The principle of pacta sunt servanda (agreements must be kept) is one of the bedrock principles of natural justice, which protects against the temptation to appeal to the law of force rather than to the force of law. However, illegitimate force can be found not only in periods of conflict; it can also be found in aggressive practices of applying and interpreting international agreements to serve a political agenda never ratified by the parties.
The Convention of 2 July 2019 on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Civil or Commercial Matters (HCCH 2019 Judgments Convention) facilitates the effective international circulation of judgments in civil or commercial matters. By setting forth commonly accepted conditions for recognition and enforcement—and agreed grounds for refusal—the Convention provides legal certainty and predictability to parties involved in cross-border transactions, providing clarity as to whether and to what extent a judgment will be recognised and enforced in another jurisdiction. By ensuring the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments, the Convention enhances access to justice by reducing legal timeframes, costs and risks in cross-border circumstances. The Convention generally strengthens a positive national and international environment for multilateral trade, investment, and mobility.
The Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe, which opened at Helsinki on 3 July 1973 and continued at Geneva from 18 September 1973 to 21 July 1975, was concluded at Helsinki on 1 August 1975 by the High Representatives of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, the German Democratic Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, the Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom, the United States of America and Yugoslavia.
Meetings of the Security Council shall, with the exception of the periodic meetings referred to in rule 4, be held at the call of the President at any time he deems necessary, but the interval between meetings shall not exceed fourteen days.
Introduction 1 The Development of International Criminal ProcedureA Forerunners I Versailles: an international trial for the German Emperor II Nuremberg: the birth of international criminal procedure1 The origins of the IMT Statute2 The trial system3 Flaws in the systema Independence and impartialityb Structural inequalitiesc Procedural novelty4 General evaluation III Tokyo: the forgotten sister tribunal? IV…
In differences of an international nature involving neither honor nor vital interests, and arising from a difference of opinion on points of fact, the Signatory Powers recommend that the parties, who have not been able to come to an agreement by means of diplomacy, should as far as circumstances allow, institute an International Commission of Inquiry, to facilitate a solution of these differences by elucidating the facts by means of an impartial and conscientious investigation.
Marriage-Divorce-Guardianship-Civil Procedure-Effects of Marriage-Deprivation of Civil Rights -The purpose of the Hague Conference is to work for the progressive unification of the rules of private international law.Members of the Hague Conference on Private International Law are the States which have already participated in one or more Sessions of the Conference and which accept the present Statute.
The delusion is as old as it is detestable with which many men, especially those who by their wealth and power exercise the greatest influence, persuade themselves, or as I rather believe, try to persuade themselves, that justice and injustice are distinguished the one from the other not by their own nature, but in some fashion merely by the opinion and the custom of mankind-Error est non minus vetus quam pestilens, quo multi mortales, ii autem maxime qui plurimum vi atque opibus valent, persuadent sibi, aut, quod verius puto, persuadere conantur, iustum atque iniustum non suapte natura, sed hominum inani quadam opinione atque consuetudine distingui.
There are 263 transboundary river basins in the world; many of them lack an agreement among the riparian states about how to share or to jointly manage the water resources. On a global level, there is no binding international agreement / convention on transboundary water in force. Even the most cordial and co-operative neighboring nations have found it difficult to achieve mutually acceptable arrangements to govern their transboundary surface waters, even in relatively humid regions where fresh water usually is found in sufficient abundance to satisfy most or all needs.
The provisions in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, dated 30 October 1947, annexed to the Final Act Adopted at the Conclusion of the Second Session of the Preparatory Committee of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Employment (excluding the Protocol of Provisional Application), as rectified, amended or modified by the terms of legal instruments which have entered into force before the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement;
Military doctrines have provided the basic approach to all important aspects related to war for armies of most nations over the past few centuries. Prevailing strategic realities, threats, challenges, visualised opportunities and national aspirations are the major factors which have a strong influence on the formulation of military doctrines. A doctrine is generally a written document; it could also be a widely accepted understanding without being specifically enunciated.
16 August 2001 International cooperation in the detection, arrest, extradition and punishment of persons guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity
Instruments 1863 Lieber Code Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field, prepared by Francis Lieber, promulgated as General Orders No. 100 by President Abraham Lincoln, Washington D.C., 24 April 1863. 1874 Brussels Declaration Project of an International Declaration concerning the Laws and Customs of War, Brussels, 27 August 1874.…
Geneva Convention (1864)
Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field, Geneva, 22 August 1864.
No. 55378 Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and United Arab Emirates Riyadh Agreement (with Endorsement Agreement, Riyadh, 24 November 2013). Riyadh, 23 November 2013 and 24 November 2013 Entry into force: 24 November 2013 by signature Authentic text: Arabic Registration with the Secretariat of the United Nations: Saudi Arabia, 9 October 2018 Note: See…