Partition means

Supreme Court in Kakumanu Peda Subbayya and Another Vs. Kakumanu Akkamma and Another, . Repelling the argument that an adult can bring about a division in status as he will be in a position to express his opinion clearly and unambiguously but a minor cannot express the same, the Supreme Court held that a suit filed by a next friend on behalf of minor would bring about a severance as effectively as it is done by a suit instituted by an adult plaintiff. The Supreme Court held as follows: Continue reading

What is the meaning of Public safety

“Public safety” ordinarily means security of the public or their freedom from danger. In that sense, anything which tends to prevent dangers to public health may also be regarded as securing public safety. The meaning of the expression must, however, vary according to the context. In the classification of offences in the Penal Code, for instancce, Chap. XIV enumerates the “offences affecting the public health, safety, convenience, decency and morals”, and it apparently includes rash driving or riding on a public way (S. 279) and rash navigation of a vessel (S. 280), among others, as offences against public safety, while Chap. VI lists waging war against the Queen (S. 121), sedition (S. 124-A) etc. as “offences against the state”, because they are calculated to undermine or affect the security of the state, and Chap. VIII defines “offences against the public tranquillity” which include unlawful assembly (S. 141), rioting (S. 146,) promoting enmity between classes (S. 158A), affray (S. 159) etc. Although in the context of a statute relating to law and order “securing public safety” may not include the securing of public health, it may well mean securing the public against rash driving on a public way and the like, and not necessarily the security of the state. It was said that an enactment which provided for drastic remedies like preventive detention and ban on newspapers must be taken to relate to matters affecting the security of the state rather than trival offences like rash driving or an affray. But whatever ends the impugned Act may have been intended to subserve, and whatever aims its framers may have had in view, its application and scope cannot, in the absence of limiting words in the statute itself, be restricted to those aggravated forms of prejudicial activity which are calculated to endanger the security of the State. Nor is there any guarantee that those authorised to exercise the powers under Act will in using them discriminate between those who act prejudicially to the security of the State and those who do not.

9. The Government of India Act, 1935, nowhere used the expression “security of the State” though it made provision under S. 57 for dealing with crimes of violence intended to over throw the Government. While the administration of law and order including the maintenance of public order was placed in charge of a Minister elected by the people, the Governor was entrusted with the responsibility of combating the operations of persons who endangered the peace or tranquillity of Province” by committing or attempting to commit “crime” of violence intended to overthrow the Government.” Similarly, Art. 352 of the Constitution empowers the President to make a Proclamation of Emergency when he is satisfied that the security of India or any part of the territory thereof is threated by war or by external aggression or by internal disturbance.” These provisions recongnise that disturbance of public peace or transquility may assume such grave proportions as to threaten the security of the State.

10. As Stephen in his Criminal Law of England, Vol. II, p. 242 observes:

“Unlawful assemblies, riots, insurrections, rebellions, levying of war, are offences which run into each other and are not capable of being marked off by perfectly defined boundaries. All of them have in common on feature, namely, that the normal tranquillity of a civilised society is in each of the ceases mentioned disturbed either by actual force or at least by the show and threat of it.”

Though all these offences thus involve disturbances of public tranquillity and are in theory offences against pubic order, the difference between them being only a difference of degree, yet for the purpose of grading the punishment to be inflicted in respect of them they may be classified into different minor categories as has been done by the Penal Code. Similarly, the Constitution in formulating the varying criteria for permissible legislation imposing restrictions on the fundamental rights enumerated in Art. 19 (1), has placed in a distinct category those offences against public order which aim at undermining the security of the State or overthrowing it, and made their prevention the sole justification for legislative abridgement of freedom of speech and expression, that is to say, nothing less than eudangering the foundations of the State or threatening its overthrow could justify curtailment of the rights to freedom of speech and expression, while the right of peaceable assembly [sub cl. (b)] and the right of association [sub cl.(c)] may be restricted under cls. (3) and (4) of Art. 19 in the interests of “public order”, which in those clauses includes the security of the State. This differentiation is also noticeable in Entry No. 3 of List III (Concurrent List) of Sch. 7, which refers to the ‘Security’, of a State” and ‘‘Maintenance of public Order” as distinct subjects of legislation. The Constitution thus requires a line to be drawn in the field of public order or tranquillity marking off, more or less roughly, the boundary between those serious and aggravated forms of public disorder which are calculated to endanger the security of the State and the relatively minor breaches of the peace of a purely local significance treating for this purpose differences in degree as if they were differences in kind. [ AIR 1950 SC 124 : (1950) SCR 594 : (1950) CriLJ SC 1514 : (1950) SCJ 418 (SUPREME COURT OF INDIA)
Romesh Thappar Versus The State of Madras ]

Dharma Samgraha by Nagarjuna

धर्मसंग्रहः।

॥ नमो रत्नत्रयाय॥

रत्नत्रयं नमस्कृत्य सर्वसत्त्वहितोदयम्।

कथ्यते मोहनाशाय धर्मसारसमुच्चयः॥

१. तत्र प्रथमं तावत् त्रीणि रत्नानि। तथद्या- बुद्धो धर्मः संघश्चेति॥

२. त्रीणि यानानि। [तद्यथा-] श्रावकयानम्, प्रत्येकबुद्धयानम्, महायानं चेति॥

३. पञ्च बुद्धाः। तद्यथा-वैरोचनः, अक्षोभ्यः, रत्नसंभवः, अमिताभः, अमोघसिद्धिश्चेति॥

४. चतस्रो देव्यः। तद्यथा- रोचनी, मामकी, पाण्डुरा, तारा चेति॥

५. पञ्च रक्षा। तद्यथा- प्रतिसरा, साहस्रप्रमर्दनी, मारीची, मन्त्रानुसारिणी, शीलवती चेति॥

६. सप्त तथागताः। तद्यथा-विपश्यी, शिखी, विश्वभूः, क्रकुच्छन्दः, कनकमुनिः, काश्यपः, शाक्यमुनिश्चेति॥

७. चत्वारो लोकपालाः। तद्यथा-धृतराष्ट्रः, विरूपाक्षः, विरूढकः, कुबेरश्चेति॥

८. अष्टौ लोकपालाः। तद्यथा-इन्द्रः, यमः, वरणः, कुबेरः, ईशानः, अग्निः, नैरृतः, वायुरिति॥

९. दश लोकपालाः। अष्टलोकपालाधिकमूर्ध्वं ब्रह्मा अधः कृष्णः॥

१०. चतुर्दश लोकपालाः। तद्यथा-दशलोकपालसकलम्, चन्द्रः, सूर्यः, पृथ्वी, असुरः॥

११. दश क्रोधाः। तद्यथा-यमान्तकः, प्रज्ञान्तकः, पद्मान्तकः, विघ्नान्तकः, अचरटर्किराजः, नीलदण्डः, महाबलः, उष्णीषः, चक्रवर्ती, सम्भराजश्चेति॥

१२. अष्टौ बोधिसत्त्वाः। तद्यथा-मैत्रेयः, गगनगञ्जः, समन्तभद्रः, वज्रपाणिः, मञ्जुश्रीः, सर्वनिवरणविष्कम्भी, क्षितिगर्भः, खगर्भश्चेति॥

१३. षड्योगिन्यः। तद्यथा-वज्रवाराही, यामिनी, संचारणी, संत्रासनी, चाण्डिका चेति॥

१४. सप्तविधा अनुत्तरपूजा। तद्यथा-वन्दना, पूजना, पापदेशना, अनुमोदना, अध्येषणा, बोधिचित्तोत्पादः, परिणामना चेति॥

१५. त्रीणि कुशलमूलानि। बोधिचित्तोत्पादः, आशयविशुद्धिः, अहंकारममकारपरित्यागश्चेति॥

१६. चत्वारो ब्रह्मविहाराः। मैत्री, करुणा, मुदिता, उपेक्षा चेति॥

१७. षट् पारमिताः। दानपारमिता, शीलपारमिता, क्षान्तिपारमिता, वीर्यपारमिता, ध्यानपारमिता, प्रज्ञापारमिता चेति॥

१८. दश पारमिताः। षट्‍पारमितासकलम्, उपायम्, प्रणिधिः, बलम्, ज्ञानं चेति॥

१९. चत्वारि संग्रहवस्तूनी। दानम्, प्रियवचनम्, अर्थचर्या, समानार्थता चेति॥

२०. पञ्चाभिज्ञाः। दिव्यचक्षुः, दिव्यश्रोत्रम्, परचित्तज्ञानम्, पूर्वनिवासानुस्मृतिः, ऋद्धिश्चेति॥

२१. चत्वार्यार्यसत्यानि। तद्यथा-दुःखम्, समुदयः, निरोधः मार्गश्चेति॥

२२. पञ्च स्कन्धाः। रूपम्, वेदना, संज्ञा, संस्कारा, विज्ञानं चेति॥

२३. लोकोत्तरपञ्चस्कन्धाः। शीलसमाधिप्रज्ञाविमुक्तिविमुक्तिज्ञानदर्शनस्कन्धा इति॥

२४. द्वादशायतनानि। चक्षुःश्रोत्रघ्राणजिह्वाकायमनआयतनानि रूपगन्धशब्दरसस्पर्शधर्मायतनानि चेति॥

२५. अष्टादश धातवः॥ चक्षुःश्रोत्रघ्राणजिह्वाकायमनोरूपगन्धशब्दरसस्पर्शधर्मधातवः चक्षुर्विज्ञानश्रोत्रविज्ञानघ्राणविज्ञानजिह्वाविज्ञानकायविज्ञानमनोविज्ञानघातवश्चेति॥

२६. तत्रैकादश रूपस्कन्धाः॥ चक्षुः, श्रोत्रम्, घ्राणम्, जिह्वा, कायः, रूपम्, शब्दः, गन्धः, रसः, स्पर्शः विज्ञप्तिश्चेति॥

२७. वेदना त्रिविधा। सुखाः, दुःखा, अदुःखासुखा चेति॥

२८. संज्ञास्कन्धः। निमित्तोद्गहणात्मिका॥

२९. संस्कारा द्विविधाः। तत्र चित्तसंप्रयुक्तसंस्काराः, चित्तविप्रयुक्तसंस्काराश्चेति॥

३०. चित्त संप्रयुक्त संस्काराश्चत्वारिंशत्। तद्यथा-वेदना, संज्ञा, चेतना, छन्दः, स्पर्शः, मतिः, स्मृतिः, मनस्कारः, अधिमोक्षः, समाधिः, श्रद्धा, अप्रमादः, प्रस्रब्धिः, उपेक्षा, ह्रीः, अपत्रपा, अलोभः, अद्वेषः, अहिंसा, वीर्यम्, मोहः, प्रमादः, कौसीद्यम्, अश्राद्ध्यम्, स्त्यानम्, औद्धत्यम्, अह्रीकता, अनपत्रपा, क्रोधः, उपनाहः, शाठ्यम्, ईर्ष्या, प्रदानः, म्रक्षः, मात्सर्यम्, माया, मदः, विहिंसा, वितर्कः, विचारश्चेति॥

३१. तत्र चित्तविप्रयुक्तसंस्कारास्रयोदश। प्राप्तिः, अप्राप्तिः, सभागता, असंज्ञिकम्, समाप्तिः, जीवितम्, जातिः, जरा, स्थितिः, अनित्यता, नामकायः, पदकायः, व्यञ्जनकायश्चेति॥

३२. त्रीण्यसंस्कृतानि। तद्यथा-आकाशः, प्रतिसंख्यानिरोधः, अप्रतिसंख्यानिरोधश्चेति॥

३३. षड् विषयाः। तद्यथा-रूपम्, शब्दः, गन्धः, रसः, स्पर्शः, धर्मश्चेति॥

३४. तत्र रूपं विषयस्वभावम्। नीलम्, पीतम्, लोहितम्, अवदातम्, हरितम्, दीर्घम्, ह्रस्वम्, परिमण्डलम्, उन्नतम्, अवनतम्, सातम्, विसातम्, अच्छम्, धूमः, रजः, महिका, छाया, आतपः, आलोकः, अन्धकारश्चेति॥

३५. अष्टाविंशतिविधः शब्दः। सप्त पुरुषवाक्‍शब्दाः, सप्त पुरुषहस्तादिशब्दाः। एत एव (मनोज्ञा)मनोज्ञभेदेनाष्टाविंशतिः॥

३६. रसः षड्‍विधः। तद्यथा-मधुरः, अम्लः, लवणः, कटुः, तिक्तः, कषायश्चेति॥

३७. चत्वारो गन्धाः। तद्यथा-सुगन्धः, दुर्गन्धः, समगन्धः, विषमगन्धश्चेति॥

३८. एकादश स्प्रष्टव्यानि। पृथ्वी, आपः, तेजः, वायुः, श्लक्ष्णत्वम्, कर्कशत्वम्, लघुत्वम्, गुरुत्वम्, शीतम्, जिघत्सा पिपासा चेति॥

३९. पञ्च महाभूतानि। पृथ्वी, आपः, तेजः, वायुः, आकाश्चेति॥

४०. पञ्च भौतिकानि। रूपम्, शब्दः, गन्धः, रसः, स्पर्शश्चेति॥

४१. विंशतिः शून्यताः। तद्यथा-अध्यात्मशून्यता, बहिर्धाशून्यता, अध्यात्मबहिर्धाशून्यता, शून्यताशून्यता, महाशून्यता, परमार्थशून्यता, संस्कृतशून्यता, असंस्कृतशून्यता, अत्यन्तशून्यता, अनवराग्रशून्यता, अनवकारशून्यता, प्रकृतिशून्यता, सर्वधर्मशून्यता, लक्षणशून्यता, अलक्षणशून्यता, भावशून्यता, अभावशून्यता, स्वभावशून्यता, अभावस्वभावशून्यता, परभावशून्यता चेति॥

४२. द्वादशाङ्गप्रतीत्यसमुत्पादः। अविद्या, संस्काराः, विज्ञानम्, नामरूपम्, षडायतनम्, स्पर्शः, वेदना, तृष्णा, उपादानम्, भवः, जातिः, जरामरणम्, शोकपरिदेवदुःखदौर्मनस्योपायासाश्चेति॥

४३. सप्तत्रिंशद्बोधिपाक्षिका धर्माः। चत्वारि स्मृत्युपस्थानानि॥४॥ चत्वारि सम्यक्प्रहाणानि॥८॥ चत्वार ऋद्धिपादाः॥१२॥ पञ्चेन्द्रियाणि॥१७॥ पञ्च बलानि॥२२॥ सप्त बोध्यङ्गानि॥२९॥ आर्याष्टाङ्गिकमार्गश्चेति॥३७॥

४४. तत्र कतमानि स्मृत्युपस्थानानि ? तद्यथा-काये कायानुदर्शस्मृत्युपस्थानम्, वेदनायां वेदनानुदर्शस्मृत्युपस्थानम्, चित्ते चित्तानुदर्शस्मृत्युपस्थानम्, धर्मे धर्मानुदर्शस्मृत्युपस्थानम्॥

४५. कतमानि चत्वारि सम्यक्प्रहाणानि ? तद्यथा-उत्पन्नानां कुशलमूलानां संरक्षणम्। अनुत्पन्नानां समुत्पादः। उत्पन्नानामकुशलानां धर्माणां प्रहाणम्। अनुत्पन्नानां पुनरनुत्पादश्चेति॥

४६. चत्वारः ऋद्धिपादाः। तद्यथा-छन्दसमाधिप्रहाणाय संस्कारसमन्वागत ऋद्धिपादः। एवं चित्तऋद्धिपादः। वीर्यऋद्धिपादः। मीमांसासमाधिप्रहाणाय संस्कारसमन्वागतऋद्धिपादश्चेति॥

४७. पञ्चेन्द्रियाणि। तद्यथा- श्रद्धासमाधिवीर्यस्मृतिप्रज्ञेन्द्रियं चेति॥

४८. पञ्च बलानि। श्रद्धा वीर्य स्मृति समाधि प्रज्ञा बलं चेति॥

४९. सप्त बोध्यङ्गानि। तद्यथा-स्मृतिसंबोध्यङ्गम्, धर्मविचयसंबोध्यङ्गम्, वीर्यसंबोध्यङ्गम्, प्रीतिसंबोध्यङ्गम्, प्रस्रब्धिसंबोध्यङ्गम्, समाधिसंबोध्यङ्गम्, उपेक्षासंबोध्यङ्गमिति॥

५०. आर्याष्टाङ्गिकमार्गः॥ सम्यग्दृष्टिः, सम्यक्संकल्पः, सम्यग्वाक्, सम्यक्कर्मान्तः, सम्यग्व्यायामः, सम्यक्स्मृतिः, सम्यक्समाधिश्चेति। एते सप्तत्रिंशब्दोधिपाक्षिका धर्माः॥

५१. चतस्रः प्रतिसंविदः। तद्यथा-धर्मप्रतिसंवित्, अर्थप्रतिसंवित्, निरुक्तिप्रतिसंवित्, प्रतिभानप्रतिसंविच्चेति॥

५२. चतस्रो धारण्यः। तद्यथा-आत्मधारणी, ग्रन्थधारणी, धर्मधारणी, मन्त्रधारणी चेति॥

५३. चत्वारि प्रतिशरणानि। तद्यथा-अर्थप्रतिशरणता न व्यञ्जनप्रतिशरणता। ज्ञानप्रतिशरणता न विज्ञानप्रतिशरणता। नीतार्थप्रतिशरणता न नेयार्थप्रतिशरणता। धर्मप्रतिशरणता न पुद्गलप्रतिशरणता चेति॥

५४. षडनुस्मृतयः। बुद्धानुस्मृतिः, धर्मानुस्मृतिः, संघानुस्मृतिः, त्यागानुस्मृतिः, शीलानुस्मृतिः, देवानुस्मृतिश्चेति॥

५५. चत्वारि धर्मपदानि। तद्यथा-अनित्याः सर्वसंस्काराः। दुःखाः सर्वसंस्काराः। निरात्मानः सर्वसंस्काराः। शान्तं निर्वाणं चेति॥

५६. दशाकुशलानि। तद्यथा-प्राणातिपातः, अदत्तादानम्, काममिथ्याचारः, मृषावादः, पैशुन्यम्, पारुष्यम्, संभिन्नप्रलापः, अभिध्या, व्यापादः, मिथ्यादृष्टिश्चेति॥

५७. गतयः षट्। तद्यथा-नरकः, तिर्यक्, प्रेतः, असुरः, मनुष्यः, देवश्चेति॥

५८. षड् धातवः। पृथ्वी, आपः, तेजः, वायुः, आकाशः, विज्ञानं चेति॥

५९. अष्टौ विमोक्षाः। तद्यथा-रूपी रूपाणी पश्यति शून्यम्। आध्यात्मारूपसंज्ञी बहिर्धारूपाणि पश्यति शून्यम्। आकाशानन्त्यायतनं पश्यति शून्यम्। विज्ञानानन्त्यायतनं पश्यति शून्यम्। आकिंचन्यायतनं पश्यति शून्यम्। नैवसंज्ञानासंज्ञायतनं पश्यति शून्यम्। संज्ञावेदयितनिरोधं पश्यति शून्यं चेति॥

६०. पञ्चानन्तर्याणि। तद्यथा-मातृवधः, पितृवधः अर्हद्वधः, तथागतदुष्टचित्तरुधिरोत्पादः, संघभेदश्चेति॥

६१. अष्टौ लोकधर्माः॥ लाभः, अलाभः, सुखम्, दुःखम्, यशः, अयशः, निन्दा, प्रशंसा चेति॥

६२. नवाङ्गप्रवचनानि। तद्यथा-सूत्रम्, गेयम्, व्याकरणम्, गाथा, उदानम्, जातकम्, वैपुल्यम्, अद्भुतधर्मः, उपदेशश्चेति॥

६३. द्वादश धूतगुणाः। पैण्डपातिकः, त्रैचीवरिकः, खलुपश्चाद्भक्तिकः, नैषद्यिकः, यथासंस्तरिकः, वृक्षमूलिकः, एकासनिकः, आभ्यवकाशिकः, आरण्यकः, श्माशानिकः, पांशूकूलिकः, नामन्तिकश्चेति॥

६४. दश भूमयः। प्रमुदिता, विमला, प्रभाकरी, अर्चिष्मती, सुदुर्जया, अभिमुखी, दूरंगमा, अचला, साधुमती, धर्ममेघा चेति॥

६५. समन्तप्रभा, निरुपमा, ज्ञानवती। एताः सहितास्रयोदश भूमयः॥

६६. पञ्च चक्षूंषी। मांसचक्षुः, धर्मचक्षुः, प्रज्ञाचक्षुः, दिव्यचक्षुः, बुद्धचक्षुश्चेति॥

६७. षट् क्लेशाः। रागः, प्रतिघः, मानः, अविद्या, कुदृष्टिः, विचिकित्सा चेति॥

६८. पञ्च दृष्टयः। सत्कायदृष्टिः, अन्तग्राहदृष्टिः, मिथ्यादृष्टिः, दृष्टिपरामर्शः, शीलपरामर्शः॥

६९. चतुविंशतिरुपक्लेशाः। तद्यथा-क्रोधः, उपनाहः, म्रक्षः, प्रदाशः, ईर्ष्याः, मात्सर्यम्, शाठ्यम्, माया, मदः, विहिंसा, ह्रीः, अनपत्रपा, स्त्यानम्, अश्राद्ध्यम्, कौसीद्यम्, प्रमादः, मुषितस्मृतिः, विक्षेपः, असंप्रजन्यम्, कौकृत्यम्, मिद्धम्, वितर्कः, विचारश्चेति॥

७०. पञ्चाहाराः। ध्यानाहाराः, कवलीकाराहाराः, प्रत्याहाराः, स्पर्शाहाराः, संचेतनिकाहाराश्चेति॥

७१. पञ्च भयानि। आजीविकाभयम्, शोकभयम्, मरणभयम्, दुर्गतिभयम्, पर्षदसाद्यभयं चेति॥

७२. चत्वारि ध्यानानि। तद्यथा-सवितर्कं सविचारं विवेकजं प्रीतिसुखमिति प्रथमध्यानम्। अध्यात्मप्रमोदनात्प्रीतिसुखमिति द्वितीयम्। उपेक्षास्मृतिसंप्रजन्यं सुखमिति तृतीयम्। उपेक्षास्मृतिपरिशुद्धिरदुःखासुखा वेदनेति चतुर्थं ध्यानमिति॥

७३. त्रयो विमोक्षाः। शून्यता, अनिमित्तः, अप्रणिहितश्चेति॥

७४. बोधिसत्त्वानां दश वशिताः। आयुर्वशिता, चित्तवशिता, परिष्कारवशिता, धर्मवशिता, ऋद्धिवशिता, जन्मवशिता, अधिमुक्तिवशिता, प्रणिधानवशिता, कर्मवशिता, ज्ञानवशिता चेति॥

७५. बोधिसत्त्वानां दश बलानि। तद्यथा-अधिमुक्तिबलम्, प्रतिसंख्यानबलम्, भावबलम्, क्षान्तिबलम्, ज्ञानबलम्, प्रहाणबलम्, समाधिबलम्, प्रतिभानबलम्, पुण्यबलम्, प्रतिपत्तिबलं चेति॥

७६. तथागतस्य दश बलानि। तद्यथा-स्थानास्थानज्ञानबलम्, कर्मविपाकज्ञानबलम्, नानाधातुज्ञानबलम्, नानधिमुक्तिज्ञानबलम्, सत्त्वेन्द्रियपरापरज्ञानबलम्, सर्वत्रगामिनीप्रतिपत्तिज्ञानबलम्, ध्यानविमोक्षसमाधिसमापत्तिसंक्लेशव्यवदानव्युत्थानज्ञानबलम्, पूर्वनिवासानुस्मृतिज्ञानबलम्, च्युत्युत्पत्तिज्ञानबलम्, आस्रवक्षयज्ञानबलं चेति॥

७७. चत्वारि वैशारद्यानि। तद्यथा-अभिसंबोधिवैशारद्यम्, आस्रवक्षयज्ञानवैशारद्यम्, नैर्वाणिकमार्गावतरणवैशारद्यम् [अन्तरायिकधर्मानन्यथात्वनिश्चितव्याकरणवैशारद्यं] चेति॥

७८. पञ्च मात्सर्याणि। धर्ममात्सर्यम्, लाभमात्सर्यम्, आवासमात्सर्यम्, कुशलमात्सर्यम्, वर्णमात्सर्यं चेति॥

७९. अष्टादशावेणिका बुद्धधर्माः। तद्यथा-नास्ति तथागतस्य स्खलितम्। नास्ति रवितम्। नास्ति मुषितस्मृतिता। नास्त्यसमाहितचित्तम्। नास्ति नानात्वसंज्ञा। नास्त्यप्रतिसंख्यायोपेक्षा। नास्ति छन्दपरिहाणिः। नास्ति वीर्यपरिहाणिः। नास्ति स्मृतिपरिहाणिः। नास्ति समाधिपरिहाणिः। नास्ति प्रज्ञापरिहाणिः। नास्ति विमुक्तिपरिहाणिः। नास्ति विमुक्तिज्ञानदर्शनपरिहाणिः। सर्वकायकर्मज्ञानपूर्वगमज्ञानानुपरिवृत्तिः। सर्ववाक्कर्मज्ञानपूर्वंगमज्ञानानुपरिवृत्तिः। सर्वमनस्कर्मज्ञानपूर्वंगमज्ञानानुपरिवृत्तिः। अतीतेऽध्वन्यसङ्गमप्रतिहतज्ञानम्। प्रत्युत्पन्नेऽध्वन्यसङ्गमप्रतिहतज्ञानदर्शनं चेति॥

८०. चत्वारो माराः। तद्यथा-स्कन्धमारः, क्लेशमारः, देवपुत्रमारः, मृत्युमारश्चेति॥

८१. चत्वारि श्रद्धाङ्गानि। तद्यथा- आर्यसत्यम्, त्रिरत्नम्, कर्म, कर्मफलं चेति॥

८२. नवानुपूर्वसमाधिसमापत्तयः। तद्यथा-चत्वारि ध्यानानि, चतस्र आरूप्यसमापत्तयः, निरोधसमापत्तिश्चेति॥

८३. द्वात्रिंशल्लक्षणानि। तद्यथा-चक्राङ्कितपाणिपादतलता। सुप्रतिष्ठितपाणिपादतलता। जालाबलबद्धा(वनद्धा ?)ङ्गुलिपाणिपादतलता। मृदुतरुणहस्तपादतलता। सप्तोत्सदता। दीर्घाङ्गुलिता। आयतपार्ष्णिता। ऋजुगात्रता। उत्सङ्गपादता। उर्ध्वाग्ररोमता। ऐणेजयङ्घता। प्रलम्बबाहुता। कोषगतबस्तिगुह्यता। सुवर्णवर्णता। शुक्लच्छविता। प्रदक्षिणावर्तैकरोमता। ऊर्णालंकृतमुखता। सिंहपूर्वान्तकायता। सुसंवृत्तस्कन्धता। चितान्तरांसता। रसरसाग्रता। न्यग्रोधपरिमण्डलता। उष्णीषशिरस्कता। प्रभूतजिव्हता। सिंहहनुता। शुक्लहनुता। समदन्तता। हंसविक्रान्तगामिता। अविरलदन्तता। समचत्वारिंशद्दन्तता। अभिनीलनेत्रता। गोपक्षनेत्रता चेति॥

८४. अशीत्यनुव्यञ्जनानि। तद्यथा-ताम्रनखता। स्रिग्धनखता। तुङ्गनखता। छत्राङ्गुलिता। चित्राङ्गुलिता। अनुपूर्वाङ्गुलिता। गूढशिरता। निग्रन्थिशिरता। गूढगुल्फता। अविषमपादता। सिंहविक्रान्तगामिता। नागविक्रान्तगामिता। हंसविक्रान्तगामिता। वृषभविक्रान्तगामिता। प्रदक्षिणगामिता। चारुगामिता। अवक्रगामिता। वृत्तगात्रता। मृष्टगात्रता। अनुपूर्वगात्रता। शुचिगात्रता। मृदुगात्रता। विशुद्धगात्रता। परिपूर्णव्यञ्जनता। पृथुचारुमण्डलगात्रता। समक्रमता। विशुद्धनेत्रता। सुकुमारगात्रता। अदीनगात्रता। उत्साहगात्रता। गम्भीरकुक्षिता। प्रसन्नगात्रता। सुविभक्ताङ्गप्रत्यङ्गता। वितिमिरशुद्धालोकता। वृत्तकुक्षिता। मृष्टकुक्षिता। अभुग्नकुक्षिता क्षामकुक्षिता। प्रदक्षिणावर्तनाभिता। समन्तप्रासादिकता। शुचिसमुदारता। व्यपगततिलकगात्रता। तूलसदृशसुकुमारपाणिता। स्निग्धपाणिलेखता। गम्भीरपाणिलेखता। आयतपाणिलेखता। नात्यायतवचनता। बिम्बप्रतिबिम्बोष्ठता। मृदुजिव्हता। तनुजिव्हता। रक्तजिह्वता। मेघगर्जितघोषता। मधुरचारुमञ्जुस्वरता। वृत्तदंष्ट्रता। तीक्ष्णंदंष्ट्रता। शूक्लदंष्ट्रता। समदंष्ट्रता। अनुपूर्वदंष्ट्रता। तुङ्गनासता। शुचिनासता। विशालनयनता। चित्रपक्ष्मता। सितासितकमलदलनयनता। आयतभ्रूकता। शुक्लभ्रूकता। सुस्निग्धभ्रूकता। पीनायतभुजलता। समकर्णता। अनुपहतकर्णेन्द्रियता। अविम्लानललाटता। पृथुललाटता। सुपरिपूर्णोत्तमाङ्गता। भ्रमरसदृशकेशता। चित्रकेशता। गुडाकेशता। असंमुणितकेशता। अपरुषकेशता। सुरभिकेशता। श्रीवत्समुक्तिकनन्द्यावर्तलक्षितपाणिपादतलता चेति॥

८५. चक्रवर्तिनां सप्त रत्नानि। तद्यथा-चक्ररत्नम्, अश्वरत्नम्, हस्तिरत्नम्, मणिरत्नम्, स्त्रीरत्नम्, खङ्गरत्नम्, परिणायकरत्नं चेति॥

८६. तत्र त्रयोऽध्वानः। तद्यथा-अतीतोऽध्वा, अनागतोऽध्वा, प्रत्युत्पन्नोऽध्वा चेति॥

८७. चत्वारः कल्पाः। तद्यथा-अन्तरकल्पाः, महाकल्पाः, शून्यकल्पाः, सारकल्पाश्चेति॥

८८. चत्वारि युगानि। तद्यथा-कृतयुगम्, त्रेतायुगम्, द्वापरम्, कलियुगं चेति॥

८९. लोकद्वयम्। तद्यथा-सत्त्वलोकः, भाजनलोकश्चेति॥

९०. चत्वारो योनयः। तद्यथा-अण्डजः, संस्वेदजः, जरायुजः, उपपादुकश्चेति॥

९१. पञ्च कषायाः। तद्यथा-क्लेशकषायः, दृष्टिकषायः, सत्त्वकषायः, आयुःकषायः, कल्पकषायश्चेति॥

९२. त्रयः सत्त्वाध्याः। तद्यथा-पूर्वान्तकोटिपरिज्ञायाः, अपरान्तकोटिपरिज्ञायाः, चतुर्मारकोटिपरिज्ञायाश्चेति॥

९३. दश ज्ञानानि। तद्यथा-दुःखज्ञानम्, समुदयज्ञानम्, निरोधज्ञानम्, मार्गज्ञानम्, धर्मज्ञानम्, अन्वयज्ञानम्, संवृतिज्ञानम्, परचित्तज्ञानम्, क्षयज्ञानम्, अनुत्पादज्ञानं चेति॥

९४. पञ्च ज्ञानानि। तद्यथा-आदर्शनज्ञानम्, समताज्ञानम्, प्रत्यवेक्षणाज्ञानम्, कृत्यानुष्ठानज्ञानम्, सुविशुद्धधर्मधातुज्ञानं चेति॥

९५. द्वे सत्ये। तद्यथा-संवृतिसत्यम्, परमार्थसत्यं चेति॥

९६. चतुरार्यसत्येषु षोडश क्षान्तिज्ञानलक्षणाः। तद्यथा-दुःखे धर्मज्ञानक्षान्तिः, दुःखे धर्मज्ञानम्, दुःखेऽन्वयज्ञानक्षान्तिः, दुःखेऽन्वयज्ञानम्। समुदये धर्मज्ञानक्षान्तिः, समुदये धर्मज्ञानम्, समुदयेऽन्वयज्ञानक्षान्तिः, समुदयेऽन्वयज्ञानम्। निरोधे धर्मज्ञानक्षान्तिः, निरोधे धर्मज्ञानम्, निरोधेऽन्वयज्ञानक्षान्तिः, निरोधेऽन्वयज्ञानम्। मार्गे धर्मज्ञानक्षान्तिः, मार्गे धर्मज्ञानम्, मार्गेऽन्वयज्ञानक्षान्तिः, मार्गेऽन्वयज्ञानं चेति॥

९७. तत्र दुःखसत्ये चत्वार आकाराः। तद्यथा-अनित्यतः, दुःखतः, शून्यतः, अनात्मतश्चेति॥

९८. समुदयसत्ये चत्वार आकाराः। तद्यथा-हेतुतः, समुदयतः, प्रभवतः, प्रत्ययतश्चेति॥

९९. निरोधसत्ये चत्वार आकाराः। तद्यथा-निरोधतः, शान्ततः, प्रणीततः, निःसरणतश्चेति॥

१००. मार्गसत्ये चत्वार आकाराः। तद्यथा-मार्गतः, न्यायतः, प्रतिपत्तितः, नैर्याणिक(त)श्चेति॥

१०१. चत्वारः समाधयः। तद्यथा-आलोकसमाधिः, वृतासमाधिः, एकादशप्रतिष्ठसमाधिः, आनन्तर्यसमाधिश्चेति॥

१०२. तत्राष्टौ [पुरुष]-पुग्दलाः। तद्यथा-स्रोतआपन्नफलप्रतिपन्नकः, स्रोतआपन्नः, सकृदागामिफलप्रतिपन्नकः, सकृदागामी, अनागामिफलप्रतिपन्नकः, अनागामी, अर्हत्फलप्रतिपन्नकः, अर्हंश्चेति॥

१०३. तथाष्टौ प्रतिपुग्दलाः। तद्यथा-श्रद्धानुसारी, धर्मानुसारी, स्रोतआपन्नः, देवकुलंकुलः, मनुष्यकुलंकुलः, सकृदागामिफलः, श्रद्धविमुक्तिर्दृष्टिप्राप्त एकवीचीकोऽनागाम्यन्तरापरिनिर्वायी उपहत्यपरिनिर्वायी अभिसंस्कारपरिनिर्वायी प्लुतोऽर्द्धप्लुतः सर्वास्तानप्लुतो दृष्टधर्मसमः कायसाक्षी खङ्गश्चेति॥

१०४. तदनु द्वादशाकरधर्मचक्रप्रवर्तकं(नं) कतमत् ? तद्यथा-इदं दुःखमार्यसत्यमिति भिक्षवः पूर्वमनुश्रुत्य तेषु धर्मेषु योनिशो मनसिंगवतः (?) चक्षुरुदपादि। ज्ञानमुत्पादि चिन्तोत्पादि। चुत्रिरुदपादि। इत्येकपरिचतकः १ इदं दुःखमार्य स तत्र खल्वभिज्ञातं इति भिक्षवः। इत्यादि पूर्ववदितियः॥ इदं दुःखसमुदयमार्यसत्वं तव खल्वभिज्ञाय प्रहीणमिति हित्यादि तृतीयः। तथा इदं दुःखनिरोध आर्यसत्यमिति हिप्रत्येकः॥ इदं दुःखनिरोध‍आर्य्यसत्यं तत्र खल्वभिज्ञाय शाक्षात् कर्तव्यमिति हित्य द्वितीयः। इदं दुःखनिरोध‍आर्यसत्य तत्र खलु भिज्ञाय शाक्षात् द्वितीय। तद्यथा इदं दुःखमार्गगामिनी प्रतिपदार्यसत्येमिति त्येक॥ इदं दुःखमोक्षगामिनि प्रतिप इत्यार्य्यसत्यं तत्र खलु भिज्ञाय भावयितव्यमिति हि भिक्षव इत्यादि तृतीयः। परिवर्त इत्येव द्वादशाकारधर्मचक्रप्रवर्त्तनमिति॥

तदनु द्वादशाकारधर्मचक्रप्रवर्तकः। कतमत्। इदं दुःखमार्यसत्यमिति भिक्षवः। पूर्वमनुश्रुत्य तेषु धर्मेषु योनिशो मनसिगवतः चक्षुरुदपादि। ज्ञानमुत्पादि चित्तोत्पादि। चुत्रिरुत्पादि॥ इत्येकपरिवर्तक इदं दुःखमार्यसत्यं तत्र खल्वभिज्ञाय परिज्ञातमिति हि भिक्षवः। पूर्वमनुश्रुय तेषु योनिसो मनसिङ्गर्वुतः॥ इति द्वितीयः॥ इदमार्यसत्यं तत्र खल्वभिज्ञातं इति भिक्षवः। इत्यादि पूर्ववदिति यः॥

इदं दुःखसमुदयमार्यसत्यं तव खल्वभिज्ञाय प्रहीणमिति हीत्यादि तृतीयम्॥

तथा इदं दुःखनिरोध आर्यसत्यमिति हि प्रत्येकः॥ इदं दुःखनिरोध आर्यसत्यं तत्र खल्वभिज्ञाय साक्षात् कर्तव्यमिति हित्यादि। द्वितीयः। इदं दुःखनिरोध आर्यसत्यं तत्र खल्वभिज्ञाय साक्षात् कृतमिति द्वितीयः।

तथा इदं दुःखमार्गगामिनि प्रतिपदार्यसत्यमिति प्रत्येक। इदं दुःखमोक्षगामिनी प्रतिपत्॥ इत्यार्यसत्यं तत्र खल्वभिज्ञाय भातव्यमिति हि भिक्षवः इत्यादि तृतीयः। परिवर्त्त इत्येवं द्वादशाकारधर्मचक्रप्रवर्तनमिति॥ ॥

तदत्र द्वादशाकारधर्मचक्रप्रवर्तकं (नं ?) कतमत् ? इदं दुःखमार्यसत्यमिति (मे) भिक्षवः पूर्वमननुश्रुतेषु धर्मेषु योनिशो मनसिकुर्वतः चक्षुरुदपादि ज्ञानमुदपादि विद्योदपादि भूरिरुदपादीत्येकं परिवर्तकम्। इदं दुःखमार्यसत्यं तत्र खल्वभिज्ञाय परिज्ञातमिति हि (मे) भिक्षवः पूर्वमननुश्रुतेषु धर्मेषु योनिशो मनसिकुर्वत इति द्वितीयम्। इदं दुःखमार्यसत्यं तत्र खल्वभिज्ञाय परिज्ञातमिति भिक्षवः इत्यादि पूर्ववदिति तृतीयम्॥

[तथेदं दुःखसमुदयमार्यसत्यमिति प्रत्येकम्। इदं दुःखसमुदयमार्यसत्यं तत्र खल्वभिज्ञाय प्रहातव्यमिति द्वितीयम्।] इदं दुःखसमुदयमार्यसत्यं तत्र खल्वभिज्ञाय प्रहीणमिति हीत्यादि तृतीयम्।

तथेदं दुःखनिरोधमार्यसत्यमिति हि प्रत्येकम्। इदं दुःखनिरोधमार्यसत्यं तत्र खल्वभिज्ञाय साक्षात्कर्तव्यमिति हीत्यादि द्वितीयम्। इदं दुःखनिरोधमार्यसत्यं तत्र खल्वभिज्ञाय साक्षात्कृतमिति तृतीयम्॥

तथेयं दुःखमार्गगामिनी प्रतिपदित्यार्यसत्यमिति प्रत्येकम्। इयं दुःखमोक्षगामिनी प्रतिपदित्यार्यसत्यं तत्र खल्वभिविज्ञाय भावयितव्यमिति हि भिक्षव इत्यादि द्वितीयम्।

[इदं दुःखमोक्षगामिनी प्रतिपदित्यार्यसत्यं तत्र खल्वभिज्ञाय भावितमिति तृतीयम्॥]

१०५. तत्र दानं त्रिविधम्। तद्यथा-धर्मदानम्, आमिषदानम्, मैत्रीदानं चेति॥

१०६. शीलं त्रिविधम्। तद्यथा- संभारशीलम्, कुशलसंग्राहशीलम्, सत्त्वार्थक्रियाशीलं चेति॥

१०७. क्षान्तिस्त्रिविधा। तद्यथा-धर्मनिध्यानक्षान्तिः, दुःखाधिवासनाक्षान्तिः, परोपकारधर्मक्षान्तिश्चेति॥

१०८. वीर्यं त्रिविधम्। तद्यथा-संनाहवीर्यम्, प्रयोगवीर्यम्, पर(रि)निष्ठावीर्यं चेति॥

१०९. ध्यानं त्रिविधम्। तद्यथा-सदोषापकर्षध्यानम्, सुखवैहारिकध्यानम्, अशेषवैभूषितध्यानं चेति॥

११०. प्रज्ञा त्रिविधा। तद्यथा-श्रुतमयी, चिन्तामयी, भावनामयी चेति॥

१११. उपायस्त्रिविधः। तद्यथा-सर्वसत्त्वावबोधकः, सत्त्वार्थाभावकः, क्षिप्रसुखाभिसंबोधिश्चेति॥

११२. प्रणिधानं त्रिविधम्। तद्यथा-सुस्थानप्राबन्धिकम्, सत्त्वार्थप्रबन्धिकम्, बुद्धक्षेत्रपरिशोधकं चेति॥

११३. बलं त्रिविधम्। तद्यथा-कर्मव्यावर्तकम्, क्लेशापकर्षकम्, मानप्रमादादिव्यावर्तकं चेति॥

११४. ज्ञानं त्रिविधम्। तद्यथा-अविकल्पकम्, विकल्पसमभावबोधकम्, सत्यार्थोपायपरोक्षं चेति॥

११५. तत्रावरणे द्वे। तद्यथा-क्लेशवरणम्, ज्ञेयावरणं चेति॥

११६. नैरात्म्यं द्विविधम्। तद्यथा-धर्मनैरात्म्यम्, पुग्दलनैरात्म्यं चेति॥

११७. संभारो द्विविधः। तद्यथा-पुण्यसंभारः, ज्ञानसंभारश्चेति॥

११८. तत्र षट् समाध्यावरणानि। तद्यथा-कौसीद्यम्, मानम्, शाठ्यम्, औद्धत्यम्, अनाभोगः, सत्याभोगश्चेति॥

११९. तत्र प्रतिपत्त्याष्टौ प्रहाणसंस्काराः। तद्यथा-श्रद्धा, बुद्धः(द्धिः), व्यायामः, प्रस्रब्धिः, स्मृतिः, संप्रजन्यम्, चेतना, उपेक्षा चेति॥

१२०. तत्र चत्वारो द्वीपाः। तद्यथा-पूर्वविदेहः, जम्बुद्वीपः, अपरगोदानिः(नीयः), उत्तरकुरुद्वीपश्चेति॥

१२१. अष्टावुष्णनरकाः। तद्यथा-संजीवः, कालसूत्रः, संघातः, रौरवः, महारौरवः, तपनः, प्रतापनः, अवीचिश्चेति॥

१२२. अष्टौ शीतनरकाः। तद्यथा-अर्बुदः, निरर्बुदः, अटटः, अपपः, हाहाधरः, उत्पलः, पद्मः, महापद्मश्चेति॥

१२३. सप्त पातालानि। तद्यथा-धरणीतलः, अचलः, महाचलः, आपः, काञ्चनः, संजीवः, नरकश्चेति।

१२४. द्वौ चक्रवालौ। तद्यथा-चक्रवालमहाचक्रवालौ चेति॥

१२५. अष्टाङ्गपर्वताः। तद्यथा-युगंधरः, ईशाधरः, खदिरकः, सुदर्शनः, विनतकः, अश्वकर्णः, नेमिंधरगिरिः, सुमेरुश्चेति॥

१२६. सप्त सागराः। तद्यथा-क्षारः, क्षीरः, दधि, उदधिः, घृतम्, मधुः, सुरा चेति॥

१२७. तत्र षट् कामावचरा देवाः। तद्यथा-चातुर्महाराजकायिकाः, त्रायस्त्रिंशाः, तुषिताः, यामाः, निर्माणरतयः, परनिर्मितवशवर्तिनश्चेति॥

१२८. अष्टादश रूपावचरा देवाः। तद्यथा-ब्रह्मकायिकाः, ब्रह्मपुरोहिताः, ब्रह्मपार्षद्याः, महाब्रह्माणः, परीत्ताभाः, अप्रमाणाभाः, आभास्वराः, परीत्तशुभाः, शुभकृत्स्नाः, अनभ्रकाः, पुण्यप्रसवाः, बृहत्फलाः, असंज्ञिसत्त्वाः, अवृहाः, अतपाः, सुदृशाः, सुदर्शनाः, अकनिष्ठाश्चेति॥

१२९. चत्वारोऽरूपावचरा देवाः। आकाशानन्त्यायतनोपगाः, विज्ञानानन्त्यायतनोपगाः, आकिंचन्यायतनोपगाः, नैवसंज्ञानासंज्ञायतनोपगाश्चेति॥

१३०. त्रिविधा आलङ्घनाः। तद्यथा-सत्यालङ्घना, धर्मालङ्घना, अनालङ्घना चेति॥

१३१. त्रिविधा महामैत्री। तद्यथा-सत्यालङ्घ(म्ब)ना, धर्मलङ्घ(र्मालम्ब)ना, अनालङ्घ(म्ब)ना चेति॥

१३२. त्रिविधं कर्म। तद्यथा-दृष्टधर्मवेदनीयम्, उत्पद्यवेदनीयम्, अपरवेदनीयं चेति॥

१३३. त्रिविधं प्रातिहार्यम्। तद्यथा-ऋद्धिप्रातिहार्यम्, आदेशनाप्रातिहार्यम्, अनुशासनीप्रातिहार्यं चेति॥

१३४. अष्टावक्षणाः। तद्यथा-नरकोपपत्तिः, तिर्यगुपपत्तिः, यमलोकोपपत्तिः, प्रत्यन्तजनपदोपपत्तिः, दीर्घायुषदेवोपपत्तिः, इन्द्रियविकलता, मिथ्यादृष्टिः, चित्तोत्पादविरागितता चेति॥

१३५. त्रिविधा विकल्पाः। तद्यथा-अनुस्मरणविकल्पः, संतिरन(तीरण)विकल्पः, सहजविकल्पश्चेति॥

१३६. चत्वारः समाधयः। तद्यथा-शूरंगमः, गगनगञ्जः विमलप्रभः, सिंहविक्रीडितश्चेति।

१३७. चतुर्दशाव्याकृतवस्तूनि। तद्यथा-शाश्वतो लोकः, अशाश्वतो लोकः, शाश्वतश्चाशाश्वतश्च, नैव शाश्वतो नाशाश्वतश्च। अन्तवाँल्लोकः, अनन्तवाँल्लोकः, अन्तवांश्चानन्तवाँल्लोकश्च, नैवान्तवान्नानन्तवांश्च। भवति तथागतः परं मरणात्, न भवति तथागतः परं मरणात्, भवति न च भवति च तथागतः परं मरणात्, नैव भवति न भवति तथागतः परं मरणात्। स जीवस्तच्छरीरम्, अन्यो जीवोऽन्यच्छरीरं चेति॥

१३८. त्रीणि कुशलमूलानि। तद्यथा-अद्वेषः, अलोभः, अमोहश्चेति॥

१३९. एतद्विपर्ययान्त्रीण्यकुशलमूलानि। तद्यथा-लोभः, मोहः, द्वेषश्चेति॥

१४०. तिस्रः शिक्षाः। तद्यथा-अधिचित्तशिक्षा, अधिशीलशिक्षा, अधिप्रज्ञाशिक्षा चेति॥

इति नागार्जुनपादविरचितोऽयं धर्मसंग्रहः समाप्तः

Vocabulary used in Indian Contract Act

Here we collected all the unique  english words used by the legislature for constituting and drafting The Indian Contract Act. We shall gradually explain the use and inherent meaning attached to each word.

  1. Abide
  2. Able
  3. About
  4. Absence
  5. Absents
  6. Absolute
  7. Absolutely
  8. Abstain
  9. Abstained
  10. Abstains
  11. Abstinence
  12. Accept
  13. Acceptance
  14. Accepted
  15. Accepting
  16. Acceptor
  17. Accepts
  18. According
  19. Accordingly
  20. Account
  21. Accounts
  22. Acquiescence
  23. Acquired
  24. Act
  25. Active
  26. Acts
  27. Actual
  28. Actually
  29. Addressed
  30. Adduced
  31. Adopts
  32. Advance
  33. Advanced
  34. Advantage
  35. Advantageous
  36. Advertised
  37. Affect
  38. Affected
  39. Affection
  40. Afford
  41. Affords
  42. After
  43. Afterward
  44. Again
  45. Against
  46. Age
  47. Agency
  48. Agent
  49. Agree
  50. Agreed
  51. Agreement
  52. Agreements
  53. Agrees
  54. All
  55. Alleged
  56. Alone
  57. Already
  58. Also
  59. Alter
  60. Alteration
  61. Alternative
  62. Although
  63. Amend
  64. Among
  65. Amount
  66. Amounting
  67. Amounts
  68. Annas
  69. Annually
  70. Annulment
  71. Another
  72. Any
  73. Anything
  74. Apparent
  75. Appear
  76. Appears
  77. Application
  78. Applied
  79. Applies
  80. Apply
  81. Apply
  82. Appoint
  83. Appointed
  84. Appropriates
  85. Appropriation
  86. Are/is
  87. Arisen
  88. Arising
  89. Arose
  90. Arrangement
  91. Arrear
  92. Arrears
  93. Arrival
  94. Arrive
  95. Arrived
  96. Arrived
  97. Arriving
  98. Article
  99. Articles
  100. Ascertained
  101. Ascertaining
  102. Aside
  103. Assent
  104. Assertion
  105. Assets
  106. Assume
  107. Asylum
  108. Attendant
  109. Auction
  110. Authority
  111. Authorized
  112. Avails
  113. Average
  114. Avoid
  115. Avoidable
  116. Aware
  117. Away
  118. Badly
  119. BailBond
  120. Bailee
  121. Bailment
  122. Balance
  123. Bales
  124. Bales
  125. Banker
  126. Banks
  127. Bargain
  128. Barred
  129. Bear
  130. Because
  131. Become
  132. Becomes
  133. Becoming
  134. Been
  135. Before
  136. Before
  137. Behalf
  138. Being
  139. Belief
  140. Believe
  141. Believes
  142. Belonging
  143. Benefit
  144. Bengal
  145. Between
  146. Beyond
  147. Bind
  148. Binding
  149. Board
  150. Boat
  151. Bodily
  152. Bombay
  153. Bombay
  154. Bond
  155. Books
  156. Borrows
  157. Both
  158. Bound
  159. Branch
  160. Breach
  161. Breaks
  162. Bring
  163. Brings
  164. Broken
  165. Brought
  166. Build
  167. Builder
  168. Builder’s
  169. Builds
  170. Burden
  171. Burnt
  172. Burnt
  173. Business
  174. Business
  175. But
  176. Buy
  177. Buyer
  178. Buys
  179. Calcutta
  180. Called
  181. Can
  182. Cannot
  183. Capable
  184. Capacity
  185. Caps
  186. Caps
  187. Cargo
  188. Carriage
  189. Carried
  190. Carrier
  191. Carries
  192. Carry
  193. Carrying
  194. Case
  195. Cases
  196. Cast
  197. Cause
  198. Caused
  199. Caused
  200. Causes
  201. Causing
  202. Ceases
  203. Cent
  204. Central
  205. Certain
  206. Change
  207. Chapter
  208. Charge
  209. Charged
  210. Chartered
  211. Child
  212. Children
  213. Circumstances
  214. Claim
  215. Claim
  216. Claimed
  217. Claiming
  218. Clause
  219. Click
  220. Close
  221. Closing
  222. Cloth
  223. CoconutOil
  224. CoconutOil
  225. Code
  226. Coercion
  227. Collateral
  228. Come
  229. Comes
  230. Coming
  231. Commencement
  232. Commerce
  233. Commit
  234. Committed
  235. Committing
  236. Common
  237. Communicate
  238. Communicated
  239. Communicating
  240. Communication
  241. Company
  242. Compel
  243. Compellable
  244. Compelled
  245. Compensate
  246. Compensation
  247. Compensations
  248. Competent
  249. Complaining
  250. Complete
  251. Conceal
  252. Concealment
  253. Concert
  254. Concubinage
  255. Condition
  256. Conditions
  257. Conduct
  258. Conducting
  259. Conform
  260. Connected
  261. Connivance
  262. Consent
  263. Consent
  264. Consent
  265. Consequence
  266. Consequences
  267. Consequent
  268. Consideration
  269. Consideration
  270. Considerations
  271. Considerations
  272. Considered
  273. Considering
  274. Considers
  275. Consignee
  276. Consisting
  277. Consists
  278. Contained
  279. Containing
  280. Contains
  281. Context
  282. Contingencies
  283. Contingent
  284. Continuance
  285. Continuance
  286. Contract
  287. Contracted
  288. Contracted
  289. Contracting
  290. Contracts
  291. Contracts
  292. Contrary
  293. Contribute
  294. Contribution
  295. Convert
  296. Convey
  297. Conveyance
  298. Conveyed
  299. Conveying
  300. Cost
  301. Cotton
  302. Could
  303. Country
  304. Course
  305. Court
  306. Created
  307. Credit
  308. Creditor
  309. Creditors
  310. Creditors
  311. Criminal
  312. Custody
  313. Custom
  314. Daim
  315. Damage
  316. Date
  317. Daughter
  318. Daughter
  319. Day
  320. Dead
  321. Dealer
  322. Death
  323. Debt
  324. Debtor
  325. Debts
  326. Deceased
  327. Deceive
  328. Declared
  329. Declares
  330. Declines
  331. Deemed
  332. Default
  333. Defaulter
  334. Defeat
  335. Define
  336. Defined
  337. Definite
  338. Delay
  339. Delayed
  340. Delays
  341. Delirious
  342. Delirium
  343. Deliver
  344. Deliver
  345. Delivered
  346. Delivered
  347. Delivering
  348. Delivers
  349. Delivery
  350. Delivery
  351. Demand
  352. Demand
  353. Demanded
  354. Demands
  355. Demands
  356. Denies
  357. Deny
  358. Deposit
  359. Deriving
  360. Description
  361. Desire
  362. Despatched
  363. Detain
  364. Detained
  365. Detaining
  366. Detention
  367. Determining
  368. Devider
  369. Devolution
  370. Die
  371. Dies
  372. Difference
  373. Diligence
  374. Diligence
  375. Disabled
  376. Discharge
  377. Discharged
  378. Discover
  379. Discovered
  380. Discovering
  381. Discretion
  382. Disease
  383. Dispense
  384. Dispensed
  385. Disqualified
  386. Distinct
  387. Distress
  388. Division
  389. Documents
  390. Documents
  391. Does
  392. Doing
  393. Dominate
  394. Done
  395. Donee
  396. Donor
  397. Down
  398. Drop
  399. Drunk
  400. Drunkenness
  401. Due
  402. Due
  403. Duly
  404. During
  405. Duty
  406. Each
  407. Earned
  408. Edition
  409. Effect
  410. Eight
  411. Either
  412. Elects
  413. Employ
  414. Employed
  415. Employes
  416. Employment
  417. Employs
  418. Enabled
  419. Enacted
  420. Enclose
  421. End
  422. Enfeebled
  423. Enforce
  424. Enforceable
  425. Enforced
  426. Enforcement
  427. Engagement
  428. Engages
  429. England
  430. English
  431. Enjoying
  432. Enjoys
  433. Enter
  434. Entered
  435. Entering
  436. Enters
  437. Entirety
  438. Entitle
  439. Entitled
  440. Entrusted
  441. Equal
  442. Equally
  443. Equivalent
  444. Erect
  445. Erroneous
  446. Erroneously
  447. Essence
  448. Essential
  449. Estate
  450. Estimating
  451. Event
  452. Every
  453. Evidence
  454. Examines
  455. Exceeding
  456. Exceeds
  457. Except
  458. Exception
  459. Excess
  460. Excessive
  461. Excused
  462. Execute
  463. Executed
  464. Exercise
  465. Exercising
  466. Existed
  467. Existence
  468. Expected
  469. Expedient
  470. Expense
  471. Expense
  472. Expenses
  473. Expiration
  474. Expired
  475. Explanation
  476. Express
  477. Express
  478. Expressed
  479. Expressions
  480. Expressly
  481. Extend
  482. Extends
  483. Extent
  484. Extinguishes
  485. Face
  486. Facilities
  487. Fact
  488. Fact
  489. Fact—
  490. Factory
  491. Factory
  492. Facts
  493. Facts
  494. Fails
  495. Fails
  496. Failure
  497. Failure
  498. Falls
  499. Falls
  500. Falsely
  501. Far
  502. Favour
  503. Fever
  504. Fiduciary
  505. Finder
  506. Finds
  507. Finish
  508. Fire
  509. First
  510. Firstly
  511. Fit
  512. Fitted
  513. Five
  514. Fixed
  515. Following
  516. Follows
  517. For
  518. Forbidden
  519. Forbids
  520. Force
  521. Foregoing
  522. Foreign
  523. Forfeits
  524. Form
  525. Former
  526. Forming
  527. Forms
  528. Forward Contracts
  529. Forwarded
  530. Found
  531. Fraud
  532. Fraud
  533. Fraudulent
  534. Fraudulent
  535. Fraudulently
  536. Free
  537. Free
  538. Freely
  539. Freight
  540. Freights
  541. Fresh
  542. From
  543. From
  544. Fulfil
  545. Furnish
  546. Furnished
  547. Further
  548. Future
  549. Gains
  550. Gambling
  551. Game
  552. Generality
  553. Generally
  554. Gift
  555. Give
  556. Given
  557. Given
  558. Gives
  559. Go
  560. Goes
  561. Good
  562. Goods
  563. Goodwill
  564. Government
  565. Government
  566. Goverrunent
  567. Grain
  568. Granary
  569. Grant
  570. Granted
  571. Gratuitously
  572. Greater
  573. Grounded
  574. Guarantee
  575. Had
  576. Hales
  577. Happen
  578. Happen
  579. Happened
  580. Happens
  581. Has
  582. Have
  583. Having
  584. He
  585. Her
  586. Here
  587. Hereby
  588. Herein
  589. Herself
  590. High
  591. Higher
  592. Him
  593. Him
  594. Himself
  595. Hire
  596. Hires
  597. His
  598. Holds
  599. Horse
  600. Horse
  601. HorseRace
  602. HorseRacing
  603. Hour
  604. Hours
  605. House
  606. House
  607. However
  608. Hundred
  609. If
  610. Ignorance
  611. Ignorant
  612. Ill
  613. Illegal
  614. Illness
  615. Illustration
  616. Immaterial
  617. Immoral
  618. Immoral
  619. Immovable
  620. Implied
  621. Implies
  622. Implying
  623. Impossibility
  624. Impossible
  625. Impossible
  626. Inadequacy
  627. Inadequate
  628. Incapable
  629. Incident
  630. Includes
  631. Including
  632. Inconsistent
  633. Inconvenience
  634. Increased
  635. Incumbrance
  636. Incurred
  637. Indebted
  638. Indebted
  639. Indemnity
  640. India
  641. Indian
  642. Indicated
  643. Indicating
  644. Indication
  645. Indigo
  646. Indirect
  647. Induce
  648. Induced
  649. Induces
  650. Infant
  651. Influence
  652. Influence
  653. Influence—
  654. Influence’
  655. Inform
  656. Information
  657. Informed
  658. Informing
  659. Informs
  660. Injured
  661. Injury
  662. Innocently
  663. Insist
  664. Insolvent
  665. Instalment
  666. Instalment
  667. Instalments
  668. Instead
  669. Instituted
  670. Instrument
  671. Intelligence
  672. Intended
  673. Intended
  674. Intending
  675. Intends
  676. Intent
  677. Intention
  678. Interest
  679. Interest
  680. Interested
  681. Interested
  682. Interested—
  683. Interests
  684. Interests
  685. Interpretation
  686. Intervals
  687. Intervals
  688. Intimate
  689. Intimation
  690. Intimidation
  691. Into
  692. Involves
  693. Iron
  694. Iron
  695. It
  696. Item
  697. Itself
  698. Jammu
  699. January
  700. Joint
  701. Jointly
  702. Jointly
  703. Judgment
  704. June
  705. Just
  706. Jute
  707. Kashmir
  708. Keeping
  709. Kind
  710. Knew
  711. Know
  712. Knowing
  713. Knowledge
  714. Known
  715. Knows
  716. Land
  717. Landed
  718. Last
  719. Lasts
  720. Late
  721. Latter
  722. Law
  723. Lawful
  724. Lawfully
  725. Leads
  726. Lease
  727. Leaves
  728. Legal
  729. Legalize
  730. Legally
  731. Legislature
  732. Lent
  733. Let
  734. Letter
  735. Letting
  736. Liabilities
  737. Liability
  738. Liable
  739. Liberty
  740. Lies
  741. Life
  742. Lifetime
  743. Like
  744. Likely
  745. Limitation
  746. Limitations
  747. Limits
  748. Lines
  749. Lives
  750. Living
  751. Loan
  752. Local
  753. Long
  754. Longer
  755. Lose
  756. Loses
  757. Loss
  758. Lost
  759. Love
  760. Lunatic
  761. Machine
  762. Machine
  763. Machinery
  764. Machinery
  765. Mad
  766. Made
  767. Magic
  768. Maintain
  769. Majority
  770. Make
  771. Makes
  772. Making
  773. Man
  774. Manager
  775. Manner
  776. Manufacture
  777. Manufacturer
  778. March
  779. Market
  780. Market
  781. Marriage
  782. Married
  783. Marries
  784. Marry
  785. Matter
  786. Maunds
  787. Maunds
  788. Mauritius
  789. May
  790. Meaning
  791. Means
  792. Measure
  793. Medical
  794. Mental
  795. Mentioned
  796. Mercantile
  797. Merchandise
  798. Mere
  799. Merely
  800. Might
  801. Mill
  802. Mill
  803. Mind
  804. Mind
  805. Minor
  806. Minority
  807. Mirzapur
  808. Misleading
  809. Misrepresentation
  810. Misrepresentation
  811. Misrepresentation
  812. Mistake
  813. Mistake
  814. Mistakes
  815. Misuse
  816. Mode
  817. Moment
  818. Money
  819. Money
  820. MoneyLender
  821. Month
  822. Month
  823. Monthly
  824. Months
  825. More
  826. Mortgage
  827. Mortgage
  828. MortgageDebt
  829. Much
  830. Mukhtar
  831. Must
  832. Must—
  833. Mutually
  834. Named
  835. Namely
  836. Natural
  837. Naturally
  838. Nature
  839. Near
  840. Necessaries
  841. Necessarily
  842. Necessary
  843. Need
  844. Neglect
  845. Neglects
  846. Neither
  847. Nevertheless
  848. New
  849. Next
  850. Night
  851. None
  852. NonFulfilment
  853. NonGratuitous
  854. NonPerformance
  855. Nor
  856. Not
  857. Note
  858. Nothing
  859. Notice
  860. Notwithstanding
  861. Novation
  862. Now
  863. Object
  864. Objects
  865. Obligation
  866. Obliged
  867. Obtain
  868. Obtainable
  869. Obtained
  870. Obtaining
  871. Obtains
  872. Occasionally
  873. Occasioned
  874. Occasions
  875. Of
  876. Off
  877. Offence
  878. Offer
  879. Offered
  880. Oil
  881. Oil
  882. Old
  883. Omission
  884. Omitted
  885. On
  886. One
  887. OneHalf
  888. Only
  889. Operates
  890. Opinion
  891. Opium
  892. Opportunities
  893. Opportunity
  894. Opposed
  895. Option
  896. Or
  897. Order
  898. Orders
  899. Ordinary
  900. Ore
  901. Original
  902. Other
  903. Others
  904. Otherwise
  905. Ought
  906. Out
  907. Over
  908. Owe
  909. Owed
  910. Owes
  911. Owing
  912. Own
  913. Own
  914. Owner
  915. Paid
  916. Paint
  917. Parental
  918. Part
  919. Particular
  920. Parties
  921. Parts
  922. Party
  923. passage money
  924. Patient
  925. Pawnor
  926. pawnee
  927. Pay
  928. Payable
  929. Paying
  930. Payment
  931. Payments
  932. Pays
  933. Penal
  934. Penalty
  935. Penalty
  936. Per
  937. Perform
  938. Perform—
  939. Performance
  940. Performed
  941. Performed
  942. Performing
  943. Permanently
  944. Permitted
  945. Person
  946. Person
  947. Personally
  948. Personally
  949. Persons
  950. Picture
  951. Piece
  952. Place
  953. Places
  954. Plate
  955. Pledge
  956. Point
  957. Policy
  958. Polygamy
  959. Port
  960. Port
  961. Position
  962. Positive
  963. Possession
  964. Possible
  965. Post
  966. Post
  967. Posted
  968. Posts
  969. Power
  970. Practise
  971. Practised
  972. Practises
  973. Preamble
  974. Prejudice
  975. Preparation
  976. Prescribed
  977. Prescribes
  978. Presence
  979. Prevent
  980. Prevented
  981. Preventing
  982. Prevents
  983. Price
  984. Prices
  985. Principal
  986. Principle
  987. Private
  988. Prize
  989. Prizes
  990. Proceed
  991. Proceedings
  992. Proceeds
  993. Procure
  994. Procuring
  995. Profession
  996. Professional
  997. Profit
  998. Profitable
  999. Profits
  1000. Prohibited
  1001. Promise
  1002. Promised
  1003. Promisee
  1004. Promises
  1005. Promising
  1006. Promisor
  1007. Promissory
  1008. Proper
  1009. Property
  1010. Proportionably
  1011. Proposal
  1012. Proposer
  1013. Proposes
  1014. Proposing
  1015. Proprietor
  1016. Prosecution
  1017. Prove
  1018. Proved
  1019. Provide
  1020. Provided
  1021. Proving
  1022. Provisions
  1023. Public
  1024. Punishable
  1025. Purchase
  1026. Purchaser
  1027. Purchasing
  1028. Purpose
  1029. Purpose
  1030. Purposes
  1031. Purse
  1032. Put
  1033. Puts
  1034. Quality
  1035. Quality
  1036. Quantity
  1037. Question
  1038. Railway
  1039. Rate
  1040. Rational
  1041. Reaches
  1042. Reaching
  1043. Ready
  1044. Real
  1045. Reason
  1046. Reasonable
  1047. Reasonable
  1048. Rebuilding
  1049. ReBuilt
  1050. Receive
  1051. Received
  1052. Received
  1053. Receives
  1054. Receiving
  1055. Reciprocal
  1056. Reciprocally
  1057. Recognizance
  1058. Recover
  1059. Recovering
  1060. Recovery
  1061. Redeemed
  1062. Reduction
  1063. Refrain
  1064. Refund
  1065. Refusal
  1066. Refused
  1067. Refuses
  1068. Regard
  1069. Regards
  1070. Registered
  1071. Registers
  1072. Registration
  1073. Regulation
  1074. Reimbursed
  1075. Reimbursement
  1076. Relating
  1077. Relation
  1078. Relations
  1079. Release
  1080. Released
  1081. Reliance
  1082. Remaining
  1083. Remedying
  1084. Remit
  1085. Remote
  1086. Render
  1087. Renders
  1088. Rent
  1089. Remuneration
  1090. Renunciation
  1091. Repair
  1092. Repair
  1093. Repairs
  1094. Repay
  1095. Repayment
  1096. Repealed
  1097. Representations
  1098. Representative
  1099. Representatives
  1100. Represents
  1101. Required
  1102. Requires
  1103. Rescind
  1104. Rescinding
  1105. Rescission
  1106. Resembling
  1107. Respect
  1108. Respective
  1109. Respectively
  1110. Responsibility
  1111. Responsible
  1112. Restore
  1113. Restrained
  1114. Restraint
  1115. Rests
  1116. Result
  1117. Retains
  1118. Return
  1119. Return
  1120. Returns
  1121. Revenue
  1122. Revocation
  1123. Revoke
  1124. Revoked
  1125. Revokes
  1126. Revoking
  1127. Rewarded
  1128. Rice
  1129. Right
  1130. Rightfully
  1131. Rights
  1132. Rise
  1133. Robbery
  1134. Ruined
  1135. Rules
  1136. Rupee
  1137. Rupees
  1138. Said
  1139. Sail
  1140. Sailed
  1141. Sailing
  1142. Salary
  1143. Sale
  1144. Saltpetre
  1145. Same
  1146. Sanctioned
  1147. Sanctions
  1148. Sane
  1149. Satisfaction
  1150. Satisfying
  1151. Saves
  1152. Saving
  1153. Saving
  1154. Says
  1155. Scaffolding
  1156. Seas
  1157. Season
  1158. Second
  1159. Secondly
  1160. Section
  1161. Section
  1162. Sections
  1163. Security
  1164. See
  1165. Seeing
  1166. Seem
  1167. Sell
  1168. Sells
  1169. Send
  1170. Sends
  1171. Sense
  1172. Senses
  1173. Sent
  1174. September
  1175. Service
  1176. Services
  1177. Set
  1178. Setting
  1179. Settle
  1180. Settlement
  1181. Seventh
  1182. Several
  1183. Shall
  1184. Shares
  1185. Sharing
  1186. She
  1187. Ship
  1188. Ship
  1189. Short
  1190. Should
  1191. Show
  1192. Signed
  1193. Signified
  1194. Signifies
  1195. Signs
  1196. Silence
  1197. Similar
  1198. Simultaneously
  1199. Sing
  1200. Sing
  1201. Singer
  1202. Single
  1203. Sings
  1204. Sinks
  1205. Situated
  1206. Smuggled
  1207. So
  1208. Sold
  1209. Some
  1210. Something
  1211. Son
  1212. Soon
  1213. Sound
  1214. Space
  1215. Speaks
  1216. Specially
  1217. Specific
  1218. Specified
  1219. Speech
  1220. Standing
  1221. Stands
  1222. Start
  1223. Starting
  1224. State
  1225. Stated
  1226. Statute
  1227. Still
  1228. Stipulated
  1229. Stipulates
  1230. Stipulation
  1231. Stock
  1232. stock-in-trade
  1233. Stopped
  1234. Straight
  1235. Stringency
  1236. Stun
  1237. Subject
  1238. Subject
  1239. subject matter
  1240. Subscribe
  1241. Subscription
  1242. SubSection
  1243. Subsisting
  1244. Substance
  1245. Substitute
  1246. Succeed
  1247. Such
  1248. Sues
  1249. Suffers
  1250. Sufficient
  1251. Suggestion
  1252. Suit
  1253. Suitable
  1254. Suited
  1255. Sum
  1256. Sums
  1257. Sung
  1258. Sunk
  1259. Superintend
  1260. Suplies
  1261. Supplied
  1262. Supplies
  1263. Supply
  1264. Supplying
  1265. Support
  1266. Supposed
  1267. Sureties
  1268. Surety
  1269. Surgeon
  1270. Survives
  1271. Survivor
  1272. Survivors
  1273. Sustain
  1274. Sustained
  1275. Sustains
  1276. Sydney
  1277. Take
  1278. Taken
  1279. Taken
  1280. Takes
  1281. Telegram
  1282. Telegram
  1283. Tell
  1284. Telling
  1285. Temporarily
  1286. Tendered
  1287. Termination
  1288. Terms
  1289. Than
  1290. That
  1291. The
  1292. Theatre
  1293. Theatre
  1294. Their
  1295. Them
  1296. Them
  1297. Then
  1298. Thenceforth
  1299. There
  1300. Thereby
  1301. Thereby
  1302. Therefore
  1303. Therein
  1304. Thereof
  1305. Thereto
  1306. Thereunder
  1307. Thereupon
  1308. Therewith
  1309. These
  1310. They
  1311. Thing
  1312. Things
  1313. Thinks
  1314. Third
  1315. This
  1316. Those
  1317. Though
  1318. Thousand
  1319. Thousand
  1320. Threatening
  1321. Through
  1322. Thus
  1323. Till
  1324. Timber
  1325. Time
  1326. Title
  1327. Together
  1328. Totally
  1329. Toward
  1330. Trade
  1331. Traders
  1332. Tradesman
  1333. Traffic
  1334. Transaction
  1335. Transfer
  1336. Transferred
  1337. Transmission
  1338. Treasure
  1339. Treats
  1340. Trouble
  1341. True
  1342. True
  1343. Truth
  1344. Turns
  1345. Unable
  1346. Uncertain
  1347. Uncertainty
  1348. Unconditional
  1349. Unconscionable
  1350. Under
  1351. Understand
  1352. Understanding
  1353. Undertake
  1354. Undertaken
  1355. Undertakes
  1356. UnderValue
  1357. Undue
  1358. Undue
  1359. Unfair
  1360. Unlawful
  1361. Unlawful
  1362. Unlawful—
  1363. Unless
  1364. Unless
  1365. Unless—
  1366. Unqualified
  1367. Unreasonable
  1368. Unreasonably
  1369. Unsound
  1370. Unsound
  1371. Unsoundness
  1372. Unspecified
  1373. Until
  1374. Unusually
  1375. Up
  1376. Upon
  1377. Upto
  1378. Upwards
  1379. Usage
  1380. Use
  1381. Used
  1382. Uses
  1383. Usual
  1384. Usually
  1385. Valid
  1386. Validity
  1387. Value
  1388. Vessel
  1389. View
  1390. Village
  1391. Viodable
  1392. Void
  1393. Voidability
  1394. Voidable
  1395. Voidable
  1396. Voluntarily
  1397. Voyage
  1398. Wager
  1399. Want
  1400. War
  1401. Warehouse
  1402. Warranted
  1403. Warranting
  1404. Warranty
  1405. Warranty
  1406. Was
  1407. Way
  1408. Week
  1409. Week
  1410. Were
  1411. What
  1412. What
  1413. Whatever
  1414. When
  1415. Where
  1416. Whereas
  1417. Whereby
  1418. Whether
  1419. Which
  1420. Whilst
  1421. White
  1422. Who
  1423. Whole
  1424. Whole
  1425. Wholly
  1426. Whom
  1427. Whose
  1428. Wife
  1429. Wilfully
  1430. Will
  1431. Willing
  1432. Willingness
  1433. Winner
  1434. Winners
  1435. With
  1436. Within
  1437. Without
  1438. Witnesses
  1439. Won
  1440. Words
  1441. Work
  1442. Work
  1443. Working
  1444. Worth
  1445. Would
  1446. Wrecked
  1447. Writes
  1448. Writing
  1449. Written
  1450. Wrongfully
  1451. Year
  1452. Yearly
  1453. Zamindar

