Nationals of any Contracting State and persons habitually resident in any Contracting State shall be entitled to legal aid for court proceedings in civil and commercial matters in each Contracting State on the same conditions as if they themselves were nationals of and habitually resident in that State.
, the bibliography can be useful for developing and strengthening IHL knowledge, helping ICRC delegations, National Societies, schools, universities, research centres etc. to build up their library’s IHL collection, and keeping track of topical IHL issues being tackled by academics. It is also useful for authors in the process of writing articles, books and theses and legal professionals who work on IHL on a daily basis to see what has been written on a specific IHL subject.
tribal peoples in independent countries whose social, cultural and economic conditions distinguish them from other sections of the national community, and whose status is regulated wholly or partially by their own customs or traditions or by special laws or regulations;
Concerned about the seriousness of problems and threats posed by
corruption to the stability and security of societies,
undermining the institutions and values of democracy, ethical
values and justice and jeopardizing sustainable development and
the rule of law,
The Treaty on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests, also known as the (TTBT), was signed in July 1974. It establishes a nuclear "threshold," by prohibiting tests having a yield exceeding 150 kilotons (equivalent to 150,000 tons of TNT).
The threshold is militarily important since it removes the possibility of testing new or existing nuclear weapons going beyond the fractional‑megaton range. In the 1960s, many tests above 150 kilotons were conducted by both countries. The mutual restraint imposed by the Treaty reduced the explosive force of new nuclear warheads and bombs which could otherwise be tested for weapons systems. Of particular significance was the relationship between explosive power of reliable, tested warheads and first‑strike capability.
Entered into force December 11, 1990-This Treaty, including the Protocol which forms an integral part hereof, shall be subject to ratification in accordance with the constitutional procedures of each Party. This Treaty shall enter into force on the day of the exchange of instruments of ratification which exchange shall take place simultaneously with the exchange of instruments of ratification of the Treaty on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests.