Arthur Schopenhauer on Education

The human intellect is said to be so constituted that general ideas arise by abstraction from particular observations, and therefore come after them in point of time. If this is what actually occurs, as happens in the case of a man who has to depend solely upon his own experience for what he learns—who has no teacher and no book,—such a man knows quite well which of his particular observations belong to and are represented by each of his general ideas. He has a perfect acquaintance with both sides of his experience, and accordingly, he treats everything that comes in his way from a right standpoint. This might be called the natural method of education.

Contrarily, the artificial method is to hear what other people say, to learn and to read, and so to get your head crammed full of general ideas before you have any sort of extended acquaintance with the world as it is, and as you may see it for yourself. You will be told that the particular observations which go to make these general ideas will come to you later on in the course of experience; but until that time arrives, you apply your general ideas wrongly, you judge men and things from a wrong standpoint, you see them in a wrong light, and treat them in a wrong way. So it is that education perverts the mind.

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On Genius: Arthur Schopenhauer

No difference of rank, position, or birth, is so great as the gulf that separates the countless millions who use their head only in the service of their belly, in other words, look upon it as an instrument of the will, and those very few and rare persons who have the courage to say: No! it is too good for that; my head shall be active only in its own service; it shall try to comprehend the wondrous and varied spectacle of this world, and then reproduce it in some form, whether as art or as literature, that may answer to my character as an individual. These are the truly noble, the real noblesse of the world. The others are serfs and go with the soil—glebae adscripti. Of course, I am here referring to those who have not only the courage, but also the call, and therefore the right, to order the head to quit the service of the will; with a result that proves the sacrifice to have been worth the making. In the case of those to whom all this can only partially apply, the gulf is not so wide; but even though their talent be small, so long as it is real, there will always be a sharp line of demarcation between them and the millions.[1]

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Progress of Digitisation From Cash to Electronic: A Critical Essay

1. Background

1.1 The digital revolution is taking the world by storm and no other area has witnessed such metamorphosis as payment and settlement systems, resulting in a myriad of digital options for the common man. Consumers now have a range of options to choose from when selecting a payment method to complete a transaction. They make this selection based on the value they attribute to a payment method in a certain situation as each payment mode has its own use and purpose. In India, like in many parts of the world, cash is the well-established and widely used payment instrument. It is, however, reassuring that non-cash payments, especially those using electronic or digital modes are rapidly increasing.

2. Approach

2.1 Cash is all pervasive, easy to use and store and offers great convenience. The challenge in assessing the progress of a country from cash to digitisation arises from the fact that, given the anonymity of cash transactions, it is very difficult to establish the exact volume of transactions conducted in cash, and consequently the value of such transactions. Notwithstanding this, this paper studies the popularly used indicators over the world which denote the use of cash and which are considered as a proxy for cash payments.

2.2 This study also analyses the measures of cash, the enablers for payment systems and the measures of electronic payments over a timeframe of the last 5 years to ascertain the shift in India, if any, from cash to digital payments. Further, a comparison with the 26 member countries of the Committee on Payments and Market Infrastructures (CPMI) over the same five year period has also been attempted to evaluate India’s performance vis-à-vis other countries.

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English Essay: Suggestion for Higher Judicial Examination 2020