 

Literary Terms

  1. Action
  2. Ad Hominem
  3. Adage
  4. Adventure
  5. Allegory
  6. Alliteration
  7. Allusion
  8. Alter Ego
  9. Ambiguity
  10. Amplification
  11. Anachronism
  12. Anagram
  13. Analogy
  14. Anaphora
  15. Anecdote
  16. Antagonist
  17. Anthimeria
  18. Anthropomorphism
  19. Antithesis
  20. Antonomasia
  21. Aphorism
  22. Aphorismus
  23. Apologia
  24. Apologue
  25. Aporia
  26. Aposiopesis
  27. Appositive
  28. Archaism
  29. Archetype
  30. Argument
  31. Assonance
  32. Asyndeton
  33. Autobiography
  34. Bathos
  35. Burlesque
  36. Buzzword
  37. Cacophony
  38. Caesura
  39. Catharsis
  40. Character
  41. Chiasmus
  42. Chronicle
  43. Circumlocution
  44. Cliché
  45. Cliffhanger
  46. Climax
  47. Coherence
  48. Comedy
  49. Connotation
  50. Consonance
  51. Contrast
  52. Conundrum
  53. Denotation
  54. Denouement
  55. Deus ex machina
  56. Diacope
  57. Dialogue
  58. Diction
  59. Doppelganger
  60. Double Entendre
  61. Drama
  62. Dystopia
  63. Ellipsis
  64. Enjambment
  65. Enthymeme
  66. Epigram
  67. Epiphany
  68. Epistrophe
  69. Epitaph
  70. Epithet
  71. Eponym
  72. Equivocation
  73. Essay
  74. Etymology
  75. Euphemism
  76. Excursus
  77. Exemplum
  78. Exposition
  79. Extended Metaphor
  80. Fable
  81. Fairy Tale
  82. Fantasy
  83. Farce
  84. Figures of Speech
  85. Flashback
  86. Folklore
  87. Foreshadowing
  88. Genre
  89. Haiku
  90. Hamartia
  91. Homage
  92. Homophone
  93. Horror
  94. Hyperbaton
  95. Hyperbole
  96. Idiom
  97. Imagery
  98. Inference
  99. Innuendo
  100. Intertextuality
  101. Invective
  102. Irony
  103. Jargon
  104. Juxtaposition
  105. Kairos
  106. Limerick
  107. Lingo
  108. Literary Device
  109. Litotes
  110. Malapropism
  111. Maxim
  112. Metanoia
  113. Metaphor
  114. Metonymy
  115. Mnemonic
  116. Monologue
  117. Montage
  118. Motif
  119. Motto
  120. Mystery
  121. Narrative
  122. Nemesis
  123. Neologism
  124. Ode
  125. Onomatopoeia
  126. Oxymoron
  127. Palindrome
  128. Parable
  129. Paradox
  130. Parallelism
  131. Paraphrase
  132. Parody
  133. Pastiche
  134. Pathetic Fallacy
  135. Peripeteia
  136. Persona
  137. Personification
  138. Plagiarism
  139. Platitude
  140. Pleonasm
  141. Plot
  142. Poetry
  143. Polemic
  144. Polyptoton
  145. Polysyndeton
  146. Prologue
  147. Propaganda
  148. Prose
  149. Protagonist
  150. Proverb
  151. Pseudonym
  152. Pun
  153. Quest
  154. Rebus
  155. Red Herring
  156. Repetition
  157. Resolution
  158. Rhetoric
  159. Rhetorical Device
  160. Rhetorical Question
  161. Riddle
  162. Romance
  163. Sarcasm
  164. Sardonic
  165. Satire
  166. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
  167. Setting
  168. Simile
  169. Soliloquy
  170. Sonnet
  171. Stanza
  172. Stereotype
  173. Style
  174. Subtext
  175. Surrealism
  176. Symbol
  177. Synecdoche
  178. Synonym
  179. Synopsis
  180. Tautology
  181. Theme
  182. Thesis
  183. Thriller
  184. Tone
  185. Trope
  186. Turning Point
  187. Understatement
  188. Utopia
  189. Verisimilitude
  190. Vernacular
  191. Vignette
  192. Villain
  193. Wit
  194. Zeugma

