What is White-Collar Crime

The term reportedly has been coined in 1939, the term white-collar crime is now synonymous with the full range of frauds committed by business and government professionals. These crimes are characterized by deceit, concealment, or violation of trust and are not dependent on the application or threat of physical force or violence. The motivation behind these crimes is financial—to obtain or avoid losing money, property, or services or to secure a personal or business advantage.

These are not victimless crimes. A single scam can destroy a company, devastate families by wiping out their life savings, or cost investors billions of dollars (or even all three). Today’s fraud schemes are more sophisticated than ever, and the FBI is dedicated to using its skills to track down the culprits and stop scams before they start.

The FBI’s white-collar crime work integrates the analysis of intelligence with its investigations of criminal activities such as public corruption, money laundering, corporate fraud, securities and commodities fraud, mortgage fraud, financial institution fraud, bank fraud and embezzlement, fraud against the government, election law violations, mass marketing fraud, and health care fraud. The FBI generally focuses on complex investigations—often with a nexus to organized crime activities—that are international, national, or regional in scope and where the FBI can bring to bear unique expertise or capabilities that increase the likelihood of successful investigations.

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Murder Case: Surupa Guha w/o – Indranath Guha(ex-Principal of South Point School and Friend of Aparna Sen)-1976

4th May 1976

Death Certificate:  Surupa Guha died on 4-5-1977 at about 11-30 P.M Night. Death certificate granted by the SSKM hospital showed that Surupa’s death was due to Cardiorespiratory failure due to unknown poisoning.

Sukumar Naik and Subodh Das were the laboratory staff of the science department of South Point School. They were called by CID Police Lal Bazar. On interrogation, they stated that the  South Point School lab had Mercuric Chloride and it was accessible to Indra along with chemistry teacher.

The case: Indra Nath Guha was accused in sessions trial no. 2 (1) /1978 which was pending before Shri R. Mahapatra, additional sessions judge, 6th court, Alipore.

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Tips to avoid home burglaries when you go on holiday

Tips to avoid home burglaries when you go on holiday

1- Do not spread on social media your intention to go on holiday or its duration.
2- Do not leave jewelry or valuables in plain sight during your absence and as a general rule do not keep money, jewelry or valuables at home. Do not leave valuables on terraces without enclosure.
3- Never hide the keys under the entrance carpet or in the mailbox, flowerpots, meter boxes, etc. as they can be located with relative ease by thieves.
4- Close the doors and windows tightly.
5- Do not lower the blinds completely.
6- Ask a family member, friend or neighbor to collect correspondence from your mailbox from time to time.
7- Assess the possibility of installing electronic alarm devices.
8- Leave clothes lying down in the event of not very long absences.
9- Do not completely disconnect the electricity, the doorbell disconnected is an indication of absence.
10- In prolonged absences, ask a trusted neighbor to help collect your mail, check the status of the home, turn on a light from time to time, turn on the radio or TV and leave a phone number so that they can locate you.

Recommendations in case of theft

  1. Keep calm and do not enter the home. Do not touch or move anything that may have been tampered with by thieves.
  2. Notify the police.
  3. Never confront thieves.
  4. When you file the complaint, present supporting documents for the stolen items, such as invoices, photographs, etc.

 

Fictitious reservations of hotel rooms via Net

Cyber Crime,Cyber Security,Cyber Law

Fictitious reservations of hotel rooms via Internet

Various managers of hotel made complaints to the Police, which alleged customers contact them via their email addresses, they ask to make a reservation, and hand out various credit card numbers.

Days after the charge has been made, the alleged customer informs that he must cancel the reservation, and requests that the money be returned to him, but not to the same credit card number, but to a bank account or to through some money-sending company, and gives all sorts of sometimes quite incoherent excuses and explanations.

Subsequently, the manager of the Hotels will receive information from his bank, informing him that he must return the charge made to the credit card numbering, as its real holder has lodged a complaint, having never authorized this. charge.

So the damage to the manager of the hotel establishment will be the money he reimburses to the alleged customer.

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The Origin, Right and Consequences of Punishment: VOLTAIRE

TRUTH IS ETERNALLY THE SAME

M. De VOLTAIRE

In every human society, there is an effort continually tending to confer on one part the height of power and happiness, and to reduce the other to the extreme of weakness and misery. The intent of good laws is to oppose this effort, and to diffuse their influence universally and equally. But men generally abandon the care of their most important concerns to the uncertain prudence and discretion of those, whose interest it is to reject the best and wisest institutions; and it is not till they have been led into a thousand mistakes, in matters the most essential to their lives and liberties, and are weary of suffering, that they can be induced to apply a remedy to the evils with which they are oppressed. It is then they begin to conceive, and acknowledge the most palpable truths, which, from their very simplicity, commonly escape vulgar minds, incapable of analysing objects, accustomed to receive impressions without distinction, and to be determined rather by the opinions of others, than by the result of their own examination.

If we look into history we shall find that laws which are, or ought to be, conventions between men in a state of freedom, have been, for the most part, the work of the passions of a few, or the consequences of a fortuitous or temporary necessity; not dictated by a cool examiner of human nature, who knew how to collect in one point the actions of a multitude, and had this only end in view, the greatest happiness of the greatest number. Happy are those few nations who have not waited till the slow succession of human vicissitudes should, from the extremity of evil, produce a transition to good; but, by prudent laws, have facilitated the progress from one to the other! And how great are the obligations due from mankind to that philosopher, who, from the obscurity of his closet, had the courage to scatter among the multitude the seeds of useful truths, so long unfruitful!

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Definition of crimes against humanity

1. For the purpose of the present draft articles, “crime against humanity” means any of the following acts when committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population, with knowledge of the attack:

(a) murder;
(b) extermination;
(c) enslavement;
(d) deportation or forcible transfer of population;
(e) imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty in violation of fundamental rules of international law;
(f) torture;
(g) rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy, enforced sterilization, or any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity;
(h) persecution against any identifiable group or collectivity on political, racial, national, ethnic, cultural, religious, gender, or other grounds that are universally recognized as impermissible under international law, in connection with any act referred to in this paragraph;
(i) enforced disappearance of persons;
(j) the crime of apartheid;
(k) other inhumane acts of a similar character intentionally causing great suffering, or serious injury to body or to mental or physical health.

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Indian Supreme Court on Murder Cases

SUPREME COURT OF INDIA JUDGMENTS
  • Accused charged U/S 149 IPC read with Secs 302 & 307 and no individual charge U/S 302 or 307 framed against accused for his individual act—The charge suffered from a serious lacuna - Suraj Pal Versus State of Uttar Pradesh - 01-03-1955 - The opinion of prosecuting authorities that murder in question should have been attributed to a witness and not accused is irrelevant for trial of accused and should not have been placed on record.
  • Aggravating circumstances - VASANTA SAMPAT DUPARE Vs. STATE OF MAHARASHTRA [SC]
  • Ashoksinh Jayendrasinh Vs. State of Gujarat – 07/05/19 - Section 302 IPC read with Section 34 IPC- Life imprisonment converted into acquittal by giving benefit of doubt-Supreme Court would be slow to interfere with the concurrent findings of the courts below. In an appeal under Article 136 of the Constitution of India, concurrent findings of fact cannot be interfered with unless shown to be perverse (vide Mahesh Dattatray Thirthkar v. State of Maharashtra (2009) 11 SCC 141). Where the appreciation of evidence is erroneous, the Supreme Court would certainly appreciate the evidence.
  • Atul Thakur Vs. State of Himachal Pradesh etc [SC 2018 JANUARY] - KEYWORDS:-MURDER-The number of wounds caused by the appellant, it is a well established position, by itself cannot be a decisive factor. DATE:- January 19, 2018. Thus,Continue Reading
  • BHAWNA BAI VS GHANSHYAM AND OTHERS- 03/12/2019 - For framing the charges under Section 228 Crl.P.C., the judge is not required to record detailed reasons. As pointed out earlier, at the stage of framing the charge, the court is not required to hold an elaborate enquiry; only prima facie case is to be seen.
  • Cases where charge u/s 302 IPC was converted into section 304 IPC by Supreme Court - following decisions wherein the case under section 302 IPC was converted into section 304 IPC. (1) Abdul Nawaz v. State of West Bengal reported inContinue Reading
  • Dalip Singh and others Versus State of Punjab-12/01/1979 - Although a dying declaration recorded by a Police Officer during the course of the investigation is admissible under Section 32 of the Indian Evidence Act is view of the exception provided in sub section (2) of Section 162 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, it is better to leave such dying declarations out of consideration until and unless the prosecution satisfies the court as to why it was not recorded by a Magistrate or by a Doctor.
  • DEATH PENALTY IN INDIA - INDIAN COURTS ARE VERY SELECTIVE AND CHOOSY ON IMPOSING DEATH PENALTY
  • DEV KARAN @ LAMBU VS STATE OF HARYANA- 06/08/2019 - "We may also notice that there are concurrent findings of the trial court and the appellate court, which have appreciated the evidence, and we do not think that this Court should convert itself into a third court of appeal for appreciation of evidence."
  • Difference between “murder” which is not an accident and “murder” which is an accident - In Rita Devi v. New India Assurance Company Ltd., reported in AIR 2000 SC 1930 The question,  is can murder be an accident in anyContinue Reading
  • Difference between Murder and Manslaughter under the USA Law - (a) Murder is the unlawful killing of a human being with malice aforethought. Every murder perpetrated by poison, lying in wait, or any other kindContinue Reading
  • Dinubhai Boghabhai Solanki Vs. State of Gujarat & Ors[SC 2017] - KEYWORDS- Murder-de novo trial-Rights of victim in criminal trial There is a discernible paradigm shift in the criminal justice system in India which keeps inContinue Reading
  • Govind Singh Vs. State of Chhattisgarh - Murder-The entire occurrence was in a spur of the moment. There was a quarrel between the father and daughter as to where the bulb is to be put on. In the sudden quarrel and in the spur of the moment, the appellant threw the chimney lamp on his daughter. The occurrence was sudden and there was no premeditation. The chimney lamp was burning there which the appellant had picked up and thrown on the deceased. Since the occurrence was in a sudden quarrel and there was no premeditation, the act of the accused would fall under Exception 4 to Section 300.
  • Govindaswamy v. State of Kerala [ ALL SC 2016 SEPTEMBER] - KEYWORDS:-RAPE AND MURDER-INTENTION-VICTIM NOT DIED INSTANTLY DATE: September 15, 2016 To hold that the accused is liable under Section 302 IPC what is required is anContinue Reading
  • Guru @ Gurubaran & Ors. Vs. State represented by Inspector of Police 27/09/2019 - Section 302, Indian Penal Code -the accused can only be held guilty of having committed the offence under Section 324 IPC. He has already undergone imprisonment for around 11 years and, therefore, his conviction under Section 302 IPC is altered to Section 324 IPC and the sentence is reduced to the period of incarceration already undergone.
  • Gurwinder Singh @ Sonu Etc. Vs. State of Punjab and ANR [ALL SC 2018 MAY] - KEYWORD: MURDER CONVICTION DATE: May 08, 2018 ACTS: Section 304 Part-I IPC HELD: “the deceased sustained head injuries with multiple fractures, right fronto temporal and temporo parietalContinue Reading
  • In the scheme of the IPC culpable homicide is genus and `murder’ its species. - All `murder' is `culpable homicide' but not vice-versa. Speaking generally, `culpable homicide' sans 'special characteristics of murder is culpable homicide not amounting to murder'. For the purpose of fixing punishment, proportionate to the gravity of the generic offence, the IPC practically recognizes three degrees of culpable homicide. The first is, what may be called, `culpable homicide of the first degree'. This is the gravest form of culpable homicide, which is defined in Section 300 as `murder'.
  • Issac @ Kishor Vs. Ronald Cheriyan and Ors.[SC 2018 January] - KEYWORDS:-Setting aside  acquittal-302 IPC -MURDER-High Court in interfering with a finding of acquittal in revision- DATE:- January 23, 2018 In appeal against acquittal, in exceptional circumstances,Continue Reading
  • JAI PRAKASH VS STATE OF UTTAR PRADESH  AND OTHERS-28/11/2019 - Murder Conviction-Sections 302 IPC and 120-B IPC-The duty of the appellate court is to consider and appreciate the evidence adduced by the prosecution and arrive at an independent conclusion. Like the trial court, the appellate court also must be satisfied of its conclusion.
  • Kailash Gour and Others Vs State of Assam -15-12-2011 - This Court in State of H.P. v. Gian Chand, (2001) 6 SCC 71 dealt with the effect of failure of prosecution to satisfactorily explain the delay in the lodging of the FIR and declared that if the delay is not satisfactorily explained the same is fatal to the prosecution.
  • Kamlakar Vs. State of Maharashtra-31/05/19 - Section 302 & Section 147, 148 of Indian Penal Code- Supreme Court not interfered when having reappreciated the evidence to the extent it is required and a detailed perusal of the judgment passed by the Sessions Court as also the High Court would indicate that both the Courts have adverted to the evidence in detail and have ultimately arrived at the conclusion and when the concurrent judgment based upon the evidence have found the appellant to be guilty of the charge alleged against him in committing the murder and had convicted him under Section 302 of the Indian Penal Code.
  • Karuppanna Gounder Vs. State represented by the Inspector of Police – 17/09/2019 - Accused acquitted : The question is whether the death of the deceased could be attributed to the injury caused by the appellant A1. The appellantContinue Reading
  • Khushal Rao Versus State of Bombay-25/09/1957 - Though under Section 133 of the Evidence Act, it is not illegal to convict a person on the uncorroborated testimony of an accomplice, illustration (b) to Section 114 of the Act, lays down as a rule of prudence based on experience, that an accomplice is unworthy of credit unless his evidence is corroborated in material particulars and this has now been accepted as a rule of law.
  • Mani Vs. State of Kerala and Others-1/4/2019 - Offence of Murder - In view of sudden fight without any premeditation, the conviction of the appellant for an offence under Section 302 is not made out. The cause of death of the deceased is knife blow on the chest of the deceased-Soman. Such injury is with the knowledge that such injury is likely to cause death, but without any intention to cause death. Thus, the death of Soman is a culpable homicide not amounting to murder as the death has occurred in heat of passion upon a sudden quarrel falling within Exception 4 of Section 300 of IPC. Therefore, it is an offence punishable under Section 304 Part I, IPC.
  • Mere presence in an unlawful assembly cannot render a person liable unless there was a common object u/s 141 I.P.C - CRIMINAL - Section 302 read with Section 149 - the FIR was registered on 12.08.1989 but was forwarded to the Magistrate only on 16.08.1989, after a delay of 4 days, becomes significant in light of the inconsistencies in the story of the prosecution with respect to the appellant. It appears that the appellant was roped in as an accused, due to the inimical relationship between the parties which clearly emanates from the record. [ MARCH 29 2019 ]
  • Mohd. Aslam Versus State of Rajasthan- 07/06/2011 - conversion of offence against the Appellant Md. aslam from Section 302 read with 34 Indian Penal Code to 304 Part-I read with 34 Indian Penal Code and convict him to undergo rigorous imprisonment for a period of ten years with fine of ` 5000/-.
  • Mohd. Aslam Versus State of U.P. -12/02/1974 - We think that the High Court would have been well advised, having regard to the age of the appellant and also the circumstances of the crime, to have reduced the sentence to one of life imprisonment.
  • Munawwar Vs. State of Uttar Pradesh-16/07/19 - Murder and kidnapping of a seven-year old-The identity of the kidnappers been established. There is direct evidence in the form of ocular testimonies, which establishContinue Reading
  • Murder Conviction upheld-accused failed to explain presence of blood on his clothes and recovery on his instance - 01-10-2018- The High Court has rightly held that motive stood established because of the grudge that the appellant nursed against his father with regard toContinue Reading
  • MURDER TRIAL IN INDIA - How to handle a Murder Trial
  • OFFENCES AFFECTING HUMAN BODY : Pakistan Penal Code 1860 - OF OFFENCES AFFECTING THE HUMAN BODY Of Offences Affecting Life 299. Definitions: In this Chapter, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context:Continue Reading
  • Police officer got seven years of enhanced punishment for killing by using Third Degree - In the facts and circumstances of this case’ the punishment of three year imprisonment imposed by the Trial Court under Section 330 of IPC’ wouldContinue Reading
  • Quick consideration of mercy petition and swift rejection the same cannot be ground for judicial review: SC on rejecting a petition by Nirbhya Rape-Murder Accused - Mukesh Kumar vs UOI-Article 32 of the Constitution-a death-row convict -The petitioner has filed the writ petition challenging the rejection of his mercy petition by the President of India and seeking commutation of his death sentence inter alia on the following grounds
  • Ram Chander & Ors.  VS State of Haryana[SC 2017 JANUARY] - KEYWORDS: Murder- Expert Evidence Merely because no expert opinion was obtained to prove as to whether bones recovered were human or animal bones, in ourContinue Reading
  • Ramesh Dasu Chauhan and Another Vs. State of Maharashtra-04/07/19 - Evidence Act-There is no gainsaying that confession made to a police officer cannot be proved as against a person accused of any offence and no confession made by a person while in police custody except made in the immediate presence of a Magistrate, can be proved against him in view of embargo created by Sections 25 and 26 of the Evidence Act. Section 27 of the Act nevertheless carves out an exception as it provides that when any fact is deposed to as discovered in consequence of information received from a person accused of any offence while he is in police custody, "so much of such information", regardless of it being a confession or not, may be proved, if it relates distinctly to the fact thereby discovered.
  • Ramvir Vs. State of Uttar Pradesh [ALL SC 2018 OCTOBER] - MURDER-Acquittal of the accused. DATE: October 26, 2018. ACT: Section 148/149 read with Section 302 IPC SUPREME COURT OF INDIA Ramvir Vs. State of Uttar Pradesh [CriminalContinue Reading
  • Ravi S/o. Ashok Ghumare Vs. State of Maharashtra – 03/10/2019 - MURDER- DEATH SENTENCE CONFIRMED-the victim was barely a two-year old baby whom the appellant kidnapped and apparently kept on assaulting over 4-5 hours till she breathed her last. The appellant who had no control over his carnal desires surpassed all natural, social and legal limits just to satiate his sexual hunger. He ruthlessly finished a life which was yet to bloom. The appellant instead of showing fatherly love, affection and protection to the child against the evils of the society, rather made her the victim of lust.
  • Section 300 of Indian Penal Code: When Killing is not Murder - 300. Murder.—Except in the cases hereinafter excepted, culpable homicide is murder, if the act by which the death is caused is done with the intentionContinue Reading
  • Sentencing Policy set by Supreme Court - Santosh Kumar Satishbhushan Bariyar vs. the State of Maharashtra (2009) 6 SCC 498, Apex Court held the nature, motive, and impact of crime, culpability, quality of evidence, socioeconomic circumstances, impossibility of rehabilitation and some of the factors, the Court may take into consideration while dealing with such cases.
  • Sita Ram Vs. State of NCT of Delhi – 09/07/19 - Sections 302 and 323 read with 34 of the I.P.C.- the occurrence was without premeditation and sudden fight between the parties started in the heat of passion upon a sudden quarrel. The occurrence happened when deceased as his way back home questioned the accused as to his conduct of tapping electricity from the pole. He was not pre-armed and other accused were also not pre-armed. Though, deceased has sustained as many as nine injuries, except injury no(s).1 to 3 which are the injuries caused on the head and all other injuries are on the hand, shoulder, arms etc. Considering the nature of the injuries sustained by deceased, it cannot be said that the accused and other accused have taken undue advantage of deceased in attacking him. Having regard to the facts and circumstances of the case, the conviction under Section 302 read with 34 I.P.C. deserves to be modified under Section 304 Part II I.P.C.
  • State of Madhya Pradesh Vs. Amar Lal-10/12/2019 - Acquittal-It appears from the records that the respondent as under trial had undergone 2 years 8 months 11 days of custody and after his conviction on 24.01.1995 by the Sessions Judge he remained incustody till 18.11.2006 completing 11 years 9 months 26 days. Thus, he has undergone total custody of 14 years 6 months 7 days.
  • State of Madhya Pradesh Vs. Kalicharan & Ors-31/05/19 - Section 302/149 of the IPC & Section 304 Part II of the IPC- it was a case of free fight,  the weapon used by the accused was Farsa and he caused the injury on the vital part of the body i.e. head which proved to be fatal and again the evidence on record, more particularly, the medical evidence and the manner in which the incident took place, the accused should have been held guilty for the offence under Section 304 Part I and not 304 Part II of the IPC.
  • State of Madhya Pradesh Vs. Killu @ Kailash and Ors- 19/11/2019 - MURDER: Merely because the other three accused persons i.e. the present respondents had not used their weapons does not absolve them of the responsibility andContinue Reading
  • State of Rajasthan Versus Shera Ram @ Vishnu Dutta [All SC 2011 December] - KEYWORDS:-Murder acquittal (2011) 13 SCALE 140 (SUPREME COURT OF INDIA) State of Rajasthan Appellant Versus Shera Ram @ Vishnu Dutta Respondent (Before : Swatanter KumarContinue Reading
  • State of Rajasthan vs Mehram & Ors-06/05/2020 - QUANTUM OF PUNISHMENT-The learned counsel for the accused No. 5 was at pains to persuade us that the said accused is now about 70/­75 years of age and at this distance of time, it may not be appropriate to send him back to jail. Taking overall view of the matter, we are not impressed by this submission. Even in case of offence under Section 326, IPC, which commended to the High Court, the same was punishable with imprisonment for life or with imprisonment of either description which may extend to ten years and also liable to fine. Had it been a conviction under Section 326, as aforesaid, the sentence of only about five months in the facts of the present case, by no stretch of imagination, was adequate.
  • Tularam Vs. State of Madhya Pradesh-2/5/2018 - MURDER-DISTINCTION BETWEEN MURDER AND CULPABLE HOMICIDE EXPLAINED-Section 300 of the IPC explains what is murder and it provides that culpable homicide is murder if the act by which the death is caused is done with the intention of causing death or the act complained of is so imminently dangerous that it must in all probability cause death or "such bodily injury as is likely to cause death.
  • What is a “Rarest of Rare Case”? - Jagmohan Singh v. State of U.P [1973] Bachan Singh v. State of Punjab [1980] Machhi Singh v. State of Punjab [1982] Mithu v. State ofContinue Reading
  • Whether facts of last seen together by itself lead to inference that the accused committed the murder - The circumstance of last seen together does not by itself and necessarily lead to the inference that it was the accused who committed the crime. There must be something more establishing connectivity between the accused and the crime. There may be cases where on account of close proximity of place and time between the event of the accused having been last seen with the deceased and the factum of death a rational mind may be persuaded to reach an irresistible conclusion that either the accused should explain how and in what circumstances the victim suffered the death or should own the liability for the homicide. In the present case there is no such proximity of time and place

 

Measures taken by Government to prevent Crime against Women -10/12/2019

The Government and Security

Press Information Bureau

Government of India

Measures taken by Government to prevent Crime against Women

New Delhi

December 10, 2019

Union Minister of State for Home Affairs, Shri G. Kishan Reddy, in a written reply to a question regarding crime against women, in Lok Sabha today, said that women safety is a high priority for the Government and several initiatives have been taken for safety of women across the country, which are given below:

The Criminal Law (Amendment), Act 2013 was enacted for effective deterrence against sexual offences. Further, the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2018 was enacted to prescribe even more stringent penal provisions including death penalty for rape of a girl below the age of 12 years. The Act also inter-alia mandates completion of investigation and trials within 2 months each.

Emergency Response Support System provides a pan-India, single, internationally recognized number (112) based system for all emergencies, with computer aided dispatch of field resources to the location of distress.

Using technology to aid smart policing and safety management, Safe City Projects have been sanctioned in first Phase in 8 cities (Ahmedabad, Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Lucknow and Mumbai).

The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) has launched a cyber-crime portal on 20th September 2018 for citizens to report obscene content.

MHA has launched the ‘National Database on Sexual Offenders’ (NDSO) on 20th September 2018 to facilitate investigation and tracking of sexual offenders across the country by law enforcement agencies.

In order to facilitate States/UTs, MHA on 19th February 2019 launched an online analytic tool for police called ‘Investigation Tracking System for Sexual Offences’ to monitor and track time-bound investigation in sexual assault cases in accordance with the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act 2018.

One Stop Centre (OSC) scheme is being implemented across the country since 1st April 2015 which is exclusively designed to provide integrated services such as medical aid, police assistance, legal counselling/ court case management, psycho-social counselling and temporary shelter to women affected by violence under one roof. As per available information, 728 OSCs have been approved by Government of India, 595 OSCs are operational in the country.

In addition to the above-mentioned measures, MHA has issued advisories from time to time with a view to help the States/UTs to deal with crimes against women, which are available at http://www.mha.gov.in.


SNC/VM

Hyderabad police murdered four people to cover-up failure-now women are more unsafe

The news : 

The four accused in the rape and murder of a Hyderabad veterinarian were shot dead by the Telangana Police on Friday. The accused, arrested on November 29, were remanded to judicial custody and lodged in high-security cells at Cherlapally Central Prison. They were charged under IPC Sections 302 (murder), 375 (rape) and 362 (abduction). Post midnight on Friday morning, the Telangana Police took the four accused to Chattapally, around 30 kilometres from Hyderabad, where the veterinarian’s body was set ablaze and dumped on November 27 for the reconstruction of the Crime Scene. The four accused, Mohammed Arif (26), Jollu Shiva (20), Jollu Naveen (20) and Chintakunta Chennakeshavulu (20), had been taken to the scene of the crime at 3 am for a reconstruction, the police said. They were at the spot near a bridge where the charred body of the woman was found, around 50 km from Hyderabad, when, the police claim, one of the men signalled to the others, possibly to escape. The police claim they fired in self-defence after two of the men attacked them, snatched their weapons and fired.

Effect: 

People especially are women are happy, celebrating Diwali and throwing flowers to police for doing great job. Political establishment are rescued from electoral debacle.

Now some legal question: 

How did police come to the conclusion that only arrested four people did the Crime and there was no fifth criminal involved? How police established that the four accused were not working on behalf of their boss who used to know the Victim and her whereabouts?

Why police took them at 3.30 AM for constructing the Crime scene and not at 12.00 Noon when the sunlight was available. How police were reconstructing forensic crime scene in darkness?

How should police take photographs of crime scenes in darkness? Where shall police get an independent witness in Dark night?

Why police took four accused in one go … they supposed to take one after another to have four versions as per evidence Act either to contradict or agreement amongst the four versions and complete the circumstantial chain which must point to the accused and none other…

Why four accused were taken out of the police van in a single go… Why one by one was not taken to the spot to establish the role of a particular accused.

Had it been the case that the four accused persons were history-sheeter( though no history), how a handcuffed untrained accused could snatch service Revolver from a trained police officer and started to fire multiple armed police officers …and police in self-defense killed four people at once …. how many weapons were snatched … one two three or four by four accused …. horrible. How did the unchained the service revolver or any calibrate weapon which supposed to be chained with the belt of the police officer and ran away…

Where is the photography or creating the crime scene or encounter?

The matter is highly suspicious and should be taken as per Sohorabuddin Encounter Case and demands a high lever Enquiry.

By doing police drama women are not safe but vulnerable and police can easily pick up anybody in rape-murder accusation and killed them to save political establishment and to conceal the departmental failure.

Then we don’t need anything beyond Police … We don’t need Court of Law …Justice system …Defence advocacy. Police justice is the last word in Indian Democracy!!!!