1.  Constitutional Vision of Justice

2.  Role of Courts in a Constitutional Democracy and Adherence to Core Judicial Values

3.  Judicial Ethics, Judging Skills and Objectivity in Decision Making

4.  Judicial Methods-Current approach

5.  Court and Case Management: Managing the Docket

6.  ADR and Plea Bargaining

7.  Electronic Evidence: Collection, Preservation and Appreciation

8.  Forensic Evidence in Civil and Criminal Trials

9.  Framing of Charges: the skill of a judge

10.  The Art, Craft and Science of Drafting Judgment

11.  Art of Hearing: Promoting Rational Discourse in the Courtroom

12.  Role of Magistrates at First Production of Arrested Person

13.  Role of Courts in Securing Gender Justice

14.  Law of Precedents: Identification and Application of Ratio Decidendi

15.  Occupational Stress in Judges: Identification and Consequences of stress

16.  Managing Judicial Stress: Institutional Strategies and Techniques

17.  Implementing E-Courts Project at District Level

18.  National Judicial Data Grid: Role of Principal District Judges

19.  Performance Assessment of Judicial Officers

20.  Remedial Steps for Combating Delay and Making the Court Litigants Friendly

21.  Bar, Bench Relations and Role of Principal District Judges

22.  Constitutional and Legislative Mandate of Family Courts

23.  Communication Skills and Techniques for Effective Resolution of Family Disputes

24.   Supervisory Powers of High Courts

25.  Role of Judges in Divorce Proceedings

26.  Adjudication of Property Disputes by Family Courts

27.  Silences viewed to enhance the role of law can become a dangerous precedent: Krishnakumar Singh v. State of Bihar AIR 2017

28.  Judicial Review vs Separation of Powers

29.  Judicial Contribution to Electoral Reforms

30.  The judges do not have any power and that they merely exercise their jurisdiction to not distribute but administer justice- Explain

  1. Progress of Digitisation From Cash to Electronic: A Critical Essay



Pressure Groups, Special Interests, and the Constitution: James M. Buchanan 1962

Perhaps the clearest answer offered was … by Mr. Bane … there is no public interest in the sense of being an interest of the whole public. There are only particular interests…. The panel did not accept this solution, and Mr. Bane did not defend it.

… Mr. Larsen asked whether it was not true that the means of obtaining the objectives, rather than the objectives themselves, was the issue…. Perhaps the process, the means of compromise and agreement, are themselves a large part of the public interest.

—Major Economic Groups and National Policy, The American Round Table, Digest Report

In large political units the institutional manifestation of the active promotion of economic interest is the pressure group. The reason for the very existence of such groups lies in their ability to promote and to further, through the political-choice process, the particular functional interests represented. The emergence of such groups to positions of dominant importance during the last half century has been one of the most significant developments in the American political scene. This fact, which can no longer be hidden from view or considered as an aberration to orderly political process, has understandably weakened the predominance of the traditional model of democratic choice-making institutions. In the face of observable pressure-group activity with its demonstrable results on the outcome of specific issues presented and debated in legislative assemblies, the behavioral premise that calls for the legislator to follow a selfless pursuit of the “public interest” or the “general welfare” as something independent of and apart from private economic interest is severely threatened. Empirical reality must have its ultimate effect on analytical models, even if this reality contains implications about human behavior that scholars with strongly held ethical ideals find difficult to accept.

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Financial Stability in India


The global economy confronted a number of uncertainties – a delay in the Brexit deal, trade tensions, whiff of an impending recession, oil-market disruptions and geopolitical risks – leading to significant deceleration in growth. These uncertainties weighed on consumer confidence and business sentiment, dampened investment intentions and are likely to remain a key drag on global growth. Predictably, lower interest rates and easy monetary policies are boosting leverage globally, with the indebtedness of emerging market (EMs) governments and households showing a distinct increase, besides supporting asset prices and capital flows to EMs.

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Central Banking and Innovation: Partners in the Quest for Financial Inclusion

Law Library

Introduction: Why is financial inclusion important?

Financial inclusion provides access to financial services that are the key to participating in a modern economy. These include payments, credit, insurance, and savings. Without access to efficient payment systems, business grinds to a halt. A modern economy cannot work without efficient, reliable and cost-effective payments.

Credit allows resources to be used more optimally over time. Credit from within the formal financial sector is typically cheaper and has better terms than informal credit, with all the problems arising from lender oligopolies and doubts about creditworthiness. In credit markets that are subject to such problems, market power can become entrenched. Black market lenders often run as monopolies and charge exorbitant interest rates. Informal markets are also incapable of providing insurance products, which can serve as a cushion against shocks such as bad harvests, illness, or the death of the main wage earner.

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