ENGLISH VOCABULARY FOR LAWYERS

  1. abandon – to leave behind
  2. abandoned left behind
  3. abash – embarrass
  4. abated – lessened
  5. aboard – on something
  6. abolitionist – slavery opponent
  7. abominable – disgusting
  8. abridge – to shorten
  9. absent – not present
  10. absolute value – distance from zero on the number line
  11. abstain – do without
  12. absurd – unreasonable
  13. academic – relating to education
  14. accept – take what is given
  15. access – approach
  16. accidental – happening by chance
  17. accidentally – not on purpose
  18. acclaim – to approve
  19. accomplishment – achievement
  20. accord – being in agreement
  21. accost – approach to speak
  22. achiever – someone who reaches a goal
  23. acquiesce – to agree
  24. acrobats – trapeze artists
  25. activate – start
  26. acute – sharp
  27. acute – sharp and quick
  28. acuteness – quick mind
  29. AD – Anno domini
  30. adage – wise saying
  31. adapt – adjust to
  32. addle – to make confused
  33. addled – confused
  34. address – speech
  35. adept – expert
  36. adherent – supporter or follower
  37. adjacent – directly next to
  38. adjacent – near or close
  39. adjourned – ended a session
  40. adobe – made of clay
  41. advantage – something that is helpful
  42. advent – coming event
  43. adventure – an exciting experience
  44. advice – guidance
  45. advise – offer helpful suggestions
  46. advocate – to plead in favor
  47. advocate – to support
  48. affect – have an influence on
  49. affliction – misery
  50. affluence – abundance of riches
  51. against – in opposition
  52. agenda – a plan
  53. agent – representing another
  54. aggregation – group of people
  55. aghast – horrified
  56. agile – moving easily
  57. air – gases that we breathe
  58. albeit – even though
  59. allay – lessen
  60. allay – lessen
  61. alleviate – make bearable
  62. alliance – union for a common purpose
  63. allies – friends in war
  64. allowance – something granted
  65. allusion – indirect mention of something
  66. almanac – yearly book of facts
  67. aloof – disinterested
  68. already – before now
  69. ambiance – special atmosphere
  70. ambiguous – unclear
  71. Ameliorate- to make better
  72. amity – friendliness
  73. analogy – comparison
  74. analysis – examination of something
  75. analyze – study
  76. anarchy – lawlessness
  77. ancestors – people one is descended from
  78. anecdote – brief story
  79. anemic – lacking vitality
  80. angry – feeling or showing displeasure
  81. animated – very lively
  82. ankles – joints where feet meet legs
  83. annals – chronological record of the events
  84. announced – said or told
  85. anonymous – unidentified
  86. anthology – collection of writings
  87. antibiotic – stops growth of microorganisms
  88. anxiety – extreme nervousness
  89. anxiously – nervously
  90. apathy – lack of emotion
  91. aperture – opening
  92. aplomb – great composure
  93. appalling – terrible
  94. apparition – anything that appears unexpectedly
  95. appeal – to ask for
  96. appear – come into sight
  97. appearance – the way something looks
  98. appease – quieten
  99. applause – clapping of hands
  100. appreciate – show gratitude
  101. apprehensive – uneasy
  102. appropriate – suitable
  103. aquarium – container for fish
  104. arbitrary – whimsical
  105. archeologist – studies man’s past
  106. arduous – difficult
  107. argument – disagreement
  108. aristocrat – nobility
  109. arrogance – excessive pride
  110. arrogant – overly proud
  111. articulate – express oneself clearly
  112. articulate – speak clearly
  113. articulate – to speak distinctly
  114. artist – one who paints or draws
  115. ascetic – very self-disciplined person
  116. ascribe – assign something to
  117. aspect – point of view
  118. aspiration – strong desire
  119. assaults – attacks
  120. assemble – to gather together
  121. assiduously – carefully
  122. assurance – confidence
  123. assure – to make confident
  124. astonish – surprise
  125. astonishment – amazement
  126. astronomer – solar system expert
  127. astronomy – study of heavenly bodies
  128. atom – smallest component of an element
  129. atrocity – cruel action
  130. attempt – to make an effort
  131. audacious – outrageous
  132. audacity – aggressive courage
  133. audible – can be heard
  134. audible – heard
  135. audition – to try out
  136. audition – to try out for a part
  137. augment – to add to
  138. authentic – genuine
  139. authority – control
  140. avail – take advantage of
  141. available – able to be used now
  142. available – ready for use
  143. avalanche – sliding of material down a hillside
  144. avalanches – large mass sliding down a hillside
  145. avarice – greed
  146. aversion – definite dislike
  147. avert – to prevent
  148. aviator – pilot
  149. aware – having knowledge
  150. azure – blue colored
  151. babble – make meaningless sounds
  152. babbling – talking excessively
  153. bacteria – single-celled microscopic organisms
  154. badge – distinctive emblem
  155. baffle – to perplex
  156. baggage – luggage a traveler takes on a trip
  157. bailiff – officer of a court
  158. bakery – place baked goods are made
  159. balance – equality between opposing forces
  160. balance – steady position
  161. bald – having no hair on head
  162. bale – large bundle of material
  163. baleful – ominous
  164. ballot – form used to cast a vote
  165. barbecue – meat roasted on an open fire
  166. bargain – a deal
  167. baritone – male voice above a bass
  168. barometer – measures air pressure
  169. baronial – suitable for nobility
  170. barter – to trade
  171. base – lowest point or number
  172. basin – low area on Earth’s surface
  173. bathysphere – sphere-shaped diving vessel
  174. baton – wand used by a musical conductor
  175. battery – basic unit of military personnel
  176. battle – fight or conflict
  177. bawl – to call out noisily
  178. BC – Before Christ
  179. beacon – guiding device
  180. beckon – silent gesture
  181. beguile – to trick
  182. beleaguer – beset with difficulties
  183. beleaguer – beset with difficulties
  184. believe – to trust in
  185. belligerent – seeking conflict
  186. benevolence – kindness
  187. benevolent – intending to do good
  188. bestow – give
  189. betrothal – engagement
  190. between – space that separates
  191. bevy – any group
  192. bewilderment – hopelessly confused
  193. bias – prejudice
  194. bicentennial – two hundredth anniversary
  195. billowy – surge
  196. biography – story of a person’s life
  197. biologist – those who study living things
  198. biopsy – removal of living tissue
  199. biosphere – atmosphere in which living things exist
  200. Bizarre-out of wall
  201. blackmail – to get something by threatening
  202. bland – tasteless
  203. blatant – brazenly obvious
  204. blemish – physical defect
  205. blind – unable to see
  206. blinding – hard to see through
  207. blockade – barring entry by ships
  208. bluff – high bank or cliff
  209. boardinghouse – furnished rooms and meals
  210. boast – to speak too well of yourself
  211. bolster – support or strengthen
  212. BOO( RAZZ)- CRY TO SHOW DISPLESURE(N)
  213. boorish – ill-mannered
  214. bore – make a hole
  215. bore – to make a hole
  216. borrow – temporary use something
  217. boycott – refusal to buy
  218. boycott – refusal to do something
  219. brazen – shameless
  220. break – to crack into pieces
  221. breaker – ocean wave that collapses
  222. breed – one partricular kind of animal
  223. breeds – particular kinds of animals
  224. briar – thorny stem
  225. bridle – horse’s harness for the head
  226. brilliant – bright
  227. brink – edge
  228. broadcaster – person sending messages electronically
  229. brook – small stream
  230. brought – carried with one
  231. browse – to look casually
  232. Buck – One US DOLLAR
  233. buffer – used to store data
  234. building – structure
  235. bullying – threatening
  236. burgeon – blossom
  237. burly – heavily built
  238. burly – muscular
  239. busy f – ull of activity
  240. buy – to purchase
  241. byte – a small unit of measure of computer memory
  242. cackle – to laugh harshly
  243. cacophony – harsh jarring sound
  244. cairn – marker
  245. cajole – coax
  246. cajole – flatter
  247. cake – baked dessert
  248. calamity – misery
  249. calligraphy – fine handwriting
  250. camphor – smelly white powder
  251. campus – grounds of a school
  252. canard – false report
  253. canopy – covering
  254. cantankerous – grouchy
  255. canyon – deep narrow valley
  256. canyon – deep narrow valley
  257. canyon – deep, narrow valley
  258. cape – land that extends into water
  259. capsize – to overturn
  260. capture – catch and hold
  261. career – profession
  262. caricature – representation of a person
  263. carnival – fair or festival
  264. carpenter – person who builds things with wood
  265. cartography – mapmaking
  266. cascade – small waterfall
  267. castigate – inflict severe punishment
  268. catastrophe – a great calamity
  269. catcall – loud cry
  270. cater – to satisfy the needs of
  271. caterwauling – harsh crying
  272. caught – captured
  273. cause – to make something happen
  274. cautiously – carefully
  275. cave – hollow passage in the earth
  276. cavernous – resembling a cave
  277. cavity – hole
  278. CE – common era
  279. cell – small unit
  280. cell wall – outermost boundary of a cell
  281. censor – to ban
  282. censure – an official reprimand
  283. centennial – one hundredth anniversary
  284. centi 1/100
  285. centripetal – tendency to move to the center
  286. century – one hundred years
  287. ceramics – type of pottery
  288. chagrin – embarrassment
  289. chamber – room
  290. change – to make different
  291. character – symbol such as a letter
  292. characterization – vivid description
  293. charisma – personal appeal
  294. cheerfulness – good humored
  295. chemical – made from changed substances
  296. cherish – love
  297. chlorophyll – green substance in plants
  298. choleric – easily angered
  299. chromosomes – carries the traits of a cell
  300. chronology – events in order
  301. Chump – full / gull – buddhu
  302. churn – to stir quickly
  303. circuitously – indirectly
  304. circumference – boundary of a circular object
  305. circumlocution – to evade with words
  306. circumspection – carefully considering
  307. cirrush -High altitude clouds
  308. cistern – receptacle for holding water
  309. citation – quotation from a reliable source
  310. citizen – member of a country
  311. citizenship – conduct within the community
  312. clamor – cry out
  313. clandestine – done in secret
  314. clarify – to make clear
  315. classical – arts in a past era
  316. cleanliness – free from dirt
  317. cleavage – groove between parts
  318. clever – sly and resourceful
  319. cockfight – fighting gamecocks
  320. cocoon – covering around a pupa
  321. coherent – consistent and logical
  322. coherent – logical
  323. coin – metal piece of money
  324. colossus – huge
  325. combustible – flammable
  326. comely – attractive
  327. comet – object of gas and dust orbiting the sun
  328. comfortable – relaxed without pain
  329. command – causes a computer to do a task
  330. commemorate – honor the memory of
  331. commend – to express a good opinion
  332. commission – share of the profit
  333. commitment – binding oneself
  334. commotion – excitement and confusion
  335. communal – belonging to a group
  336. commute – travel back and forth
  337. companion – close associate
  338. company – with others
  339. compass – direction determining device
  340. compassion – showing pity
  341. compel – to make someone do something
  342. compendium – short but complete summary
  343. competent – fit
  344. competently – skillfully
  345. complacency – quiet satisfaction
  346. compose – make up
  347. composition – makeup
  348. comprehend – understand
  349. compulsion – feeling of having to do something
  350. compulsory – enforced
  351. conceive – develop in the mind
  352. conceive – develop in the mind
  353. conclave – private meeting
  354. concoction – mixture of things
  355. concussion – shock from impact
  356. concussion – violent blow
  357. condemned – strongly disapproved
  358. condescend – lower oneself
  359. condone – excuse
  360. confer – to present
  361. confide – to reveal in private
  362. confide – totell something in secret
  363. confidentially – secretly
  364. confidently – feeling sure of yourself
  365. confluence – where rivers join
  366. congress – meeting of elected representatives
  367. congruent – same shape and size
  368. conjure – exaggerated dignity
  369. connotation – emotional added meaning to a word
  370. conquer – to overpower
  371. cons – disadvantages
  372. conscious – awake
  373. conscious – awake and alert
  374. conscious – being aware
  375. consecutive – one after another
  376. consent – give permission
  377. consequence – result of an action
  378. conservancy – preserve of natural resources
  379. conservation – preserving something
  380. consolation – making less sad
  381. consume – devour
  382. consumer – user of goods or services
  383. contagion – spreading of a disease
  384. contemplating – deciding
  385. contempt – disdain
  386. contour lines – lines that connect points of equal elevation
  387. contrivance – invention
  388. conveyance – a transport or carrier
  389. convulsive – involuntary spasms
  390. cooperation – working together
  391. copiously – abundantly
  392. corroborate – support
  393. Corrode-Cause to deteriorate
  394. cossack – skilled Russian horsemen
  395. countenance – appearance
  396. countenance – facial expression
  397. countless – too many to be counted
  398. country – land of a nation
  399. countryside – rural area
  400. couple – two
  401. courage – bravery
  402. courage – overcoming fear
  403. courtesy – well-mannered
  404. cousin – child of your aunt or uncle
  405. cover – hide under something
  406. covet – long for with envy
  407. covetous – greedy
  408. covey – small flock of birds
  409. cowl – hood
  410. crags – uneven parts of cliffs
  411. crane – machine that lifts heavy objects
  412. cranes – large water birds
  413. crater – deep hole
  414. craven – cowardly
  415. craven – cowardly
  416. crawled – moved slowly
  417. creativity – originality
  418. creatures – living beings
  419. crest – highest point of a wave
  420. crevice – crack or narrow hole
  421. cringe – to shrink back
  422. cringed – crouch in fear
  423. cubicle – small space
  424. culminate – climax or end
  425. culprit – guilty person
  426. cultivate – grow plants
  427. cultivated – refined
  428. culture – way of life of a group
  429. cumulonimbus – anvil shaped clouds
  430. cumulus – low-lying puffy white clouds
  431. cunning – clever
  432. cup – 8 fluid ounces
  433. curious – wanting to know more
  434. curmudgeon – ill-tempered person
  435. current – flow of water
  436. curtail – abbreviate
  437. curtain – window covering
  438. customary – usual or expected
  439. cycle – repeating set of events
  440. cynical – showing scorn
  441. damage – harm
  442. dandy – a dude concerned with his clothes
  443. dangerous – unsafe
  444. dangling – swinging loosely
  445. data – information
  446. daub – apply paint with crude strokes
  447. daubed – coated
  448. daunt – frighten
  449. dearth – scarce supply
  450. debt – money that is owed
  451. decade – ten years
  452. decapitate – to remove one’s head
  453. decapitate – to remove one’s head
  454. deci 1/10
  455. decibel – measure for sound volume
  456. decided – made up one’s mind
  457. dedicated – committed to a goal
  458. deference – respect
  459. definite – precise
  460. deflect – to turn aside
  461. deforestation – large-scale cutting down of forests
  462. defrost – thaw
  463. defunct – no longer used
  464. degrade – bring to dishonor
  465. degrade – demote
  466. deign – condescend
  467. delete – to remove
  468. deliberation – slowness and with care
  469. delicious – very good to taste
  470. delighted – very happy
  471. deliquesce – melt away
  472. delta – mouth of a river
  473. demand – ask forcefully
  474. demonstration – public display
  475. demure – shy
  476. denotation – exaction definition to a word
  477. denounce – condemn
  478. density – amount per unit of measure
  479. dentures – false set of teeth
  480. deny – declare something to be untrue
  481. deny – refuse to give
  482. dependability – reliability
  483. deplete – empty out
  484. deploy – place military troops
  485. deprive – keep from having
  486. derelict – abandoned
  487. derision – contempt or ridicule
  488. derive – to receive
  489. descendant – person born from an ancestor
  490. desert – large region of sand
  491. desist – stop
  492. desolate – barren or deserted
  493. desolate – uninhabited
  494. despair – loss of hope
  495. despondent – without hope
  496. destitute – lacking necessary things
  497. destroy – to ruin completely
  498. detachment – separation
  499. deter – discourage
  500. deter – discourage someone
  501. deteriorate – to become worse
  502. determination – decided action
  503. determination – firm of purpose
  504. dethronement – act of ousting
  505. detonation – explosion
  506. devastate – destroy
  507. deviate – turn aside from
  508. device – an instrument or tool
  509. dew point – temperature at which water vapor condenses
  510. dexterous – skillful
  511. dexterous – skillful
  512. dialect – localized form of a language
  513. dialogue – conversation
  514. diameter – width of a circular object
  515. diatribe – abusive denunciation
  516. dietitian – specialist in nutrition
  517. different – not the same
  518. diffident – shy
  519. digestion – breaking food down
  520. digital – camera a camera which uses a chip to store images
  521. dike – dam made of dirt
  522. dike – dam or levee
  523. dilemma – problem
  524. diligence – steady manner
  525. dilution – weakened substance
  526. din – harsh noice
  527. dire – terrible
  528. disappear – to move out of sight
  529. disapprove – show dislike
  530. disarray – state of disorder
  531. disaster – terrible loss
  532. discern – detect
  533. discern – distinguish
  534. disclose – to make known
  535. disclose – to uncover
  536. discourse – long communication
  537. discover – find out
  538. discover – to find something
  539. discovered – found out
  540. discovered – found out
  541. discriminate – distinguish
  542. discrimination – extreme favoritism in actions or attitude
  543. disdain – despise
  544. disfigure – to mar the appearance
  545. disgorge – empty
  546. disgrace – to bring shame upon
  547. disguising – changing appearance
  548. dishonest – deceitful
  549. disinfectant – used to destroy germs
  550. dismal – gloomy and dark
  551. dismal – gloomy or depressing
  552. disparage – discredit
  553. dispense – do away with
  554. disposition – temperament
  555. dispute – to call into question
  556. disseminate – to spread
  557. dissentient – against the majority
  558. dissimulation – act of hiding
  559. dissuade – persuade not to do something
  560. dissuade – persuade not to do something
  561. distort – twist out of the true meaning
  562. distribution – area over which something is spread
  563. disturb – to make uneasy
  564. diverse – differing from one another
  565. document – text file
  566. dodge – move quickly aside
  567. doggedly – persistently
  568. dogma – doctrine
  569. doleful – mournful
  570. dominant – stronger
  571. dominate – rule
  572. donation – contribution
  573. doubtful – uncertain
  574. dough – mixture of flour and water
  575. dovecote – box for domestic pigeons
  576. download – to transfer data to a computer
  577. drab – dull
  578. drastically – extremely
  579. draught – long spell of dry weather
  580. draw – to make a picture
  581. drawl – speak very slowly
  582. dread – to wait with fear
  583. dreaded – greatly feared
  584. dreadful – terrible
  585. drift – move along on a current of air or water
  586. drivel – talk childishly
  587. drone – continuous buzzing sound
  588. dugout – Indian log boat
  589. dun – dull grayish brown
  590. dusk – time when darkness begins
  591. duty – obligation
  592. dynasty – family of rulers
  593. ebb – decline
  594. ebony – dark
  595. eccentricities – odd behaviors
  596. echoes – repeated sounds
  597. eclipse – complete or partial hiding
  598. ecosystems – specific environment
  599. eddies – currents that move with the main current
  600. edict – having the force of law
  601. edifice – building
  602. edit – to modify data
  603. edition – copies printed at one time
  604. efficacious – effective
  605. efficient – effective without waste
  606. elated – happy
  607. electricity – energy from the flow of electrons
  608. electron – negative part of atom outside nucleus
  609. elemental – most basic
  610. eliminate – to get rid of
  611. eloquence – polished speech
  612. eloquent – expressive
  613. e-mail – electronic mail
  614. embarrass – humiliate
  615. embed – set firmly
  616. embellish – decorate
  617. embroil – entangle
  618. emerges – breaks through
  619. emigrant – person leaving his country
  620. emit – to give off
  621. empathy – understand what another person is feeling
  622. emphasize – give special attention to
  623. emphatic – strongly expressive
  624. empire – groups of lands under the rule of one ruler
  625. enables – allows
  626. enchanted – magically delighted
  627. encrypt – scramble computerized information
  628. encumber – to place a heavy load on
  629. endangered – threatened
  630. endeavor – to strive
  631. endeavor – to try
  632. endow – to give
  633. energy – power to do work
  634. engineer – person who plans and builds structures
  635. engineering – planning and building
  636. enigma – perplexing
  637. enigma – riddle
  638. enigmatic – perplexing
  639. enjoyed – pleased with
  640. enlighten – to inform
  641. enough – all that is needed
  642. ensemble – group of musicians who perform together
  643. ensnare – to catch
  644. entertain – to amuse
  645. entice – lure
  646. entitled – having the right to something
  647. entreat – ask earnestly
  648. envelop – enclose with a covering
  649. enveloped – completely surrounded
  650. enzyme – body protein
  651. eon – age in the earth’s history
  652. epicenter – point directly above an earthquake
  653. epigram – short saying
  654. episode – part in a series
  655. equator – north-south line around the middle of the Eath
  656. equivocate – lie
  657. era – long period of time
  658. error – mistake
  659. escape – to break free or run away
  660. establish – to set up
  661. estimate – educated guess
  662. etymology – study of the origin of words
  663. evading – avoiding
  664. evaluate – find the value of a variable expression
  665. evict – expel
  666. evident – plain
  667. exalt – glorify, praise, or honor
  668. excavate – to dig up
  669. excavation – expose by digging
  670. except – instead of
  671. exclude – shut out
  672. exclusively – particular way
  673. excoriate – to tear
  674. excretion – getting rid of waste materials
  675. executable – computer file that will perform a tast
  676. exercises – training by repetition and review
  677. exertion – energetic activity
  678. exhort – spur on
  679. exist – to live
  680. expanse – open area
  681. expansion – act of expanding
  682. expedition – journey for a purpose
  683. explained – told about something
  684. exploration – travel for the purpose discovery
  685. exponent – how many times a number is used as a factor
  686. exposition – explanation
  687. expostulate – argue
  688. expound – to make a detailed statement on a topic
  689. expression – look on the face
  690. extinct – no longer living
  691. extinction – when no member of a species survives
  692. extol – praise highly
  693. exuberance – excitement
  694. exultant – triumphant
  695. exultation – celebration
  696. failure – not successful
  697. fair – not favoring more than another
  698. fairness – impartiality
  699. fallow – not cultivated
  700. false – wrong
  701. falter – to loose force
  702. family – people related to each another
  703. famished – starving
  704. fanatic – zealot
  705. fancy – whimsical imagination
  706. father – male parent
  707. fatuous – foolish
  708. fault – blame or cause
  709. feather – covering on bird’s body
  710. feel – to know by touch
  711. ferocious – savage
  712. ferocity – savage
  713. fertile – fruitful
  714. fertile – productive soil
  715. fester – to decay
  716. few – not many
  717. fiction – an imagined story
  718. fiercest – wildest
  719. figurative – non-literal language
  720. file – stored document
  721. finagle – to obtain
  722. finally – at last
  723. firebrand – troublemaker
  724. fishtail – swing from side to side
  725. flag – cloth with a distinct design
  726. flagon – container for liquids
  727. flank – fleshy part near the ribs
  728. flashback – part of a story that already happened
  729. flex – bend
  730. flooded covered with water
  731. floodplain – land that is flooded by a river
  732. fluctuate – continually changing
  733. fluctuate – shift back and forth
  734. fluctuation – unsteady motion
  735. fluent – express oneself readily
  736. fluently – clearly
  737. flustered – confused
  738. foolish – not having good sense
  739. foot – 12 inches
  740. foot – lowest part of the leg
  741. footer – information at the bottom of a page
  742. foothills – hilly area at the base of a mountain
  743. forbidden – not allowed
  744. foreboding – prediction of something bad
  745. foreshadow – foretell or bode
  746. forethought – thinking ahead
  747. forfeited – given up
  748. formal – following established customs
  749. format – to divide in sectors for data storage
  750. formidable – inspiring fear
  751. formula – mathematical equation
  752. fortuitous – fortunate
  753. fortune – success
  754. founded – established
  755. fracture – to break
  756. freight – goods transported
  757. frightened – afraid
  758. frigid – intensely cold
  759. frippery – elegance
  760. frolic – lively recreation
  761. frond – palm
  762. frontier – edge of an unknown land
  763. froth – churn
  764. frowzy – unkempt
  765. frozen – turned to ice or motionless
  766. full – able to hold no more
  767. furtively – secretly
  768. fusillade – simultaneous firing of weapons
  769. FUSS- AFFRY / TIFF / FRACAS
  770. futile – unproductive
  771. future – time that hasn’t happened yet
  772. gallivanting – roaming
  773. gallon – 4 quarts
  774. gallop – to go very fast
  775. gap – passage through mountains
  776. gargoyle – decorative monster
  777. garish – tacky
  778. garrulous – wordy and rambling
  779. gauged – estimated
  780. gaunt – starved
  781. gazetteer – geographical dictionary
  782. gem – valuable mineral
  783. general – high officer
  784. generalization – broad conclusion
  785. generations – family members around the same age
  786. generosity – unselfishness
  787. genes – specific portion of DNA
  788. genetics – study of heredity
  789. geologist – scientist who studies rocks
  790. gesticulate – express through movement
  791. gibberish – foolish talk
  792. gigabyte – one billion bytes of information
  793. gingerly – carefully
  794. glint – sparkle
  795. glossary – alphabetical list of words back of a book
  796. glut – fill beyond capacity
  797. Goo( gook) – thick viscous matter(n)
  798. gorge – deep valley
  799. gourmand – glutton
  800. gram – basic unit of mass
  801. grant – something that is given
  802. graphic – evoking lifelike images
  803. graphics – pictures
  804. gratify – satisfy
  805. gratitude – thankfulness
  806. gravity – attractive force
  807. grazing – eating grass and other plants
  808. greedy – wanting too much
  809. grievances – complaints
  810. group – number of things together
  811. groveling – crawling face-down
  812. grown – larger
  813. guide – person leading a trip
  814. gurgling – making a flowing or low sound
  815. habitat – living environment
  816. hacker – someone who breaks into a computer system
  817. haggard – worn look
  818. harbor – seaport
  819. harbor – sheltered body of water
  820. hard copy – a document that is printed on paper
  821. hard drive – magnetic metal disk that stores data
  822. hardware – physical parts of the computer
  823. hardy – vigorous
  824. harridan – vicious
  825. harrowing – vexing
  826. harvest – gather a crop
  827. haven – safe place
  828. hazard – danger
  829. haze – fog or cloud
  830. haze – unclear
  831. header – information at the top margin
  832. heard – listened to
  833. hearkening – listening carefully
  834. heart-wrenching – very emotional
  835. hedonism – pursuit of
  836. helter-skelter – haphazardly
  837. hem – surround
  838. herb – useful plant
  839. here – in this place
  840. heredity – passing of traits to offspring
  841. heroine – main female character
  842. heterogeneous – make of different elements
  843. hibernate – inactive state
  844. historian – studies the past
  845. histrionic – melodramatic
  846. hobby – something a person does for fun
  847. hobgoblin – mischievous elf
  848. holography three – dimensional image
  849. homage – anything done to show honor
  850. homage to pay respect
  851. homely – plain
  852. homicide – murder
  853. honesty – truthfulness
  854. honorary – having distinction
  855. hoodwink – deceive
  856. horizon – line where sky meets earth
  857. horrible – terrible
  858. hostile – unfriendly
  859. hostility – hate or dislike
  860. hour – sixty minutes
  861. howl – a long and sad cry
  862. hue – color
  863. humane – showing sympathy for others
  864. humiliation – causing shame shame
  865. humility – meekness or a lack of pride
  866. hungry – feeling a need for food
  867. hypnotizing – mesmerizing
  868. hypocrite – who fakes virtue
  869. hypocritical – pretending
  870. hypothesis – tentative assumption
  871. identified – named or discovered
  872. ignore – disregard
  873. image – picture
  874. image – vivid description
  875. imagery – language that describes something
  876. imitate – follow the example of
  877. immediately – right now
  878. immemorial – extending back beyond memory
  879. immense – enormous
  880. imminent – likely to happen soon
  881. impact – effect of an action
  882. impart – give
  883. impatient – not wanting to wait
  884. impatient – unwillingness to wait
  885. impediment – hinders a certain action
  886. impediment – obstruction
  887. imperceptible – difficult to detect
  888. impinge – strike
  889. implore – ask
  890. implore – to beg for earnestly
  891. implored – begged
  892. important – necessary or valuable
  893. importunity – persistent urgent demands
  894. impose – compel
  895. impose – to apply by force
  896. impose – to enforce
  897. impossible – unable to happen
  898. improper fraction – fraction whose numerator is greater that denominator
  899. impudence – rudeness
  900. impulse – sudden inclination
  901. impunity – freedom from punishment
  902. inaccurate – wrong
  903. inactive – idle
  904. inanimate – not moving
  905. inarticulate – speak poorly
  906. inaudibly – not able to be heard
  907. incandescent – very bright
  908. incense – infuriate
  909. incessant – continuous
  910. incessantly – never stopping
  911. incidental – accidental
  912. incomplete – not finished
  913. inconclusive – not leading to a definite result
  914. incongruity – having a lack of harmony
  915. incontinently – able to restrain
  916. incorrect – not right
  917. incredulous – skeptical
  918. incrustation – crust
  919. incur – to bring on oneself
  920. indefatigable – unwearying
  921. independent – self-reliant
  922. indicate – to show
  923. indifference – lack of interest or concern
  924. indifferent – without interest
  925. indigenous – native to an area
  926. indignant – anger over something unjust
  927. indiscriminate – failing to clearly choose
  928. indispensable – absolutely necessary
  929. indisputably – unquestionably
  930. indolently – lazily
  931. indomitable – unconquerable
  932. indulge – pamper
  933. industrious – steadily working hard
  934. inert – inactive
  935. inevitable – certain to happen
  936. inevitable – incapable of being avoided
  937. infer – hint
  938. inference – reasonable conclusion
  939. infield – playing area of a baseball field
  940. infiltrate – to enter maliciously
  941. influence – ability to affect what others do
  942. ingenious – clever
  943. ingestion – taking in food
  944. ingrained – impressed firmly on the mind
  945. ingratiate – gain favor
  946. ingredients – parts of a mixture
  947. inhabit – to live in
  948. initiative – first step
  949. inlet – narrow passage of water
  950. innocuous – inoffensive
  951. innovate – introduce something new
  952. input – information given to a computer
  953. inquire – investigate
  954. inscrutable – mysterious
  955. insensate – not capable of feeling sensation
  956. insert – process of adding
  957. insignia – emblem
  958. insomniac – person who is unable to sleep
  959. installed – set up correctly