FRIDAY, DECEMBER 6TH, 2019

Religious offences under Pakistan Penal Code 1860

OF OFFENCES RELATING TO RELIGION

295. Injuring or defiling place of worship, with Intent to insult the religion of any class:

Whoever destroys, damages or defiles any place of worship, or any object held sacred by any class of persons with the intention of thereby insulting the religion of any class of persons or with the knowledge that any class of persons is likely to consider such destruction damage or defilement as an insult to their religion. shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

295-A. Deliberate and malicious acts intended to outrage religious feelings of any class by insulting Its religion or religious beliefs:

Whoever, with deliberate and malicious intention of outraging the ‘religious feelings of any class of the citizens of Pakistan, by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representations insults the religion or the religious beliefs of that class, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, or with fine, or with both.

295-B. Defiling, etc., of Holy Qur’an:

Whoever wilfully defiles, damages or desecrates a copy of the Holy Qur’an or of an extract therefrom or uses it in any derogatory manner or for any unlawful purpose shall be punishable with imprisonment for life.

295-C. Use of derogatory remarks, etc., in respect of the Holy Prophet:

Whoever by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representation or by any imputation, innuendo, or insinuation, directly or indirectly, defiles the sacred name of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) shall be punished with death, or imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.

296. Disturbing religious assembly:

Whoever voluntarily causes disturbance to any assembly lawfully engaged in the performance of religious worship, or religious ceremonies, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

297. Trespassing on burial places, etc.:

Whoever, with the intention of wounding the feelings of any person, or of insulting the religion of any person, or with the knowledge that the feelings of any person are likely to be wounded, or that the religion of any person is likely to be insulted thereby, commits any trespass in any place of worship or on any place of sculpture, or any place set apart for the performance of funeral rites or as a, depository for the remains of the dead, or offers any indignity to any human corpse or causes disturbance to any persons assembled for the performance of funeral ceremonies, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

298. Uttering words, etc., with deliberate intent to wound religious feelings:

Whoever, with the deliberate intention of wounding the religious feelings of any person, utters any word or makes any sound in the hearing of that person or makes any gesture in the sight of that person or places any object in the sight of that person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year or with fine, or with both.

298-A. Use of derogatory remarks, etc., in respect of holy personages:

Whoever by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representation, or by any imputation, innuendo or insinuation, directly or indirectly, defiles the sacred name of any wife (Ummul Mumineen), or members of the family (Ahle-bait), of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him), or any of the righteous Caliphs (Khulafa-e-Rashideen) or companions (Sahaaba) of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

298-B. Misuse of epithets, descriptions and titles, etc., reserved for certain holy personages or places:

(1) Any person of the Quadiani group or the Lahori group (who call themselves ‘Ahmadis’ or by any other name who by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representation-

(a) refers to or addresses, any person, other than a Caliph or companion of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), as “Ameer-ul-Mumineen”, “Khalifatul- Mumineen”, Khalifa-tul-Muslimeen”, “Sahaabi” or “Razi Allah Anho”;
(b) refers to, or addresses, any person, other than a wife of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), as “Ummul-Mumineen”;
(c) refers to, or addresses, any person, other than a member of the family “Ahle-bait” of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), as “Ahle-bait”; or
(d) refers to, or names, or calls, his place of worship a “Masjid”;
shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

(2) Any person of the Qaudiani group or Lahori group (who call themselves “Ahmadis” or by any other name) who by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representation refers to the mode or form of call to prayers followed by his faith as “Azan”, or recites Azan as used by the Muslims, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

298-C. Person of Quadiani group, etc., calling himself a Muslim or preaching or propagating his faith:

Any person of the Quadiani group or the Lahori group (who call themselves ‘Ahmadis’ or by any other name), who directly or indirectly, poses himself as a Muslim, or calls, or refers to, his faith as Islam, or preaches or propagates his faith, or invites others to accept his faith, by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representations, or in any manner whatsoever outrages the religious feelings of Muslims shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine.


Pakistan Penal Code (Act XLV of 1860)