Categories by Aristotle (300 BCE)

Substance, in the truest and primary and most definite sense of the word, is that which is neither predicable of a subject nor present in a subject; for instance, the individual man or horse. But in a secondary sense those things are called substances within which, as species, the primary substances are included; also those which, as genera, include the species. For instance, the individual man is included in the species 'man', and the genus to which the species belongs is 'animal'; these, therefore—that is to say, the species 'man' and the genus 'animal,-are termed secondary substances.

The Poetics – Aristotle (300 BCE)

here is, however, a difference in the Epic as compared with Tragedy, (1) in its length, and (2) in its metre. (1) As to its length, the limit already suggested will suffice: it must be possible for the beginning and end of the work to be taken in in one view—a condition which will be fulfilled if the poem be shorter than the old epics, and about as long as the series of tragedies offered for one hearing.

Kautilya Arthashastra- English translation by R. Shamasastry(1956) 

कौटिल्य-अर्थशास्त्र [321-296 BCE] Introductory NoteThe Kauṭilya-Arthaśāstra, of which Mr. Shamasastry gives us here his translation, is a work of very exceptional interest and value. In the first place, it ascribes itself in unmistakable terms to the famous Brāhman Kauṭilya, also…

Suppression Stories-by Brian Martin

The process of judging an article by sending it to referees is a form of what is called peer review - the referees and editor are said to be "peers," namely people in the field with similar values and standards. Peer review is also involved in assessing grant applications, job applications, promotions and book proposals at scholarly publishers.

History of Modern Philosophy-BY A. W. BENN (1912)

Since the beginning of the twentieth century the interest in philosophy and the ability devoted to its cultivation have shown no sign of diminution. Two new doctrines in particular have become subjects of world-wide discussion. I refer to the theory of knowledge called Pragmatism, and to the metaphysics of Professor Henri Bergson. Both are of so revolutionary, so contentious, and so elusive a character as to preclude any discussion or even outline of the new solutions for old problems which they claim to provide.

The Story of Burnt Njal

Njáls saga is a tale of the two friends, Gunnarr and Njáll, and their families in the south of Iceland, but a great number of other people are involved, directly or indirectly, and the action is set in various parts of Iceland, Scandinavia, and the British Isles.

The Social Contract by Jean-Jacques Rousseau

MAN is born free; and everywhere he is in chains. One thinks himself the master of others, and still remains a greater slave than they. How did this change come about? I do not know. What can make it legitimate? That question I think I can answer.

 कल्पसूत्र – Kalpasutra of Bhadrabahu

In that period, in that age lived the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira, the five (most important moments of whose life happened) when the moon was in conjunction with the asterism Uttaraphalguni; to wit, in Uttaraphalguni he descended (from heaven), and having descended (thence), he entered the womb (of Devananda); in Uttaraphalguni he was removed from the womb (of Devananda) to the womb (of Trisala); in Uttaraphalguni he was born; in Uttaraphalguni, tearing out his hair, he left the house and entered the state of houselessness; in Uttaraphalguni he obtained the highest knowledge and intuition, called Kevala, which is infinite, supreme, unobstructed, unimpeded, complete, and perfect. But in Svati the Venerable One obtained final liberation.

Philosophy of Osteopathy by Andrew T. Still 1899

Dr. A. T. Still, founder of the Science of Osteopathy, has associated with him, in his infirmary organization, the oldest and most successful practitioners and exponents of the science, selected with special reference to their fitness for the work of practically demonstrating the principles of Osteopathy and occupying positions as teachers and lecturers in the American School of Osteopathy. All are regular graduates of this school.

Treatise concerning the principles of human knowledge-George Berkeley-1710

It is evident to any one who takes a Survey of the Objects of Humane Knowledge, that they are either Ideas actually imprinted on the Senses, or else such as are perceived by attending to the Passions and Operations of the Mind, or lastly Ideas formed by help of Memory and Imagination, either compounding, dividing, or barely representing those originally perceived in the aforesaid ways.

What is life? The Physical Aspect of the Living Cell by E SCHRODINGER 

Consciousness finds itself intimately connected with, and dependent on, the physical state of a limited region of matter, the body. (Consider the changes of mind during the development of the body, at puberty, ageing, dotage, etc., or consider the effects of fever intoxication, narcosis, lesion of the brain and so on.) Now there is a great plurality of similar bodies. Hence the pluralization of consciousnesses or minds seems a very suggestive hypothesis.

Problem of Philosophy-Bertrand Russell-1912

Is there any knowledge in the world which is so certain that no reasonable man could doubt it? This question, which at first sight might not seem difficult, is really one of the most difficult that can be asked. When we have realized the obstacles in the way of a straightforward and confident answer, we shall be well launched on the study of philosophy—for philosophy is merely the attempt to answer such ultimate questions, not carelessly and dogmatically, as we do in ordinary life and even in the sciences, but critically, after exploring all that makes such questions puzzling, and after realizing all the vagueness and confusion that underlie our ordinary ideas.

Haqiqate Musalman-i-Bengalah :- Origin Of The Musalmans Of Bengal

It is mentioned in Chapter VII of Tanhh-i-Fenshia that in the year 600 A.H., corresponding with 1203 A.D., the first Mahommedan conquest of Bengal was effected hy Bakhtyar Khilji, under tlie guidance of Kuthubddin Aibak, the Emperor of India at that time....Mahomed Baklityar Khilji was one of the warlord of Ghor, He came to Ghazni during the reign of Sultan Ghias-ud-din Mahomed Sam, and after staying there for a short time, proceeded to India and attached iiimself to Malik Moazzam. Many former inhabitants of Ghor, Ghazni and Khorasan, who had migrated to, and taken to a roving life in, India.

Shantiniketan: The Bolpur School of Rabindranath Tagore-William Winstanley Pearson-1917

The greatest teachers in ancient India, whose names are still remembered, were forest-dwellers. By the shady border of some sacred river or Himalayan lake they built their altar of fire, grazed their cattle, harvested wild rice and fruits for their food, lived with their wives and children in the bosom of primeval nature, meditated upon the deepest problems of the soul, and made it their object of life to grow in sympathy with all creation and in communion with the Supreme Being. There students flocked round them and had their lessons of immortal life in the atmosphere of truth, peace and freedom of the spirit.