  960. instantaneous – done immediately
  961. instinct – natural feeling
  962. instincts – natural tendencies
  963. instrument – something making musical sounds
  964. integers – whole numbers
  965. intense – extreme
  966. interest – charge for the use of money
  967. intermittent – stopping and starting
  968. intermittently – periodically
  969. international – between nations
  970. interpreter – person that translates languages
  971. intersect – meet at a point of crossing
  972. intimidate – make fearful
  973. intolerable – unbearable
  974. intonation – ability to play notes in tune
  975. intricate – full of elaborate detail
  976. inutemen – soldiers available on short notice
  977. invalid – sickly person
  978. invective – abusive language
  979. inversion – reversal of the usual order
  980. invest – to put into
  981. invigorate – energize
  982. iridescent – display of lustrous colors
  983. irony – sarcasm or an unexpected outcome
  984. irresolute – wavering in purpose
  985. irrigation – supplying land with water
  986. isthmus – narrow strip of land
  987. itinerary – plan for a journey
  988. jaundice – yellowish coloring of the eyes and skin
  989. jeans – tough cotton pants
  990. jeer – to taunt
  991. jewel – valuable stone or gem
  992. jostle – push
  993. jubilant – triumphant
  994. jungle – land thickly covered with plants
  995. jute – plant fiber used in making rope
  996. kind – type
  997. kindness – being friendly and sympathetic
  998. kingfisher – fish eating bird
  999. knapsack – backpack
  1000. kneaded – pressed with the hands
  1001. knew – having the facts
  1002. knit – to made with yarn
  1003. KO(KNOCKOUT)- A blow that make opponent unconscious
  1004. lacerated – torn roughly
  1005. laden – burdened
  1006. lagoon – pool of water
  1007. lake – body of fresh water with land on all sides
  1008. lame – not able to walk well
  1009. landmark – outstanding or well-know object
  1010. landscape – stretch of natural scenery on land
  1011. languish – lose strength
  1012. lapse – to be no longer valid
  1013. larger bigger in size
  1014. lassitude – weariness
  1015. laughingstock – object of ridicule
  1016. lavish – give generously
  1017. lavish – to give abundantly
  1018. layers – levels
  1019. lazy – not willing to work
  1020. leaves – green parts of a plant
  1021. ledge – shelf-like rock on a mountain
  1022. legend – supernatural story
  1023. lens – transparent object that bends light
  1024. lethargic – lack of energy
  1025. lethargy – great lack of energy
  1026. levering – prying
  1027. levity – humor
  1028. lie – to rest by not standing or to no tell the truth
  1029. lightning – visible discharge in the sky
  1030. liter – basic unit of capacity
  1031. literary – referring to books and writing
  1032. literate – able to read and write
  1033. little – small
  1034. live – to exist
  1035. lock – to bind tightly
  1036. locution – word or phrase
  1037. loll – rest in a lazy way
  1038. lonely – sad about being by yourself
  1039. longitude – east-west direction on the globe
  1040. loon – duck-like bird
  1041. lore – traditional knowledge
  1042. lose – not have any longer
  1043. loyalty – faithfulness
  1044. lubricate – to apply oil or grease
  1045. lucid – sane or rational
  1046. lumberjack – person who chops down trees
  1047. luminous – bright or glowing
  1048. lurid – glowing
  1049. lurid – vivid or harsh
  1050. lurk – wait out of sight
  1051. luster – shininess
  1052. lustrous – shiny
  1053. luxurious – something pleasurable
  1054. maelstrom – violent situation
  1055. magnanimity – kind-heartedness
  1056. majority – greater part
  1057. malaise – sense of unease
  1058. malign – to make untrue statements
  1059. malignant – disposed to do evil
  1060. maneuver – move skillfully
  1061. manifest – obvious
  1062. manifesto – declaration of principles
  1063. manipulate – to control skillfully
  1064. mannequin – plastic person
  1065. mantle – cape like covering
  1066. mantle – thickest layer inside Earth
  1067. manufacture – to make something
  1068. mariners – sailors
  1069. marsh – lowland with moist soil
  1070. masonry – brick
  1071. massacre – killing many defenseless people
  1072. meadow – grassy field
  1073. meadow – grassy land
  1074. meager – small amount
  1075. meandered – walk along without direction
  1076. mechanical – like a machine
  1077. mechanical – operated by a machine
  1078. medley – mixture
  1079. melancholy – gloomy state of mind
  1080. melodious – pleasant to hear
  1081. memory – computer storage capacity
  1082. menagerie – collection of animals
  1083. mentor – trusted counselor
  1084. menu – list of functions that a computer performs
  1085. meringue – sweet topping
  1086. mesa – flat-topped mountain
  1087. mesas – steep hills with flat tops
  1088. metabolism – chemical reactions in living things
  1089. metaphor – comparison between two unlike things
  1090. meteorite – an object striking the earth from space
  1091. meter – basic unit of length in the metric system
  1092. metric – system of measurement
  1093. mettle – spirit
  1094. Mettle-nerve-spunk
  1095. microbe – tiny life form
  1096. microfiche – sheet of microfilm
  1097. mile – 5,280 feet
  1098. millennium – one thousand years
  1099. milli 1/1000
  1100. mimic – copy
  1101. mind – to care about or obey
  1102. mine – extracting minerals from the ground
  1103. miniature – tiny version
  1104. minuscule – very small
  1105. minute – short period of 60 seconds
  1106. minute – small
  1107. minutia – trivial detail
  1108. misanthrope – someone who does not like people
  1109. misdemeanor – offense less serious than a felony
  1110. misery – great pain or suffering
  1111. missive – written communication
  1112. misspell – spell incorrectly
  1113. mixed number – whole number and a fraction
  1114. mockery – mean spirited joking
  1115. modem – device that connects the computer to a communications system
  1116. molten – liquefied by heat
  1117. monarch – royal ruler
  1118. mono – prefix meaning “one”
  1119. monogram – design composed of one or more initials
  1120. monograph – scholarly study
  1121. monsoon – strong seasonal wind
  1122. morose – gloomy
  1123. morrow – the next day
  1124. mother – female parent
  1125. mountain – high hill
  1126. mouse – pointing device
  1127. mouthful – as much as can be held in the mouth at one time
  1128. muffle – to deaden sound
  1129. multimedia – graphics and sound
  1130. multiply – increase in number
  1131. multitude – large number of persons
  1132. music – pleasant expressive sounds
  1133. mute – silent
  1134. mute – to muffle or make quiet
  1135. mutiny – rebellion against authority
  1136. mutual – shared equally
  1137. myriad – innumerable
  1138. mystical – spiritual meaning
  1139. navigator – person who charts the course
  1140. nectar – sweet liquid found in flowers
  1141. nectar – sweet liquid made by flowers
  1142. negative number – any number less than zero
  1143. neighbors – people who live near one another
  1144. nervous – restless or tense
  1145. nettle – stinging hairs
  1146. neutral – taking neither side
  1147. new – not old
  1148. nip – pinch
  1149. noise – loud sounds
  1150. nonchalant – unconcerned
  1151. nonfiction – prose works based on facts
  1152. nonviolence – absence of violence
  1153. noticeable – easily seen
  1154. noun – person, place, or thing
  1155. nourish – keep alive and healthy
  1156. nourish – to feed
  1157. nucleus – center of a cell
  1158. nutrients – substances that provide nourishment
  1159. obeisance – deference or homage
  1160. obliquely – with a change of direction
  1161. obscurity – lack of clearness or visibility
  1162. obsequious – fawning
  1163. obsequious – groveling
  1164. obsequious – servile and flattering
  1165. obstinate – stubborn
  1166. occupation – person’s job
  1167. ocean – body of salt water
  1168. odious – extremely unlikable
  1169. offensive – act of attacking
  1170. ominous – portending evil or harm
  1171. omnivorous – eating anything
  1172. online – connected to a computer network
  1173. online – connected to a computer network
  1174. opaque – not able to be seen through
  1175. opportunitie – chance to do something
  1176. opportunities – chances to do something
  1177. opposite numbers – negative and positive of a number
  1178. oppression – cruel and unfair treatment
  1179. oppression – force or subjugation
  1180. opulent – luxuriant
  1181. oration – formal speech
  1182. orator – public speaker
  1183. orbit – planet’s path around a sun
  1184. orchestrate – organize
  1185. ore – mineral containing a useful substance
  1186. organelles – tiny organs
  1187. originated – came into being
  1188. orotund – full in sound
  1189. orphanage – place for homeless children
  1190. oscillate – swing from side to side
  1191. ostentatious – very showy display
  1192. Otiose- Pointless
  1193. oust – force out
  1194. output – the final document
  1195. overcome – conquer
  1196. pacific – peaceful
  1197. package – box used for delivery
  1198. pagoda – tall Asian shrine
  1199. paintings – pictures not drawn with pen or pencil
  1200. Pal- buddy / chum
  1201. palette – thin board for mixing paints
  1202. pall – cover for a coffin
  1203. pallid – faint in color
  1204. pallid – pale
  1205. palpable – able to be handled
  1206. palpitate – tremble
  1207. pandemonium – chaos
  1208. panoply – striking array
  1209. pantomime – acting with gestures
  1210. pantry – closet where food is kept
  1211. papoose – Native American baby
  1212. paradoxical – full of contradictions
  1213. parch – dry
  1214. Parliament – British legislature
  1215. parson – clergyman
  1216. particular – specific or exact
  1217. particularly – distinct or different
  1218. partition – divider
  1219. partition – something that divides
  1220. passerby – person who is moving by
  1221. pasture – grassy field for farm animals
  1222. patchwork – many small pieces sewn together
  1223. patent – obvious
  1224. patience – waiting calmly and quietly
  1225. patriotism – love of country
  1226. patriots – loyal to one’s nation
  1227. patrol – check for trouble
  1228. patrol – secure an area
  1229. pause – short stop
  1230. pause – stop for a short time
  1231. PC – personal computer
  1232. peak – pointed summit of a mountain
  1233. peculiar – odd
  1234. peculiar – unique
  1235. PEE ( PISS)- URINATE(N)
  1236. peering – looking in a searching way
  1237. peevish – contrary
  1238. peg – wooden nail
  1239. pelt – strike successively
  1240. penalty – punishment
  1241. penetrate – pierce
  1242. peon – menial worker
  1243. people – persons
  1244. percent – number compared to one hundred
  1245. perfect – just right
  1246. perfidy – treachery
  1247. performance – musical or theatrical presentation
  1248. perilous – full of dangers
  1249. peripatetic – traveling on foot
  1250. permeate – penetrate
  1251. pernicious – wicked
  1252. perpetuate – cause to be continued
  1253. perpetuate – cause to continue
  1254. perplexed – puzzled
  1255. perplexingly – with confusion or hesitancy
  1256. persecution – affliction
  1257. perseverance – continuing in spite of difficulties
  1258. persistent – unrelenting
  1259. personification – giving human characteristics
  1260. perusal – casual reading
  1261. perverse – opposite of right
  1262. pestilent – very harmful
  1263. petition – request
  1264. petitions – signed requests for
  1265. petrify – paralyze with fear
  1266. petulant – impatient
  1267. phantasm – ghost
  1268. phonetics – study of the sounds of language
  1269. photosynthesis – compound produced through light
  1270. physiological – workings of the body
  1271. piece – part of a whole
  1272. piety – religious devotion
  1273. pinnacle – highest point
  1274. pint – 2 cups
  1275. piquant – spicy
  1276. pique – arouse
  1277. pith – sponge-like inside of flower
  1278. pity – sympathy or sorrow
  1279. placid – calm
  1280. placid – peaceful
  1281. plague – easily spread disease causing deaths
  1282. plains – flat land
  1283. planets – larger bodies that orbit a star
  1284. play – to have fun
  1285. plot – mark points on a graph
  1286. ploy – devious action
  1287. pluck – daring
  1288. pluck – pick by pulling off
  1289. plump – chubby
  1290. plutonian – like the underworld
  1291. ply – address someone urgently
  1292. ply – provide insistently
  1293. pneumonia – disease of the lungs
  1294. poacher – one that kills animals illegally
  1295. poem – writing in verse
  1296. poignant – touching
  1297. pointed – definite meaning
  1298. poised – balanced
  1299. politician – person who runs for a political office
  1300. pollen – fine powder from flowers
  1301. pollutant – a poison
  1302. polygon – closed figure with three or more sides
  1303. Polymorphous-Having or occurring in several distinct forms
  1304. pompous – vain or stuck up
  1305. ponderous – unyielding
  1306. pony – small horse
  1307. populated – filled with inhabitants
  1308. populations – certain living things in a certain place
  1309. port – computer connection hardware
  1310. portmanteau – suitcase
  1311. positive number – any number greater than zero
  1312. postcards – cards mailed without an envelope
  1313. pouch – fold of skin like a bag
  1314. poultry – birds raised for food
  1315. pound – 16 ounces
  1316. pounded – hit hard repeatedly
  1317. practice – training by repeating
  1318. pragmatic – practical
  1319. precarious – based on uncertain premises
  1320. precipice – steep cliff
  1321. precipitate – cause to happen
  1322. predicament – situation that is hard to get out of
  1323. presents – gifts
  1324. preserve – maintain
  1325. priest – religious leader
  1326. principal – amount borrowed in a loan
  1327. principal – highest in importance
  1328. printout – document printed on paper
  1329. privileges – special rights
  1330. privy – outhouse
  1331. proceeded – went forward
  1332. produce – to make
  1333. produce – to make
  1334. product – answer to a multiplication problem
  1335. production – process of making something
  1336. production – process of making something
  1337. professional – specially trained
  1338. profound – marked by intellectual depth
  1339. program – plan
  1340. progress – moving forward
  1341. projectile – object thrown or shot
  1342. proofreading – finding mistake or errors in your copy
  1343. propeller – rotating blades
  1344. proper fraction – fraction whose numerator is less than its denominator
  1345. properties – things that can be described about an object
  1346. property – piece of land
  1347. pros – advantages
  1348. prose – anything not poetry
  1349. prospect – possibility
  1350. prospecting – looking for gold
  1351. prosperous – having success
  1352. protect – guard
  1353. protegee – guided by someone
  1354. proton – positive part of atom inside nucleus
  1355. proud – feeling good about yourself
  1356. province – territorial district
  1357. provisions – supplies of food
  1358. prowls – roams quietly
  1359. pseudonym – pen name
  1360. psyche – having to do with the soul
  1361. psychic – supernatural forces
  1362. publicity – bringing something to the public’s attention
  1363. pugnacious – belligerent
  1364. pulsation – rhythmic beating
  1365. punctuality – promptness
  1366. purchase – to buy something
  1367. quadrant – section of the coordinate plane
  1368. quaff – drink heartily
  1369. quaff – to drink heartily
  1370. quality – degree of excellence
  1371. quandary – perplexity
  1372. quarrel – angry dispute
  1373. quarrel – argument
  1374. quart – 2 pints
  1375. quarter – soldier’s housing
  1376. quartet – four musicians who perform together
  1377. quotient – answer to a division problem
  1378. radiate – to send out
  1379. radiation – method of transmitting or spreading something
  1380. rafters – beams that support
  1381. raging – moving with violent force
  1382. rainforest – forest with abundant rainfall
  1383. ramble – to go on and on
  1384. rambles – going on and on
  1385. rampart – defense against attack
  1386. rancor – bitter
  1387. random – determined by chance
  1388. range – chain of mountains
  1389. ransack – messy search
  1390. rant – emotional speech
  1391. rapids – fast moving part of a river
  1392. rapturous – ecstatic
  1393. ratio – comparison of one number to another
  1394. ravage – devastate
  1395. Re -verberation – reechoed sound
  1396. real – not imagined
  1397. realistic – showing things as they are
  1398. realized – understood completely
  1399. reboot – restart
  1400. rebuke – to reprimand
  1401. recall – to remember
  1402. recede – move back
  1403. recede – to move away
  1404. reciprocate – to return
  1405. recital – musical performance
  1406. recite – to repeat from memory
  1407. reckon – compute or calculate
  1408. recoil – shrink back
  1409. record – permanent evidence
  1410. recovery – return to being well
  1411. recruit – person who has recently joined
  1412. rectify – to set right
  1413. reef – ridge that lies near the surface of a sea
  1414. refrained – kept from doing something
  1415. refuge – shelter
  1416. regime – government in power
  1417. regress – move backward
  1418. rehabilitate – restore to good health
  1419. reins – controlling
  1420. relatives – people in the same family
  1421. released – set free
  1422. reliability – honoring commitments
  1423. reliable – dependable
  1424. reluctant – holding back
  1425. remarkable – amazing
  1426. remedies – cures
  1427. remember – to keep in memory
  1428. remonstrance – protest
  1429. remorse – torturing sense of guilt
  1430. rendering – drawing
  1431. renew – make new
  1432. rent – money paid for use of property
  1433. repealed – taken back
  1434. repent – feel sorry for
  1435. replied – answered
  1436. replied – answered
  1437. represent – acting for someone else
  1438. repugnance – distaste
  1439. reputation – how the public views a person
  1440. request – ask for
  1441. rescue – save from danger
  1442. rescue – save from harm
  1443. resemble – to look like
  1444. reservoirs – storage place for liquid
  1445. reside – to live
  1446. residential – used for homes
  1447. resign – give up deliberately
  1448. resist – go against
  1449. resolute – determined
  1450. resolutions – personal goals
  1451. respect – regard highly
  1452. respiration – breathing
  1453. resplendent – splendid
  1454. responsible – being the cause of something
  1455. restoration – act of bringing back
  1456. retaliate – to pay back
  1457. retard – to make slow
  1458. retch – vomit
  1459. retinue – body of assistants
  1460. retreat – withdrawal
  1461. retrospective – contemplating
  1462. revived – returned to life
  1463. revolutionary – radical change
  1464. ridiculous – foolish and comical
  1465. rights – irrevocable freedoms
  1466. rivulets – small streams
  1467. robust – strong
  1468. rodents – animals such as mice
  1469. rodeo – riding and roping contest
  1470. rogue – dishonest person
  1471. role – an assumed character
  1472. rotates – turns in a circle
  1473. rouse – awake
  1474. rout – to cause to flee
  1475. ruckus – noisy disturbance
  1476. rudimentary – basic
  1477. rue – feel regret
  1478. ruse – trick
  1479. ruse – trickery
  1480. ruts – grooves in the ground
  1481. sacrifice – giving up of something
  1482. sagacity – intelligence
  1483. sage – wise and respected person
  1484. salinity – saltiness
  1485. salutary – beneficial
  1486. sanctimonious – self-righteous
  1487. sanction – permit
  1488. sanctuary – protection
  1489. sanguine – color of blood
  1490. sarcastically – in a mocking tone
  1491. satchel – small bag
  1492. satisfied – having no doubts
  1493. savory – tasty
  1494. say – to speak
  1495. scales – series of musical tones
  1496. scanner – device that copies an image
  1497. scare – make afraid
  1498. scenario – rough script
  1499. scenery – stage backgrounds
  1500. scheme – plan in a deceitful way
  1501. school pride – satisfaction in your school’s achievements
  1502. scintillate – reflect brightly
  1503. scoff – express mocking contempt
  1504. score – account
  1505. scour – search extensively
  1506. scratched – scraped
  1507. scroll – to move through text or graphics
  1508. scrutinize – look at very carefully
  1509. scullery – room next to kitchen
  1510. sculpted – carved by an artist
  1511. sea – body of salt water
  1512. season – part of the year
  1513. secure – safe
  1514. seethe – bubble or boil
  1515. seismograph – instrument for measuring earthquake vibrations
  1516. self-control – mastering one’s actions
  1517. self-respect – positive opinion of oneself
  1518. semi-dormant – half asleep
  1519. seminar- conference where specific topic discussed
  1520. sensation – feeling
  1521. sentinel – guard
  1522. serene – calm
  1523. serialize – present one part of a story at a time
  1524. setting – where a story takes place
  1525. settlers – pioneers in a new area
  1526. several – quite a few
  1527. severe – strict
  1528. shadow – area of darkness
  1529. shamming – pretending
  1530. shard – fragment of a brittle substance
  1531. shear – cut wool off a sheep
  1532. sheepish – embarrassed
  1533. shimmer – glimmer
  1534. shinny – to climb
  1535. Shit ( dung)
  1536. shiver – shake
  1537. shoes – coverings for the feet
  1538. short – not long or tall
  1539. shoulder – part of the body below the neck
  1540. shove – push
  1541. shower – brief fall of rain
  1542. shrieked – screamed
  1543. sibling – brother or sister
  1544. sighed – long sad breath
  1545. signature – written name of person
  1546. silhouette – figure seen against a light background
  1547. silly – ridiculous
  1548. silo – storage tower
  1549. simmer – stew gently
  1550. simper smile in a silly manner
  1551. simplify – reduce completely
  1552. sinewy – stringy
  1553. singularly – uniquely
  1554. sinister – wicked
  1555. skeins – loosely coiled yarn
  1556. skeptical – attitude of doubt
  1557. skillets – frying pans
  1558. slather – a great amount
  1559. slender – thin
  1560. slimy – covered with filth
  1561. slog – hit hard
  1562. slough – swamp
  1563. sloughs – places of deep mud
  1564. slowly – not fast
  1565. sly – sneaky or clever
  1566. smite – strike hard
  1567. smoldering – burning and smoking with little flame
  1568. smooth – even and unwrinkled
  1569. smudge – smear or blur
  1570. smuggling – illegally transporting goods
  1571. snare – trap
  1572. soar – fly very high
  1573. soberly – seriously
  1574. soft – not hard
  1575. software – computer programs
  1576. software – set of programmed instructions
  1577. solar system – the Sun and the planets
  1578. solemnize – honor or remember
  1579. somberly – sadly
  1580. sometimes – not always
  1581. source – origin
  1582. source – point of origin
  1583. spade – digging tool
  1584. spare – extra
  1585. spare – to keep from harming
  1586. sparkling – gleaming or shining
  1587. spasmodically – abruptly
  1588. special – very important
  1589. spectacle – eye-catching
  1590. spectators – persons watching an event
  1591. specter – ghost
  1592. sponsor – one who supports
  1593. sportsmanship – winning or losing positively
  1594. spread – to stretch out
  1595. sprinkling – spreading or scattering
  1596. sprint – race covering a short distance
  1597. spy – to see without being seen
  1598. square root – any number times itself
  1599. squaw – American Indian woman
  1600. squawk – shrill or harsh sound
  1601. squeeze – press between something
  1602. stage fright – fear of performing
  1603. staid – great dignity
  1604. stalk – approach an stealthily
  1605. stalk – follow without being seen
  1606. start – to begin
  1607. static – radio noises
  1608. stationing – assigning a certain spot
  1609. stealthy – sneaky
  1610. stenography – short hand writing
  1611. stifle – hold back
  1612. stirrups – rings that a horse rider’s feet fit in
  1613. stockade – high, strong fence
  1614. stoic – unemotional
  1615. stomach – where food is digested in the body
  1616. straddle t – o sit with one leg on each side
  1617. stragglers – those lagging behind
  1618. strait – narrow passage of water
  1619. strange – unusual
  1620. stratosphere – atmosphere that contains ozone
  1621. stretching – spreading out
  1622. stringent – severe
  1623. strong – powerful
  1624. struggle – difficult task
  1625. strut – walk proudly
  1626. stubborn – unwilling to change
  1627. stunned – shocked
  1628. stupefy – stun
  1629. sturdy – strong
  1630. style – manner of doing something
  1631. stymie – stump
  1632. suavity – graceful politeness
  1633. subcontinent – large landmass
  1634. subside – sink to a lower level
  1635. substitution – put in place of
  1636. succeed – complete
  1637. success – achievement
  1638. succinct – concise
  1639. succumb – yield
  1640. suffocate – to die from lack of air
  1641. suffocate – to die from not breathing
  1642. sullen – depressed
  1643. sultry – hot
  1644. summoned – being called
  1645. sumptuous – lavish
  1646. sumptuous – splendid
  1647. sunset – time when the sun disappears
  1648. superficial – not deep
  1649. supersede – to make obsolete
  1650. supervise – to watch over
  1651. supply – furnish what is needed
  1652. supply – to give what is needed
  1653. supposition – assumption
  1654. surcease – to come to an end
  1655. sure – positive
  1656. surmount – overcome an obstacle
  1657. surplus – excess amount
  1658. surround – shut in on all sides
  1659. surroundings – place around something
  1660. survival the act of staying alive
  1661. suspense – anxiety
  1662. sustain – support
  1663. swallow – transporting food from the mouth to the stomach
  1664. swamp – low, wet lands
  1665. symbiosis – beneficial relationship
  1666. symbol – something that represents something else
  1667. symphony – long piece of music in four parts
  1668. synthetic – man-made with chemicals
  1669. talent – something someone can do well
  1670. talent – special natural ability
  1671. talking – speaking
  1672. tame – gentle and meek
  1673. taproot – root that grows downward
  1674. tariff – tax on imported goods
  1675. taunt – insult
  1676. taunt – reproach with insults
  1677. taunt – to tease
  1678. taxes – money paid to the government
  1679. teak – tropical wood used in furniture
  1680. technique – special way to do something
  1681. tedious – repetitive
  1682. teeter – to rock
  1683. telescope – instrument that magnifies distant objects
  1684. temple – place of worship
  1685. tempo – speed of music
  1686. tend – to take care of
  1687. termagant – quarrelsome
  1688. terrestrial – of the earth
  1689. territory – land ruled by a nation
  1690. texture – feel of the surface of an object
  1691. their – belonging to them
  1692. theory – explanation backed by testing
  1693. thicket – thick growth of plants
  1694. this – thing being mentioned
  1695. thorn – sharp sticker on a plant
  1696. thought – idea
  1697. threshold – entrance
  1698. throaty – sound uttered low and rasping
  1699. through – into and out of
  1700. thunder – loud noise in a storm
  1701. tide – the rise and fall of the sea level
  1702. timidity – state of shyness
  1703. timorous – fearful
  1704. timorous – timid
  1705. titanium – lightweight metal
  1706. toady – flatterer
  1707. toehold – slight advantage
  1708. tolerance – permitting something
  1709. tolerate – allow
  1710. ton – 2,000 pounds
  1711. tone – quality of sound
  1712. topographic – map that shows the relief of the land
  1713. torpor – state of being inactive
  1714. torrent – very heavy fall of rain
  1715. touch – physical contact
  1716. tough – rugged
  1717. tour – a trip visiting places
  1718. tout – publicize
  1719. trait – characteristic
  1720. trance – dreamlike state
  1721. tranquil – calm
  1722. tranquility – calmness
  1723. tranquility – calmness
  1724. transfixed – motionless
  1725. transient – passing quckly
  1726. transient – passing with time
  1727. transient – temporary
  1728. translation – something changed to another language
  1729. transmission – sending a message
  1730. transparent – allowing light through
  1731. trappings – articles of dress
  1732. trauma – disturbing event
  1733. travesty – humorous imitation
  1734. treason – betraying one’s government
  1735. treaty – agreement
  1736. trees – large, woody plants
  1737. tributary – river that empties into a larger river
  1738. tributary – small stream
  1739. tricky – sly
  1740. trifle – something of little value
  1741. trivial – insignificant
  1742. trojan horse – hidden instructions inside a computer program
  1743. trough – lowest point of a wave
  1744. troupe – company or group
  1745. truce – temporary halt in fighting
  1746. truncate – to shorten
  1747. trunk – long snout
  1748. trustworthy – responsible
  1749. tsunami – destructive tidal wave
  1750. tumbleweeds – dead rolling plants
  1751. tunic – loose cloak
  1752. turbulence – violent atmospheric condition
  1753. turbulent – wildly irregular motion
  1754. turn – to move in a different direction
  1755. tussle – cuffle
  1756. tutorial – program of instruction
  1757. twilight – time immediately after sunset
  1758. typography – appearance of a printed page
  1759. ultimatum – final offer
  1760. umbrella – hand-held canopy
  1761. unable – cannot do
  1762. unanimity – complete agreement
  1763. underground – below the earth ‘s surface
  1764. underground – below the earth’s surface
  1765. undulate – move as if in waves
  1766. unfurled – unfolded
  1767. unhealthy – not well
  1768. universe – everything that exists
  1769. unpack – to take things out
  1770. unprecedented – never before seen
  1771. unraveling – becoming undone
  1772. unscathed – wholly unharmed
  1773. unseen – not visible
  1774. unsociable – unfriendly
  1775. untidy – messy
  1776. untied – not fastened
  1777. upload – to transfer data from a computer
  1778. uproar – noisy confusion
  1779. utensil – implement
  1780. utensils – tools used in cooking
  1781. vacant – not occupied
  1782. vague – not distinct
  1783. valley – low land between hills
  1784. valor – bravery
  1785. vanity – excessive pride
  1786. variable – letter that represents a number
  1787. vaunt – brag about
  1788. vegetation – plant life
  1789. vehemently – violently
  1790. vein – long deposit of underground metal
  1791. velocity – speed
  1792. vendetta – destructive feud
  1793. venture – proceed in face of danger
  1794. verge – border
  1795. verge – edge
  1796. vermin – animal pests
  1797. vessels – ships
  1798. vestige – sign
  1799. veterinarian – doctor that takes care of animals
  1800. vetoed – rejected by authority
  1801. vex – trouble
  1802. viable – practicable
  1803. vicar – a parish priest(CHRISTIAN)
  1804. Vicar – preacher or priest
  1805. vicinity – near
  1806. victim – person who has been hurt
  1807. victim – someone who is injured
  1808. view – what can be seen
  1809. vigil – determined watchfulness
  1810. vigorous – lively
  1811. village – small town
  1812. vindictive – revengeful
  1813. violated – failed to follow
  1814. virago – quarrelsome woman
  1815. virtue – moral excellence
  1816. visualize – to form a mental picture
  1817. vitality – energetic
  1818. vitiate – weaken
  1819. vivacious – lively
  1820. vivacious – lively
  1821. vivid – intense
  1822. vivid – lively
  1823. vocal – spoken
  1824. vociferous – crying out loudly
  1825. void – emptiness
  1826. volcano – opening in the Earth
  1827. volume – relative amount
  1828. volunteer person who freely gives time
  1829. voracious – eating a lot
  1830. waders – waterproof boots
  1831. wan – unnaturally pale
  1832. wandering – traveling from place to place
  1833. wane – to become less
  1834. wanted – desired
  1835. waterfall – steep drop from a high place
  1836. wavering – moving back and forth
  1837. way – certain path
  1838. waylay – ambush
  1839. weather – outside conditions
  1840. weave – to interlace
  1841. weaving – winding in and out
  1842. web site – a location on the world wide web
  1843. weigh – to measure weight
  1844. weight – measure of the force
  1845. wetlands – land saturated with water
  1846. whet – sharpen by rubbing
  1847. whimsical – impulsive
  1848. whinnies – horse sound
  1849. whole – complete or entire
  1850. wigwam – Indian tent
  1851. wiles – tricks
  1852. wimple – cloth covering over the head
  1853. wisdom – accumulated learning
  1854. withhold – restrain
  1855. without – not having
  1856. wizened – old
  1857. women – female humans
  1858. wondered c – urious about something
  1859. wondrous – marvelous
  1860. word processing – text data
  1861. word processor – application that outputs text data
  1862. word wrap – automatic movement of a word to the next line
  1863. work ethic – positive attitude towards work
  1864. wreak – inflict punishment upon
  1865. wrench – twist or pull
  1866. wrest – obtain by pulling
  1867. wrinkle – crooked fold
  1868. WYSIWYG – word-processing system
  1869. yard – 3 feet
  1870. yawn – expression of tiredness
  1871. yield – amount produced
  1872. yield – produce
  1873. Zing-Oomph-dynamism of personality

