Blockchain and Capital Market

Cyber Crime,Cyber Security,Cyber Law

What is blockchain technology?

‘Blockchain’ is the algorithm behind bitcoin that allows it to be traded without a centralised ledger. In basic terms, it is an electronic ledger of digital events – one that’s ‘distributed’ or shared between many different parties. And it maintains a continuously
growing list of data records.

It has three key features:

First, it is a vehicle for transferring value and holding records – each transaction or record is evidenced by a unique data set or ‘block’ that attaches to the continuously growing blockchain.

Second, it does not involve a central authority or third-party intermediary overseeing it or deciding what goes into it. The computers that store the blockchain are decentralised and are not controlled or owned by any single entity.

Third, every block in the ledger is connected to the prior one in a digital chain algorithm. So the record of every transaction lives on the computers of anyone who has interacted with it, and is updated with each entry. The continual replication and decentralised nature makes it secure.

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XML is a W3C-recommended general-purpose markup language that supports a wide variety of applications.

XML languages or ‘dialects’ may be designed by anyone and may be processed by conforming software. XML is also designed to be reasonably human-legible, and to this end, terseness was not considered essential in its structure. XML is a simplified subset of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). Its primary purpose is to facilitate the sharing of data across different information systems, particularly systems connected via the Internet.

Formally defined languages based on XML (such as RSS, MathML, GraphML, XHTML, Scalable Vector Graphics, MusicXML and thousands of other examples) allow diverse software to reliably understand information formatted and passed in these languages.

Semantic web

Semantic Web is an evolving extension of the World Wide Web in which web content can be expressed not only in natural language, but also in a form that can be understood, interpreted and used by software agents, thus permitting them to find, share and integrate information more easily.

To be remembered that a Web as a universal medium for data, information, and knowledge exchange.

At its core, the Semantic Web comprises a philosophy, a set of design principles, collaborative working groups, and a variety of enabling technologies. Some elements of the Semantic Web are expressed as prospective future possibilities that have yet to be implemented or realized.

Other elements of the Semantic Web are expressed in formal specifications.

Some of these include Resource Description Framework (RDF), a variety of data interchange formats (e.g RDF/XML, N3, Turtle, and notations such as RDF Schema (RDFS) and the Web Ontology Language (OWL). All of which are intended to formally describe concepts, terms, and relationships within a given problem domain.

The Domain Name System (DNS)

The Domain Name System (DNS) helps users to find their way around the Internet.

IP address” (IP stands for “Internet Protocol”

Every computer on the Internet has a unique address – just like a telephone number – which is a rather complicated string of numbers. It is called its “IP address” (IP stands for “Internet Protocol”). IP Addresses are hard to remember. The DNS makes using the Internet easier by allowing a familiar string of letters (the “domain name”) to be used instead of the arcane IP address. So instead of typing, you can type It is a “mnemonic” device that makes addresses easier to remember.

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers [ICANN]

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) was incorporated in California on 30 September 1998 as a nonprofit public benefit corporation.

As Revised November 21, 1998

  1. The name of this corporation is Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (the “Corporation”).
  2. The name of the Corporation’s initial agent for service of process in the State of California, United States of America is C T Corporation System.
  3. This Corporation is a nonprofit public benefit corporation and is not organized for the private gain of any person. It is organized under the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law for charitable and public purposes. The Corporation is organized, and will be operated, exclusively for charitable, educational, and scientific purposes within the meaning of § 501 (c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), or the corresponding provision of any future United States tax code. Any reference in these Articles to the Code shall include the corresponding provisions of any further United States tax code. In furtherance of the foregoing purposes, and in recognition of the fact that the Internet is an international network of networks, owned by no single nation, individual or organization, the Corporation shall, except as limited by Article 5 hereof, pursue the charitable and public purposes of lessening the burdens of government and promoting the global public interest in the operational stability of the Internet by

(i) coordinating the assignment of Internet technical parameters as needed to maintain universal connectivity on the Internet;

(ii) performing and overseeing functions related to the coordination of the Internet Protocol (“IP“) address space;

(iii) performing and overseeing functions related to the coordination of the Internet domain name system (“DNS“), including the development of policies for determining the circumstances under which new top-level domains are added to the DNS root system;

(iv) overseeing operation of the authoritative Internet DNS root server system; and

(v) engaging in any other related lawful activity in furtherance of items (i) through (iv).

  1. The Corporation shall operate for the benefit of the Internet community as a whole, carrying out its activities in conformity with relevant principles of international law and applicable international conventions and local law and, to the extent appropriate and consistent with these Articles and its Bylaws, through open and transparent processes that enable competition and open entry in Internet-related markets. To this effect, the Corporation shall cooperate as appropriate with relevant international organizations.
  • Notwithstanding any other provision (other than Article 8) of these Articles:
  • a. The Corporation shall not carry on any other activities not permitted to be carried on (i) by a corporation exempt from United States income tax under § 501 (c)(3) of the Code or (ii) by a corporation, contributions to which are deductible under § 170 (c)(2) of the Code.

    b. No substantial part of the activities of the Corporation shall be the carrying on of propaganda, or otherwise attempting to influence legislation, and the Corporation shall be empowered to make the election under § 501 (h) of the Code.

    c. The Corporation shall not participate in, or intervene in (including the publishing or distribution of statements) any political campaign on behalf of or in opposition to any candidate for public office.

    d. No part of the net earnings of the Corporation shall inure to the benefit of or be distributable to its members, directors, trustees, officers, or other private persons, except that the Corporation shall be authorized and empowered to pay reasonable compensation for services rendered and to make payments and distributions in furtherance of the purposes set forth in Article 3 hereof.

    e. In no event shall the Corporation be controlled directly or indirectly by one or more “disqualified persons” (as defined in § 4946 of the Code) other than foundation managers and other than one or more organizations described in paragraph (1) or (2) of § 509 (a) of the Code.

    1. To the full extent permitted by the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law or any other applicable laws presently or hereafter in effect, no director of the Corporation shall be personally liable to the Corporation or its members, should the Corporation elect to have members in the future, for or with respect to any acts or omissions in the performance of his or her duties as a director of the Corporation. Any repeal or modification of this Article 6 shall not adversely affect any right or protection of a director of the Corporation existing immediately prior to such repeal or modification.

    2. Upon the dissolution of the Corporation, the Corporation’s assets shall be distributed for one or more of the exempt purposes set forth in Article 3 hereof and, if possible, to a § 501 (c)(3) organization organized and operated exclusively to lessen the burdens of government and promote the global public interest in the operational stability of the Internet, or shall be distributed to a governmental entity for such purposes, or for such other charitable and public purposes that lessen the burdens of government by providing for the operational stability of the Internet. Any assets not so disposed of shall be disposed of by a court of competent jurisdiction of the county in which the principal office of the Corporation is then located, exclusively for such purposes or to such organization or organizations, as such court shall determine, that are organized and operated exclusively for such purposes, unless no such corporation exists, and in such case any assets not disposed of shall be distributed to a § 501(c)(3) corporation chosen by such court.

    3. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in these Articles, if the Corporation determines that it will not be treated as a corporation exempt from federal income tax under § 501(c)(3) of the Code, all references herein to § 501(c)(3) of the Code shall be deemed to refer to § 501(c)(6) of the Code and Article 5(a)(ii), (b), (c) and (e) shall be deemed not to be a part of these Articles.

    4. These Articles may be amended by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the directors of the Corporation. When the Corporation has members, any such amendment must be ratified by a two-thirds (2/3) majority of the members voting on any proposed amendment.

    DNS: What is a

    DNS stands for domain name system

    DNS is an Internet service that translates a domain name into IP addresses.

    This query is performed by a Domain Name Server (DNS server) or servers nearby that have been assigned responsibility for that hostname. You can think of a DNS server as a phone book for the internet.

    A DNS server maintains a directory of domain names and translates them to IPs.

     Example of Common DNS Records

    • A: Indicates the IP address of the domain.
    • AAAA: IPV6 address record.
    • CNAME: Canonical name, used for making a domain alias.
    • NS: Name server, indicates which name server is authoritative for the domain.
    • MX: Mail exchange, a list of mail exchange servers used for the domain.
    • TXT: Administrator record use for domain facts and verifications.
    • SRV: Service, defines the TCP service the domain operates on.
    • PTR: Pointer record, maps an IPv4 address to CNAME.
    • SOA: State of authority, stores information about when domain was updated.


    IP address or hostname


    Kolkata City
    Region: West Bengal (WB) Postal code 700040
    Country India (IN)
    Continent Asia (AS)
    Coordinates 22.5626 (lat) / 88.363 (long)
    Time 2019-10-21 21:19:52 (Asia/Kolkata)


    IP address:
    Provider: Alliance Broadband Services Pvt. Ltd.
    ASN: 23860


    Easy website optimization


    Suppose you want to optimize a site that has been in net for some time, give attention to both on-page and off-page factors.

    Avoid die hard optimization techniques.

    On-page factors are those that are part of the content or properties of a page. The author of the page can directly influence these factors. On-page factors include:

    • page title ;
    • meta tag description ;
    • page encoding ;
    • Easy URL structure ;
    • website structure ;
    • page content (headings, highlighted text, image captions);
    • link text on the page (internal and external);
    • site navigation ;
    • frames .
    • Doctype declaration : <!DOCTYPE html>

    Off-page factors are external influences affecting a given page. The author of the page cannot not directly control them.

    • Backlinking is the soul of optimisation
    • Social media marketing
    • Guest blogging

    Submit Your New Website to Chinese Search Engines

    You can submit your newly created website to the following Chinese Search Engines for Indexing

    Chinese search engines are basically written in the Chinese language, therefore, to read a Chinese Search Engine, you have to translate the page by using a translation service.

    Submit  your Website in

    Submit Website in

    Submit Website in

    Submit Website in


    The Internet & Mobile Association of India (IAMAI)

    The Internet & Mobile Association of India (IAMAI) is a not-for-profit industry body registered under the Societies Act, 1896[UK]. It provides a platform solely focused on the internet sector. IAMI has Global business connections through Mobile World Congresses, which is the world’s largest exhibition for the mobile industry.

    Field of Work

    Digital Advertising
    Cyber Security
    Digital Entertainment
    Sharing Economy
    Digital Gaming
    Big Data
    Digital Commerce
    Digital Payments
    Artificial Intelligence

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    An Examination of Facebook and Its Impact on the Financial Services and Housing Sectors

    Facebook chief executive Mark Zuckerberg will testify before the U.S. House Financial Services Committee on Oct. 23. Zuckerberg will testify at a hearing titled “An Examination of Facebook and Its Impact on the Financial Services and Housing Sectors.”

    Allegation on Facebook for helping LIBRA – PayPal, has dropped out Face book Plan

    House Financial Services Committee shall inquire the matter

    Zuckerberg is likely to face critical questions from  US lawmakers who are scared of Facebook’s efforts to help launch a global cryptocurrency called Libra. Previously federal government charged Facebook in March with violating fair lending laws, alleging that company sold targeted advertising that was racially discriminatory.

    Zuckerberg’s meetings with lawmakers focused on the future of internet regulation, which poses a threat to Facebook’s core business. Facebook is under review by investigators at the Federal Trade Commission, a coalition of state attorneys general and the House Judiciary Committee for its competitive practices.

    October 10, 2019