries, or Moralities.”The author has by no means taken the same liberties with his subject which were common formerly, as may be seen by any reader curious enough to refer to those very profane productions, whether in English, French, Italian, or Spanish. The author has endeavoured to preserve the language adapted to his characters; and where it is (and this is but rarely) taken from actual Scripture, he has made as little alteration, even of words, as the rhythm would permit. The reader will recollect that the book of Genesis does not state that Eve was tempted by a demon, but by “the Serpent;” and that only because he was “the most subtil of all the beasts of the field.” Whatever interpretation the Rabbins and the Fathers may have put upon this, I take the words as I find them, and reply, with Bishop Watson upon similar occasions, when the Fathers were quoted to him as Moderator in the schools of Cambridge, “Behold the Book!”—holding up the Scripture. It is to be recollected, that my present subject has nothing to do with the New Testament, to which no reference can be here made without anachronism.

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On Life after Death: Carl Gustav Jung 1934

What I have to tell about the hereafter, and about life after death, consists entirely of memories, of images in which I have lived and of thoughts which have buffeted me. These memories in a way also underlie my works; for the latter are fundamentally nothing but attempts, ever renewed, to give an answer to the question of the interplay between the “here” and the “hereafter.”

Yet I have never written expressly about a life after death; for then I would have had to document my ideas, and I have no way of doing that. Be that as it may, I would like to state my ideas now.

Even now I can do no more than tell stories—”mythologize.” Perhaps one has to be close to death to acquire the necessary freedom to talk about it. It is not that I wish we had a life after death. In fact, I would prefer not to foster such ideas. Still, I must state, to give reality its due, that, without my wishing and without my doing anything about it, thoughts of this nature move about within me. I can’t say whether these thoughts are true or false, but I do know they are there, and can be given utterance, if I do not repress them out of some prejudice. Prejudice cripples and injures the full phenomenon of psychic life.

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The principal subjects of education-Thomas Huxley


I know quite well that launching myself into this discussion is a very dangerous operation; that it is a very large subject, and one which is difficult to deal with, however much I may trespass upon your patience in the time allotted to me. But the discussion is so fundamental, it is so completely impossible to make up one’s mind on these matters until one has settled the question, that I will even venture to make the experiment.

A great lawyer-statesman and philosopher of a former age—I mean Francis Bacon—said that truth came out of error much more rapidly than it came out of confusion. There is a wonderful truth in that saying. Next to being right in this world, the best of all things is to be clearly and definitely wrong, because you will come out somewhere. If you go buzzing about between right and wrong, vibrating and fluctuating, you come out nowhere; but if you are absolutely and thoroughly and persistently wrong, you must, some of these days, have the extreme good fortune of knocking your head against a fact, and that sets you all straight again. So I will not trouble myself as to whether I may be right or wrong in what I am about to say, but at any rate I hope to be clear and definite; and then you will be able to judge for yourselves whether, in following out the train of thought I have to introduce, you knock your heads against facts or not.

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