American Basic Legal Terms

KEYWORDS:-Legal glossary-Dictionary-

American law

A

Acquittal-A jury verdict that a criminal defendant is not guilty, or the finding of a judge that the evidence is insufficient to support a conviction. Discharge from the Criminal charge.

Active judge-A judge in the full-time service of the court. Compare to a senior judge.

Administrative Office of the United States Courts (AO) -The federal agency responsible for collecting court statistics, administering the federal courts’ budget, and performing many other administrative and programmatic functions, under the direction and supervision of the Judicial Conference of the United States.

Admissible-A term used to describe a legal evidence that may be considered by a jury or judge in civil and criminal cases. A non-admissible evidence is not evidence for court.

Adversary proceeding-A lawsuit arising in or related to a bankruptcy case that begins by filing a complaint with the court, that is, a “trial” that takes place within the context of a bankruptcy case.

Affidavit-A written statement made under oath.

Affirmed -In the practice of the court of appeals, it means that the court of appeals has concluded that the lower court decision is correct and will stand as rendered by the lower court.

Alternate juror-A juror selected in the same manner as a regular juror who hears all the evidence but does not help decide the case unless called on to replace a regular juror.

Alternative dispute resolution (ADR)-A procedure for settling a dispute outside the courtroom. Most forms of ADR are not binding, and involve referral of the case to a neutral party such as an arbitrator or mediator.

Amicus curiae-Latin for “friend of the court.” A senior advocate appointed for assisting the court.

Answer-The formal written statement by a defendant in a civil case that responds to a complaint(Plaint), articulating the grounds for defense.

Appeal-A request made after a trial by a party that has lost on one or more issues that a higher court review the decision to determine if it was correct.

Appellant -The party who appeals a district court’s decision, usually seeking reversal of that decision.

Appellate-About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgment of a lower court (trial court) or tribunal. For example, the U.S. circuit courts of appeals review the decisions of the U.S. district courts.

Appellee-The party who opposes an appellant’s appeal, and who seeks to persuade the appeals court to affirm the district court’s decision.

Arraignment -A proceeding in which a criminal defendant is brought into court, told of the charges in an indictment or information, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.

Article III judge -A federal judge who is appointed for life, during “good behavior,” under Article III of the Constitution. Article III judges are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate.

Assets -Property of all kinds, including real and personal, tangible and intangible.

Assume -An agreement to continue performing duties under a contract or lease.

Automatic stay-An injunction that automatically stops lawsuits, foreclosures, garnishments, and most collection activities against the debtor the moment a bankruptcy petition is filed.

B

Bail
The release, prior to trial, of a person accused of a crime, under specified conditions designed to assure that person’s appearance in court when required. Also can refer to the amount of bond money posted as a financial condition of pretrial release.

Bankruptcy
A legal procedure for dealing with debt problems of individuals and businesses; specifically, a case filed under one of the chapters of title 11 of the United States Code (the Bankruptcy Code).

Bankruptcy administrator
An officer of the Judiciary serving in the judicial districts of Alabama and North Carolina who, like the United States trustee, is responsible for supervising the administration of bankruptcy cases, estates, and trustees; monitoring plans and disclosure statements; monitoring creditors’ committees; monitoring fee applications; and performing other statutory duties.

Bankruptcy code
The informal name for title 11 of the United States Code (11 U.S.C. §§ 101-1330), the federal bankruptcy law.

  • Chapter 11-A reorganization bankruptcy, usually involving a corporation or partnership. A Chapter 11 debtor usually proposes a plan of reorganization to keep its business alive and pay creditors over time. Individuals or people in business can also seek relief in Chapter 11.
  • Chapter 12-The chapter of the Bankruptcy Code providing for adjustment of debts of a “family farmer” or “family fisherman,” as the terms are defined in the Bankruptcy Code.
  • Chapter 13-The chapter of the Bankruptcy Code providing for the adjustment of debts of an individual with regular income, often referred to as a “wage-earner” plan. Chapter 13 allows a debtor to keep property and use his or her disposable income to pay debts over time, usually three to five years.
  • Chapter 13 trustee-A person appointed to administer a Chapter 13 case. A Chapter 13 trustee’s responsibilities are similar to those of a Chapter 7 trustee; however, a Chapter 13 trustee has the additional responsibilities of overseeing the debtor’s plan, receiving payments from debtors, and disbursing plan payments to creditors.
  • Chapter 15-The chapter of the Bankruptcy Code dealing with cases of cross-border insolvency.
  • Chapter 7-The chapter of the Bankruptcy Code providing for “liquidation,” that is, the sale of a debtor’s nonexempt property and the distribution of the proceeds to creditors. In order to be eligible for Chapter 7, the debtor must satisfy a “means test.” The court will evaluate the debtor’s income and expenses to determine if the debtor may proceed under Chapter 7.
  • Chapter 7 trustee-A person appointed in a Chapter 7 case to represent the interests of the bankruptcy estate and the creditors. The trustee’s responsibilities include reviewing the debtor’s petition and schedules, liquidating the property of the estate, and making distributions to creditors. The trustee may also bring actions against creditors or the debtor to recover property of the bankruptcy estate.
  • Chapter 9-The chapter of the Bankruptcy Code providing for reorganization of municipalities (which includes cities and towns, as well as villages, counties, taxing districts, municipal utilities, and school districts).

Bankruptcy court
The bankruptcy judges in regular active service in each district; a unit of the district court.

Bankruptcy estate
All interests of the debtor in property at the time of the bankruptcy filing. The estate technically becomes the temporary legal owner of all of the debtor’s property.

Bankruptcy judge
A judicial officer of the United States district court who is the court official with decision-making power over federal bankruptcy cases.

Bankruptcy petition
A formal request for the protection of the federal bankruptcy laws. (There is an official form for bankruptcy petitions.)

Bankruptcy trustee
A private individual or corporation appointed in all Chapter 7 and Chapter 13 cases to represent the interests of the bankruptcy estate and the debtor’s creditors.

Bench trial
A trial without a jury, in which the judge serves as the fact-finder.

Brief
A written statement submitted in a trial or appellate proceeding that explains one side’s legal and factual arguments.

Burden of proof
The duty to prove disputed facts. In civil cases, a plaintiff generally has the burden of proving his or her case. In criminal cases, the government has the burden of proving the defendant’s guilt. (See standard of proof.)

Business bankruptcy
A bankruptcy case in which the debtor is a business or an individual involved in business and the debts are for business purposes.

C

Capital offense-A crime punishable by death sentence.

Case file-A complete collection of every document filed in court in a case.

Case law-The law as established in previous court decisions. A synonym for legal precedent. Similar to common law, which springs from tradition and judicial decisions.

Caseload-The number of cases handled by a judge or a court.

Cause of action-A legal claim or a bundle of facts which became the basis of the complaint

Chambers-The offices of a judge and his or her staff.

Chief judge-The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court; chief judges are determined by seniority

Claim-A creditor’s assertion of a right to payment from a debtor or the debtor’s property.

Class action suit-A lawsuit in which one or more members of a large group, or class, of individuals or other entities sue on behalf of the entire class. The district court must find that the claims of the class members contain questions of law or fact in common before the lawsuit can proceed as a class action.

Clerk of court-The court officer who oversees administrative functions, especially managing the flow of cases through the court. The clerk’s office is often called a court’s central nervous system.

Collateral-Property that is promised as security for the satisfaction of a debt.

Common law-The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States, which relies on the articulation of legal principles in a historical succession of judicial decisions. Common law principles can be changed by legislation.

Community service-A special condition the court imposes that requires an individual to work – without pay – for a civic or nonprofit organization.

Complaint-A written statement that begins a civil lawsuit, in which the plaintiff details the claims against the defendant.

Concurrent sentence-Prison terms for two or more offenses to be served at the same time, rather than one after the other. Example: Two five-year sentences and one three-year sentence, if served concurrently, result in a maximum of five years behind bars.

Confirmation-Approval of a plan of reorganization by a bankruptcy judge.

Consecutive sentence-Prison terms for two or more offenses to be served one after the other. Example: Two five-year sentences and one three-year sentence, if served consecutively, result in a maximum of 13 years behind bars.

Consumer bankruptcy-A bankruptcy case filed to reduce or eliminate debts that are primarily consumer debts.

Consumer debts-Debts incurred for personal, as opposed to business, needs.

Contingent claim-A claim that may be owed by the debtor under certain circumstances, e.g., where the debtor is a cosigner on another person’s loan and that person fails to pay.

Contract-An agreement between two or more people that creates a legal obligation to do or not to do a particular thing.

Conviction-A judgment of guilt against a criminal defendant.

Counsel-Legal advice; a term also used to refer to the lawyers in a case.

Count-An allegation in an indictment or information, charging a defendant with a crime. An indictment or information may contain allegations that the defendant committed more than one crime. Each allegation is referred to as a count.

Court-Government entity authorized to resolve legal disputes. Judges sometimes use “court” to refer to themselves in the third person, as in “the court has read the briefs.”

Court reporter- person who makes a word-for-word record of what is said in court, generally by using a stenographic machine, shorthand or audio recording, and then produces a transcript of the proceedings upon request.

Credit counseling-It refers to two events in individual bankruptcy cases: (1) the “individual or group briefing” from a nonprofit budget and credit counseling agency that individual debtors must attend prior to filing under any chapter of the Bankruptcy Code; and (2) the “instructional course in personal financial management” in chapters 7 and 13 that an individual debtor must complete before a discharge is entered. There are exceptions to both requirements for certain categories of debtors, exigent circumstances, or if the U.S. trustee or bankruptcy administrator have determined that there are insufficient approved credit counseling agencies available to provide the necessary counseling.

Creditor-A person to whom or business to which the debtor owes money or that claims to be owed money by the debtor.

Go to top

D

Damages-Money that a defendant pays a plaintiff in a civil case if the plaintiff has won. Damages may be compensatory (for loss or injury) or punitive (to punish and deter future misconduct).

De facto-Latin, meaning “in fact” or “actually.” Something that exists in fact but not as a matter of law.

De jure-Latin, meaning “in law.” Something that exists by operation of law.

De novo-Latin, meaning “anew.” A trial de novo is a completely new trial. Appellate review de novo implies no deference to the trial judge’s ruling.

Debtor-A person who has filed a petition for relief under the Bankruptcy Code.

Debtor’s plan-A debtor’s detailed description of how the debtor proposes to pay creditors’ claims over a fixed period of time.

Declaratory judgment-A judge’s statement about someone’s rights. For example, a plaintiff may seek a declaratory judgment that a particular statute, as written, violates some constitutional right.

Default judgment-A judgment awarding a plaintiff the relief sought in the complaint because the defendant has failed to appear in court or otherwise respond to the complaint.

Defendant-In a civil case, the person or organization against whom the plaintiff brings suit; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.

Deposition-An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial. See discovery.

Discharge-A release of a debtor from personal liability for certain dischargeable debts. Notable exceptions to dischargeability are taxes and student loans. A discharge releases a debtor from personal liability for certain debts known as dischargeable debts and prevents the creditors owed those debts from taking any action against the debtor or the debtor’s property to collect the debts. The discharge also prohibits creditors from communicating with the debtor regarding the debt, including through telephone calls, letters, and personal contact.

Dischargeable debt-A debt for which the Bankruptcy Code allows the debtor’s personal liability to be eliminated.

Disclosure statement-A written document prepared by the chapter 11 debtor or other plan proponent that is designed to provide “adequate information” to creditors to enable them to evaluate the chapter 11 plan of reorganization.

Discovery-Procedures used to obtain disclosure of evidence before trial.

Dismissal with prejudice-Court action that prevents an identical lawsuit from being filed later.

Dismissal without prejudice-Court action that allows the later filing.

Disposable income-Income not reasonably necessary for the maintenance or support of the debtor or dependents. If the debtor operates a business, disposable income is defined as those amounts over and above what is necessary for the payment of ordinary operating expenses.

Docket-A log containing the complete history of each case in the form of brief chronological entries summarizing the court proceedings.

Due process-In criminal law, the constitutional guarantee that a defendant will receive a fair and impartial trial. In civil law, the legal rights of someone who confronts an adverse action threatening liberty or property.

E

En banc -French, meaning “on the bench.” All judges of an appellate court sitting together to hear a case, as opposed to the routine disposition by panels of three judges. In the Ninth Circuit, an en banc panel consists of 11 randomly selected judges.

Equitable-Pertaining to civil suits in “equity” rather than in “law.” In English legal history, the courts of “law” could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy (see damages). A separate court of “equity” could order someone to do something or to cease to do something (e.g., injunction). In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in “law” cases but not in “equity” cases.

Equity-The value of a debtor’s interest in property that remains after liens and other creditors’ interests are considered. (Example: If a house valued at $60,000 is subject to a $30,000 mortgage, there is $30,000 of equity.)

Evidence- An Information or fact presented in oral testimony or in written documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case in favor of one side or the other.

Ex parte-A proceeding brought before a court by one party only, without notice to or challenge by the other side.

Exclusionary rule-Doctrine that says evidence obtained in violation of a criminal defendant’s constitutional or statutory rights is not admissible at trial.

Exculpatory evidence-Evidence indicating that a defendant did not commit the crime.

  • Inculpatory evidence-Evidence indicating that a defendant did commit the crime.

Executory contracts-Contracts or leases under which both parties to the agreement have duties remaining to be performed. If a contract or lease is executory, a debtor may assume it (keep the contract) or reject it (terminate the contract).

Exempt assets-Property that a debtor is allowed to retain, free from the claims of creditors who do not have liens on the property.

Exemptions or exempt property-Certain property owned by an individual debtor that the Bankruptcy Code or applicable state law permits the debtor to keep from unsecured creditors. For example, in some states the debtor may be able to exempt all or a portion of the equity in the debtor’s primary residence (homestead exemption), or some or all “tools of the trade” used by the debtor to make a living (i.e., auto tools for an auto mechanic or dental tools for a dentist). The availability and amount of property the debtor may exempt depends on the state the debtor lives in.

F

Face sheet filing-A bankruptcy case filed either without schedules or with incomplete schedules listing few creditors and debts. (Face sheet filings are often made for the purpose of delaying an eviction or foreclosure

Family farmer-An individual, individual and spouse, corporation, or partnership engaged in a farming operation that meets certain debt limits and other statutory criteria for filing a petition under Chapter 12.

Federal public defender-An attorney employed by the federal courts on a full-time basis to provide legal defense to defendants who are unable to afford counsel. The judiciary administers the federal defender program pursuant to the Criminal Justice Act.

Federal public defender organization-As provided for in the Criminal Justice Act, an organization established within a federal judicial circuit to represent criminal defendants who cannot afford an adequate defense. Each organization is supervised by a federal public defender appointed by the court of appeals for the circuit.

Federal question jurisdiction-Jurisdiction given to federal courts in cases involving the interpretation and application of the U.S. Constitution, acts of Congress, and treaties.

Felony-A serious crime, usually punishable by at least one year in prison.

File-To place a paper in the official custody of the clerk of court to enter into the files or records of a case.

Fraudulent transfer-A transfer of a debtor’s property made with intent to defraud or for which the debtor receives less than the transferred property’s value.

Fresh start-The characterization of a debtor’s status after bankruptcy, i.e., free of most debts. (Giving debtors a fresh start is one purpose of the Bankruptcy Code.)

G

Grand jury-A body of 16-23 citizens who listen to evidence of criminal allegations, which is presented by the prosecutors, and determine whether there is probable cause to believe an individual committed an offense.

H

Habeas corpus -Latin, meaning “you have the body.” A writ of habeas corpus generally is a judicial order forcing law enforcement authorities to produce a prisoner they are holding, and to justify the prisoner’s continued confinement. Federal judges receive petitions for a writ of habeas corpus from state prison inmates who say their state prosecutions violated federally protected rights in some way.

Hearsay-Evidence presented by a witness who did not see or hear the incident in question but heard about it from someone else. With some exceptions, hearsay generally is not admissible as evidence at trial

Home confinement-A special condition the court imposes that requires an individual to remain at home except for certain approved activities such as work and medical appointments. Home confinement may include the use of electronic monitoring equipment – a transmitter attached to the wrist or the ankle – to help ensure that the person stays at home as required.

Go to top

I

Impeachment-1. The process of calling a witness’s testimony into doubt. For example, if the attorney can show that the witness may have fabricated portions of his testimony, the witness is said to be “impeached;” 2. The constitutional process whereby the House of Representatives may “impeach” (accuse of misconduct) high officers of the federal government, who are then tried by the Senate.

In camera -Latin, meaning in a judge’s chambers. Often means outside the presence of a jury and the public. In private.

In forma pauperis -“In the manner of a pauper.” Permission given by the court to a person to file a case without payment of the required court fees because the person cannot pay them.

Indictment-The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies. See also information.

Information- formal accusation by a government attorney that the defendant committed a misdemeanor.

Injunction-A court order preventing one or more named parties from taking some action. A preliminary injunction often is issued to allow fact-finding, so a judge can determine whether a permanent injunction is justified.

Insider (of corporate debtor)-A director, officer, or person in control of the debtor; a partnership in which the debtor is a general partner; a general partner of the debtor; or a relative of a general partner, director, officer, or person in control of the debtor.

Insider (of individual debtor)-Any relative of the debtor or of a general partner of the debtor; partnership inwhich the debtor is a general partner; general partner of the debtor; or corporation of which the debtor is a director, officer, or person in control.

Interrogatories-A form of discovery consisting of written questions to be answered in writing and under oath.

Issue-1. The disputed point between parties in a lawsuit; 2. To send out officially, as in a court issuing an order.

J

Joint administration-A court-approved mechanism under which two or more cases can be administered together. (Assuming no conflicts of interest, these separate businesses or individuals can pool their resources, hire the same professionals, etc.)

Joint petition-One bankruptcy petition filed by a husband and wife together.

Judge-An official of the Judicial branch with authority to decide lawsuits brought before courts. Used generically, the term judge may also refer to all judicial officers, including Supreme Court justices.

Judgeship-The position of judge. By statute, Congress authorizes the number of judgeships for each district and appellate court.

Judgment-The official decision of a court finally resolving the dispute between the parties to the lawsuit.

Judicial Conference of the United States-The policy-making entity for the federal court system. A 27-judge body whose presiding officer is the Chief Justice of the United States.

Jurisdiction-The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a certain type of case. It also is used as a synonym for venue, meaning the geographic area over which the court has territorial jurisdiction to decide cases.

