This treaty of Peace between the Honorable the East India Company and His Highness Maharajah Mulhar Rao Holkar, his heirs and successors, settled by Brigadier General Sir John Malcolm, O.K., and K.I.S., Political Agent for the Most Noble the Governor General, on the part of the Honorable East India Company, and Tantea Jogh, on the part of His Highness […]

If you say that the introduction of some representative element even into the Government would be injurious to our community, we ask why and how, and pray when did you receive that revelation — because up to 1884 you yourself acknowledged the necessity of these Legislative Councils being reconstituted upon some representative basis. Then, again, when were you inspired with the idea that the Hindu and the Mahomedan interests are sure to clash at least in this respect? Because up to 1884 you believed in the doctrine of Hindus and Mahomedans having one and the same political interests, and being members of one and the same nation.

Freedom and power bring responsibility. The responsibility rests upon this Assembly, a sovereign body representing the sovereign people of India. Before the birth of freedom we have endured all the pains of labour and our hearts are heavy with the memory of this sorrow. Some of those pains continue even now. Nevertheless, the past is over and it is the future that beckons to us now.

We must go the original texts to get a true and correct picture of the legal system of ancient India. The
reader will discover from them that Indian jurisprudence was found on the rule of law; that the King
himself was subject to the law; that arbitrary power was unknown to Indian political theory and
jurisprudence and the kind’s right to govern was subject to the fulfillment of duties the breach of which resulted in forfeiture of kingship; that the judges were independent and subject only to the law; that ancient India had the highest standard of any nation of antiquity as regards the ability, learning, integrity, impartiality, and independence of the judiciary, and these standards have not been surpassed till today ; that the Indian judiciary consisted of a hierarchy of judges with the Court of the Chief Justice (Praadvivaka) at the top

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