Jurisprudence-The study of law and the structure of the legal system

Jury-The group of persons selected to hear the evidence in a trial and render a verdict on matters of fact. See also grand jury.

Jury instructions-A judge’s directions to the jury before it begins deliberations regarding the factual questions it must answer and the legal rules that it must apply.

L

Lawsuit-A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty which resulted in harm to the plaintiff.

Lien-A charge on specific property that is designed to secure payment of a debt or performance of an obligation. A debtor may still be responsible for a lien after a discharge.

Liquidated claim-A creditor’s claim for a fixed amount of money.

Liquidation-The sale of a debtor’s property with the proceeds to be used for the benefit of creditors.

Litigation-A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.

M

Magistrate judge-A judicial officer of a district court who conducts initial proceedings in criminal cases, decides criminal misdemeanor cases, conducts many pretrial civil and criminal matters on behalf of district judges, and decides civil cases with the consent of the parties.

Means test-Section 707(b)(2) of the Bankruptcy Code applies a “means test” to determine whether an individual debtor’s chapter 7 filing is presumed to be an abuse of the Bankruptcy Code requiring dismissal or conversion of the case (generally to chapter 13). Abuse is presumed if the debtor’s aggregate current monthly income (see definition above) over 5 years, net of certain statutorily allowed expenses is more than (i) $10,000, or (ii) 25% of the debtor’s nonpriority unsecured debt, as long as that amount is at least $6,000. The debtor may rebut a presumption of abuse only by a showing of special circumstances that justify additional expenses or adjustments of current monthly income.

Mental health treatment-Special condition the court imposes to require an individual to undergo evaluation and treatment for a mental disorder. Treatment may include psychiatric, psychological, and sex offense-specific evaluations, inpatient or outpatient counseling, and medication.

Misdemeanor- An offense punishable by one year of imprisonment or less. It is also called felony.

Mistrial-An invalid trial, caused by fundamental error. When a mistrial is declared, the trial must start again with the selection of a new jury.

Moot-Not subject to a court ruling because the controversy has not actually arisen, or has ended

Motion-A request by a litigant to a judge for a decision on an issue relating to the case.

Motion in Limine-A pretrial motion requesting the court to prohibit the other side from presenting, or even referring to, evidence on matters said to be so highly prejudicial that no steps taken by the judge can prevent the jury from being unduly influenced.

Motion to lift the automatic stay-A request by a creditor to allow the creditor to take action against the debtor or the debtor’s property that would otherwise be prohibited by the automatic stay.

N

No-asset case-A Chapter 7 case in which there are no assets available to satisfy any portion of the creditors’ unsecured claims.

Nolo contendere-No contest. A plea of nolo contendere has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.

Nondischargeable debt-A debt that cannot be eliminated in bankruptcy. Examples include a home mortgage, debts for alimony or child support, certain taxes, debts for most government funded or guaranteed educational loans or benefit overpayments, debts arising from death or personal injury caused by driving while intoxicated or under the influence of drugs, and debts for restitution or a criminal fine included in a sentence on the debtor’s conviction of a crime. Some debts, such as debts for money or property obtained by false pretenses and debts for fraud or defalcation while acting in a fiduciary capacity may be declared nondischargeable only if a creditor timely files and prevails in a nondischargeability action.

Nonexempt assets-Property of a debtor that can be liquidated to satisfy claims of creditors.

O

Objection to dischargeability -A trustee’s or creditor’s objection to the debtor being released from personal liability for certain dischargeable debts. Common reasons include allegations that the debt to be discharged was incurred by false pretenses or that debt arose because of the debtor’s fraud while acting as a fiduciary.

Objection to exemptions-A trustee’s or creditor’s objection to the debtor’s attempt to claim certain property as exempt from liquidation by the trustee to creditors.

Opinion-A judge’s written explanation of the decision of the court. Because a case may be heard by three or more judges in the court of appeals, the opinion in appellate decisions can take several forms. If all the judges completely agree on the result, one judge will write the opinion for all. If all the judges do not agree, the formal decision will be based upon the view of the majority, and one member of the majority will write the opinion. The judges who did not agree with the majority may write separately in dissenting or concurring opinions to present their views. A dissenting opinion disagrees with the majority opinion because of the reasoning and/or the principles of law the majority used to decide the case. A concurring opinion agrees with the decision of the majority opinion, but offers further comment or clarification or even an entirely different reason for reaching the same result. Only the majority opinion can serve as binding precedent in future cases. See also precedent.

Oral argument-An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges’ questions.

Go to top

P

Panel-1. In appellate cases, a group of judges (usually three) assigned to decide the case; 2. In the jury selection process, the group of potential jurors; 3. The list of attorneys who are both available and qualified to serve as court-appointed counsel for criminal defendants who cannot afford their own counsel.

Parole-The release of a prison inmate – granted by the U.S. Parole Commission – after the inmate has completed part of his or her sentence in a federal prison. When the parolee is released to the community, he or she is placed under the supervision of a U.S. probation officer.

The Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 abolished parole in favor of a determinate sentencing system in which the sentence is set by sentencing guidelines. Now, without the option of parole, the term of imprisonment the court imposes is the actual time the person spends in prison.

Party in interest-A party who has standing to be heard by the court in a matter to be decided in the bankruptcy case. The debtor, U.S. trustee or bankruptcy administrator, case trustee, and creditors are parties in interest for most matters.

Per curiam-Latin, meaning “for the court.” In appellate courts, often refers to an unsigned opinion.

Peremptory challenge-A district court may grant each side in a civil or criminal trial the right to exclude a certain number of prospective jurors without cause or giving a reason.

Petit jury (or trial jury)-A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented by both sides at trial and determine the facts in dispute. Federal criminal juries consist of 12 persons. Federal civil juries consist of at least six persons.

Petition-The document that initiates the filing of a bankruptcy proceeding, setting forth basic information regarding the debtor, including name, address, chapter under which the case is filed, and estimated amount of assets and liabilities.

Petition preparer-A business not authorized to practice law that prepares bankruptcy petitions.

Petty offense-A federal misdemeanor punishable by six months or less in prison.

Plaintiff-A person or business that files a formal complaint with the court.

Plan-A debtor’s detailed description of how the debtor proposes to pay creditors’ claims over a fixed period of time.

Plea-In a criminal case, the defendant’s statement pleading “guilty” or “not guilty” in answer to the charges. See also nolo contendere.

Pleadings-Written statements filed with the court that describe a party’s legal or factual assertions about the case.

Postpetition transfer-A transfer of the debtor’s property made after the commencement of the case.

Prebankruptcy planning-The arrangement (or rearrangement) of a debtor’s property to allow the debtor to take maximum advantage of exemptions. (Prebankruptcy planning typically includes converting nonexempt assets into exempt assets.)

Precedent-A court decision in an earlier case with facts and legal issues similar to a dispute currently before a court. Judges will generally “follow precedent” – meaning that they use the principles established in earlier cases to decide new cases that have similar facts and raise similar legal issues. A judge will disregard precedent if a party can show that the earlier case was wrongly decided, or that it differed in some significant way from the current case.

Preferential debt payment-A debt payment made to a creditor in the 90-day period before a debtor files bankruptcy (or within one year if the creditor was an insider) that gives the creditor more than the creditor would receive in the debtor’s chapter 7 case.

Presentence report-A report prepared by a court’s probation officer, after a person has been convicted of an offense, summarizing for the court the background information needed to determine the appropriate sentence.

Pretrial conference-A meeting of the judge and lawyers to plan the trial, to discuss which matters should be presented to the jury, to review proposed evidence and witnesses, and to set a trial schedule. Typically, the judge and the parties also discuss the possibility of settlement of the case.

Pretrial services-A function of the federal courts that takes place at the very start of the criminal justice process – after a person has been arrested and charged with a federal crime and before he or she goes to trial. Pretrial services officers focus on investigating the backgrounds of these persons to help the court determine whether to release or detain them while they await trial. The decision is based on whether these individuals are likely to flee or pose a threat to the community. If the court orders release, a pretrial services officer supervises the person in the community until he or she returns to court.

Priority-The Bankruptcy Code’s statutory ranking of unsecured claims that determines the order in which unsecured claims will be paid if there is not enough money to pay all unsecured claims in full.

Priority claim-An unsecured claim that is entitled to be paid ahead of other unsecured claims that are not entitled to priority status. Priority refers to the order in which these unsecured claims are to be paid.

Pro per-A slang expression sometimes used to refer to a pro se litigant. It is a corruption of the Latin phrase “in propria persona.”

Pro se-Representing oneself. Serving as one’s own lawyer.

Pro tem-Temporary. Example – Pro tem speaker .

Probation -Sentencing option in the federal courts. With probation, instead of sending an individual to prison, the court releases the person to the community and orders him or her to complete a period of supervision monitored by a U.S. probation officer and to abide by certain conditions.

Probation officer -Officers of the probation office of a court. Probation officer duties include conducting presentence investigations, preparing presentence reports on convicted defendants, and supervising released defendants.

Procedure-The rules for conducting a lawsuit; there are rules of civil procedure, criminal procedure, evidence, bankruptcy, and appellate procedure.

Proof of claim-A written statement describing the reason a debtor owes a creditor money, which typically sets forth the amount of money owed. (There is an official form for this purpose.)

Property of the estate-All legal or equitable interests of the debtor in property as of the commencement of the case.

Prosecute-To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government

R

Reaffirmation agreement-An agreement by a debtor to continue paying a dischargeable debt after the bankruptcy, usually for the purpose of keeping collateral or mortgaged property that would otherwise be subject to repossession.

Record-A written account of the proceedings in a case, including all pleadings, evidence, and exhibits submitted in the course of the case.

Redemption-A procedure in a Chapter 7 case whereby a debtor removes a secured creditor’s lien on collateral by paying the creditor the value of the property. The debtor may then retain the property.

Remand-Send back. Remanding back a case

Reverse-The act of a court setting aside the decision of a lower court. A reversal is often accompanied by a remand to the lower court for further proceedings.

S

Sanction-A penalty or other type of enforcement used to bring about compliance with the law or with rules and regulations.

Schedules-Lists submitted by the debtor along with the petition (or shortly thereafter) showing the debtor’s assets, liabilities, and other financial information. (There are official forms a debtor must use.)

Secured creditor-A secured creditor is an individual or business that holds a claim against the debtor that is secured by a lien on property of the estate. The property subject to the lien is the secured creditor’s collateral.

Secured debt-Debt backed by a mortgage, pledge of collateral, or other lien; debt for which the creditor has the right to pursue specific pledged property upon default. Examples include home mortgages, auto loans and tax liens.

Senior judge-A federal judge who, after attaining the requisite age and length of judicial experience, takes senior status, thus creating a vacancy among a court’s active judges. A senior judge retains the judicial office and may cut back his or her workload by as much as 75 percent, but many opt to keep a larger caseload.

Sentence-The punishment ordered by a court for a defendant convicted of a crime.

Sentencing guidelines-A set of rules and principles established by the United States Sentencing Commission that trial judges use to determine the sentence for a convicted defendant.

Sequester-To separate. Sometimes juries are sequestered from outside influences during their deliberations.

Service of process-The delivery of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.

Settlement-Parties to a lawsuit resolve their dispute without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in at least partial satisfaction of the other party’s claims, but usually do not include the admission of fault.

Small business case-A special type of chapter 11 case in which there is no creditors’ committee (or the creditors’ committee is deemed inactive by the court) and in which the debtor is subject to more oversight by the U.S. trustee than other chapter 11 debtors. The Bankruptcy Code contains certain provisions designed to reduce the time a small business debtor is in bankruptcy.

Standard of proof-Degree of proof required. In criminal cases, prosecutors must prove a defendant’s guilt “beyond a reasonable doubt.” The majority of civil lawsuits require proof “by a preponderance of the evidence” (50 percent plus), but in some the standard is higher and requires “clear and convincing” proof.

Statement of financial affairs-A series of questions the debtor must answer in writing concerning sources of income, transfers of property, lawsuits by creditors, etc. (There is an official form a debtor must use.)

Statement of intention-A declaration made by a chapter 7 debtor concerning plans for dealing with consumer debts that are secured by property of the estate.

Statute-A law passed by a legislature.

Statute of limitations-The time within which a lawsuit must be filed or a criminal prosecution begun. The deadline can vary, depending on the type of civil case or the crime charged.

Sua sponte-Latin, meaning “of its own will.” Often refers to a court taking an action in a case without being asked to do so by either side.

Subordination-The act or process by which a person’s rights or claims are ranked below those of others.

Subpoena-A command, issued under a court’s authority, to a witness to appear and give testimony.

Subpoena duces tecum-A command to a witness to appear and produce documents.

T

Temporary restraining order-Similar to a preliminary injunction, it is a judge’s short-term order forbidding certain actions until a full hearing can be conducted. Often referred to as a TRO.

Testimony-Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.

Toll-See statute of limitations.

Tort-A civil, not criminal, wrong. A negligent or intentional injury against a person or property, with the exception of breach of contract.

Transcript-A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial, or during some other formal conversation, such as a hearing or oral deposition

Transfer-Any mode or means by which a debtor disposes of or parts with his/her property.

Trustee-The representative of the bankruptcy estate who exercises statutory powers, principally for the benefit of the unsecured creditors, under the general supervision of the court and the direct supervision of the U.S. trustee or bankruptcy administrator. The trustee is a private individual or corporation appointed in all chapter 7, chapter 12, and chapter 13 cases and some chapter 11 cases. The trustee’s responsibilities include reviewing the debtor’s petition and schedules and bringing actions against creditors or the debtor to recover property of the bankruptcy estate. In chapter 7, the trustee liquidates property of the estate, and makes distributions to creditors. Trustees in chapter 12 and 13 have similar duties to a chapter 7 trustee and the additional responsibilities of overseeing the debtor’s plan, receiving payments from debtors, and disbursing plan payments to creditors.

Typing service-A business not authorized to practice law that prepares bankruptcy petitions.

U

U.S. attorney-A lawyer appointed by the President in each judicial district to prosecute and defend cases for the federal government. The U.S. Attorney employs a staff of Assistant U.S. Attorneys who appear as the government’s attorneys in individual cases.

U.S. trustee-An officer of the U.S. Department of Justice responsible for supervising the administration of bankruptcy cases, estates, and trustees; monitoring plans and disclosure statements; monitoring creditors’ committees; monitoring fee applications; and performing other statutory duties.

Undersecured claim-A debt secured by property that is worth less than the amount of the debt.

Undue hardship-The most widely used test for evaluating undue hardship in the dischargeability of a student loan includes three conditions: (1) the debtor cannot maintain – based on current income and expenses – a minimal standard of living if forced to repay the loans; (2) there are indications that the state of affairs is likely to persist for a significant portion of the repayment period; and (3) the debtor made good faith efforts to repay the loans.

Unlawful detainer action-A lawsuit brought by a landlord against a tenant to evict the tenant from rental property – usually for nonpayment of rent.

Unliquidated claim-A claim for which a specific value has not been determined.

Unscheduled debt-A debt that should have been listed by the debtor in the schedules filed with the court but was not. (Depending on the circumstances, an unscheduled debt may or may not be discharged.)

Unsecured claim-A claim or debt for which a creditor holds no special assurance of payment, such as a mortgage or lien; a debt for which credit was extended based solely upon the creditor’s assessment of the debtor’s future ability to pay.

Uphold-The appellate court agrees with the lower court decision and allows it to stand. See affirmed.

V

Venue-The geographic area in which a court has jurisdiction. A change of venue is a change or transfer of a case from one judicial district to another.

Verdict-The decision of a trial jury or a judge that determines the guilt or innocence of a criminal defendant, or that determines the final outcome of a civil case.

Voir dire-Jury selection process of questioning prospective jurors, to ascertain their qualifications and determine any basis for challenge.

Voluntary transfer-A transfer of a debtor’s property with the debtor’s consent.

W

Wage garnishment-A nonbankruptcy legal proceeding whereby a plaintiff or creditor seeks to subject to his or her claim the future wages of a debtor. In other words, the creditor seeks to have part of the debtor’s future wages paid to the creditor for a debt owed to the creditor.

Warrant-Court authorization, most often for law enforcement officers, to conduct a search or make an arrest.

Witness-A person called upon by either side in a lawsuit to give testimony before the court or jury.

Writ-A written court order directing a person to take, or refrain from taking, a certain act.

Writ of certiorari-An order issued by the U.S. Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case which it will hear on appeal.

Go to top


 

The knowledge of all Subjects and Categories

What we shall know at the first instant :

In the healthy condition of man, the spiritual vital force (autocracy), the dynamis that animates the material body (organism), rules with unbounded sway, and retains all the parts of the organism in admirable, harmonious, vital operation, as regards both sensations and functions, so that our indwelling, reason-gifted mind can freely employ this living, healthy instrument for the higher purpose of our existence.

When a person falls ill, it is only this spiritual, self-acting (automatic) vital force, everywhere present in his organism, that is primarily deranged by the dynamic influence upon it of a morbific agent inimical to life; it is only the vital force, deranged to such an abnormal state, that can furnish the organism with its disagreeable sensations, and incline it to the irregular processes which we call disease; for, as a power invisible in itself, and only cognizable by its effects on the organism, its morbid derangement only makes itself known by the manifestation of disease in the sensations and functions of those parts of the organism exposed to the senses of the observer and physician, that is, by morbid symptoms, and in no other way can it make itself known.[Dr.Samuel Hahnemann ORGANON OF MEDICINE]

Knowledge and human power are synonymous, since the ignorance of the cause frustrates the effect; for nature is only subdued by submission, and that which in contemplative philosophy corresponds with the cause in practical science becomes the rule. [Sir Francis Bacon, Novum Organum – 1620 ]

The 64 Arts Of The Kama Sutra are:-

1. Singing-Indian-Western
2. Playing a musical instrument
3. Dancing
4.  A combination of singing, using musical instruments and dancing
5. Writing and drawing
6.The Art of Tattooing
7. Adorning an idol with flowers
8. The art of spreading flowers on a bed or on the ground
9. Coloring fabrics, nail and body with colors from plants
10. Fixing colored glass tiles on floor
11.The art of making a bed
12.Producing music by striking glasses of water
13. The art of storing water in reservoirs
14. The art of picture making and decorating
15. Making rosaries, necklaces, garlands
16. Tying turbans
17. Stage playing
18. The art of making ear ornaments
19. The art of making perfumes
20. Proper care of jewels, decorations and ornaments
21. Magic (sorcery)
22. Manual skills
23. Cooking (culinary skills)
24. Making combination drinks and flavored drinks i.e.– lemonades, sherbet etc
25. Tailoring and sewing
26. Making handicrafts e.g.– parrots, flowers etc. from thread
27. Skilsl to solve riddles, puzzles and covert speeches
28. The skill of Antakshari (a singing game were one must start with the letter with which other person’s song ended)
29. The skill of imitating natural sounds
30. Reading, chanting and intoning
31. Mastering tongue twisters
32. Skills at martial arts (the skills to use sword, stick, bow and arrow)
33. Skill to reach logical conclusions based on given facts
34. Carpentry
35. Architecture
36. Knowledge about gold, silver and gems
37. Chemistry (knowledge of properties of materials)
38. The art of coloring jewels or beads
39. Knowledge of mines
40. Gardening
41.The art of cock fighting (getting cocks, quail or rams to fight and make the fowl/animal victorious)
42.Teaching parrots or starlings to talk
43.Applying perfumes on body and hair
44. Understanding of code language
45. Spoonerism (purposefully interchanging position of letters of words while speaking)
46. Knowledge of languages
47. Knowledge of making flower chariots
48. Knowledge of making mystical graphics, spells and charms and ways to avoid spells
49.Mental exercises
50. Composing poems
51. Knowledge of dictionaries and vocabulary
52. The art of impersonation
53. Impersonation of materials i.e.– make common things appear fine rare substances (make cotton appear to be silk)
54. Knowledge of gambling
55. Using mantras (enchantments) to take away others’ possession
56.Skills in sports and games
57.The art of social conduct, paying respect and sending compliments
58. Knowledge of war, arms and army deployment
59. Knowledge of gymnastics
60. The skills of knowing a person’s real character from his conduct
61. The skill of reading and composing verses
62. The skills of enjoying arithmetic puzzles
63. Making artificial flowers
64. Making images with clay

 BULLET 2 Domains of  General knowledge
  1. Art
  2. Biology
  3. Culture
  4. Communication Skill
  5. Cookery
  6. Discovery and exploration
  7. Fashion
  8. Film
  9. Finance
  10. Games
  11. General science
  12. Geography
  13. History
  14. History of science
  15. Law
  16. Literature
  17. Mathematics
  18. Medicin
  19. Music
  20. Politics
  21. Sport
  22. Technology
  23. Television
Aristotle classified knowledge in three different types :
  1. Episteme (Scientific Knoledge),
  2. Techné (Skill and crafts) and
  3. Phronesis (Wisdom).

Whereas episteme concerns theoretical know why and techné denotes technical know how, phronesis emphasizes practical knowledge and practical ethics.

The branches of knowledge as per KOUTILYA-CHANAKYA in ARTHA SASTRA

Branches of knowledge are:

  1. Logical analysis [ANVIKSIKI]
  2. The Vedas[ TRAYEEE]- three types of communication Poetrical – prose narrative -musical
  3. Business [BARTA]
  4. Political science[DANDANITI]

gāndharvaṃ nṛttam ālekhyaṃ vādyaṃ ca gaṇitaṃ kalāḥ ।

arthaśāstraṃ dhanurvedaṃ yatnād rakṣen mahīpatiḥ ॥ cāṇakya-rājanīti 75

Music, dance, painting, discourse, mathematics, technologies, economics and military science, a king should painstakingly protect.

KNOW THYSELF APPROACH OF KNOWLEDGE

Acting-dramatics
Anger-arrogance
Assessments
Awareness situational
Body Image
Body Language
Boredom

Brain Controlling
Clothes – Makeup
Complaining
Confidence
Death consciousness
Depression

Ego
Emotions
Ethics-good standing
Exposure to Violence
Fear
Focus
Forgiveness
Goals
Grieving
Happiness
Heredity
Human Nature
Identity self
Life Quotes
Lying and art of concealing
Meditation
Mental Health
Morality
Observations
Over Reacting

Patience
People Smart
Personality
Physical Health
Positive Thinking
Reality
Relationships
Routines

Sanity
Self Control
Self Discipline
Self Smart
Social Intelligence
Spirituality
Stress
Suicidal tendencies

Therapy
Traits
Trauma
Will Power
Worry

Devider

Connected:

Law Library Subjective Category

Meaning of “Notwithstanding anything contained in the Act.”

 What is meant by use of the expression “Notwithstanding anything contained in the Act” as contradiction to the phrase “Subject to the provisions of this Act” reliance has been placed on the judgement of the Supreme Court in Chandavarkar Sita Ratna Rao Vs. Ashalata S. Guram AIR 1987 SC 117 = (1986) 4 SCC Continue reading